Table 5: Comparison among GHS, NGHS, and DGHS on the high-dimensional 0-1 knapsack problems.

No. Dim. maxFEs Index GHS NGHS DGHS

Kp13 200 Best 10306 10887 11025
Worst 9950 10756 11019
Median 10148.5 10840 11021.5
Mean 10139.2 10834.3 11021.6
Std. 91.9592 34.6055 2.1055
t-test1 1 /

Kp14 300 Best 12608 13878 14086
Worst 12126 13614 14080
Median 12396 13746.5 14085
Mean 12396.4 13752.9 14084.8
Std. 112.1964 63.0862 1.3756
t-test1 1 /

Kp15 500 Best 15270 18271 18925
Worst 14558 17735 18916
Median 14886.5 18007 18924
Mean 14904.7 18014.4 18923.3
Std. 157.0984 132.3975 2.1801
t-test1 1 /

Kp16 800 Best 34245 38703 39691
Worst 33351 38284 39691
Median 33871.5 38489.5 39691
Mean 33835.1 38487.5 39691
Std. 191.8773 97.0605 0
t-test1 1 /

Kp17 1000 Best 60906 65078 66109
Worst 60349 64332 66106
Median 60661.5 64723.5 66109
Mean 60668.2 64715.4 66108.6
Std. 129.2363 150.1521 0.6966
t-test1 1 /

Kp18 1200 Best 78067 86099 86771
Worst 76093 85657 86771
Median 77241.5 85899 86771
Mean 77185.3 85901.1 86771
Std. 491.5674 88.4639 0
t-test1 1 /

Kp19 1500 Best 98072 104199 105797
Worst 94516 103428 105794
Median 95967 103802.5 105797
Mean 95974.3 103798.9 105796.6
Std. 807.3958 172.6269 0.7530
t-test 1 1 /

Kp20 2000 Best 124049 138509 140710
Worst 118599 137754 140704
Median 121535.5 138170 140709
Mean 121417.8 138165.2 140709
Std. 102.6351 170.3528 1.3559
t-test1 1 /