Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Bifurcation Analysis and Chaos Control in a Discrete Epidemic System Mon, 31 Aug 2015 08:03:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/974868/ The dynamics of discrete SI epidemic model, which has been obtained by the forward Euler scheme, is investigated in detail. By using the center manifold theorem and bifurcation theorem in the interior , the specific conditions for the existence of flip bifurcation and Neimark-Sacker bifurcation have been derived. Numerical simulation not only presents our theoretical analysis but also exhibits rich and complex dynamical behavior existing in the case of the windows of period-1, period-3, period-5, period-6, period-7, period-9, period-11, period-15, period-19, period-23, period-34, period-42, and period-53 orbits. Meanwhile, there appears the cascade of period-doubling 2, 4, 8 bifurcation and chaos sets from the fixed point. These results show the discrete model has more richer dynamics compared with the continuous model. The computations of the largest Lyapunov exponents more than 0 confirm the chaotic behaviors of the system , . Specifically, the chaotic orbits at an unstable fixed point are stabilized by using the feedback control method. Wei Tan, Jianguo Gao, and Wenjun Fan Copyright © 2015 Wei Tan et al. All rights reserved. The Optimal Multistage Effort and Contract of VC’s Joint Investment Mon, 31 Aug 2015 07:43:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/958212/ If the venture project has a great demand of investment, venture entrepreneurs will seek multiple venture capitalists to ensure necessary funding. This paper discusses the decision-making process in the case that multiple venture capitalists invest in a single project. From the beginning of the project till the withdrawal of the investment, the efforts of both parties are long term and dynamic. We consider the Stackelberg game model for venture capital investment in multiple periods. Given the optimal efforts by the entrepreneurs, our results clearly show that as time goes, in every single period entrepreneurs will expect their share of revenue paid to shrink. In other words, they expect a higher ex ante payment and a lower ex post payment. But, in contrast, venture capitalists are expecting exactly the opposite. With a further analysis, we also design an optimal contract in multiple periods. Last but not the least, several issues to be further investigated are proposed as well. Meng Wu Copyright © 2015 Meng Wu. All rights reserved. Positive Solutions for a Class of Fourth-Order -Laplacian Boundary Value Problem Involving Integral Conditions Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:47:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/418410/ Under some conditions concerning the first eigenvalues corresponding to the relevant linear operator, we obtain sharp optimal criteria for the existence of positive solutions for -Laplacian problems with integral boundary conditions. The main methods in the paper are constructing an available integral operator and combining fixed point index theory. The interesting point of the results is that the nonlinear term contains all lower-order derivatives explicitly. Finally, we give some examples to demonstrate the main results. Yan Sun Copyright © 2015 Yan Sun. All rights reserved. Analysis of Traffic Conditions in Urban Region Based on Data from Fixed Detectors Sun, 23 Aug 2015 11:17:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/184049/ To evaluate traffic conditions in an urban region, the average travel speed in the street network and the average traffic flow per lane are selected as indexes. The results for identifying traffic conditions are obtained using macroscopic fundamental diagram. Because of the difficulty of collecting the traffic parameter of travel speed from widely distributed fixed detectors directly, in this paper, the relationship between average travel speed and queue lengths at signalized intersections within the urban area is established based on an equivalent assumption. Finally, the average travel speed estimation model proposed in this paper is tested with microscopic simulation platform, and the results showed that the average travel speed estimation model performed well with satisfactory accuracy. In addition, the best performance of the network efficiency can be identified based on the reflections of macroscopic fundamental diagram, and the evaluation system is simple enough for application in engineering. Therefore, the result is instructive both for generating traffic control strategies and for making route choices. Shidong Liang, Shuzhi Zhao, Minghui Ma, and Huasheng Liu Copyright © 2015 Shidong Liang et al. All rights reserved. A Time Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Quasi-Linear Sobolev Equations Thu, 20 Aug 2015 16:20:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/985214/ We present a time discontinuous Galerkin finite element scheme for quasi-linear Sobolev equations. The approximate solution is sought as a piecewise polynomial of degree in time variable at most with coefficients in finite element space. This piecewise polynomial is not necessarily continuous at the nodes of the partition for the time interval. The existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution are proved by use of Brouwer’s fixed point theorem. An optimal -norm error estimate is derived. Just because of a damping term included in quasi-linear Sobolev equations, which is the distinct character different from parabolic equation, more attentions are paid to this term in the study. This is the significance of this paper. Hong Yu and Tongjun Sun Copyright © 2015 Hong Yu and Tongjun Sun. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Dynamics, Fixed Points and Coupled Fixed Points in Generalized Gauge Spaces with Applications to a System of Integral Equations Wed, 19 Aug 2015 10:03:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/143510/ We will discuss discrete dynamics generated by single-valued and multivalued operators in spaces endowed with a generalized metric structure. More precisely, the behavior of the sequence of successive approximations in complete generalized gauge spaces is discussed. In the same setting, the case of multivalued operators is also considered. The coupled fixed points for mappings and are discussed and an application to a system of nonlinear integral equations is given. Adrian Petruşel and Gabriela Petruşel Copyright © 2015 Adrian Petruşel and Gabriela Petruşel. All rights reserved. Consensus for Discrete-Time Multiagent Systems Tue, 18 Aug 2015 12:00:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/380184/ An consensus problem of multiagent systems is studied by introducing disturbances into the systems. Based on control theory and consensus theory, a condition is derived to guarantee the systems both reach consensus and have a certain property. Finally, an example is worked out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Xiaoping Wang and Jinliang Shao Copyright © 2015 Xiaoping Wang and Jinliang Shao. All rights reserved. Level of Service Analysis Based on Maximum Number of Passengers in Waiting Room of Railway Passenger Station Using Arena Simulation Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:20:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/452035/ The level of service is an important aspect of the operation and management at a railway passenger station. Particularly, the level of service in waiting room (LOSWR) is one of the most important influential factors in deciding passengers’ satisfaction. This paper proposes a model for finding the LOSWR based on the maximum number of passengers, and an Arena simulation model that simulates passengers’ aggregation behaviors in the waiting room is presented for analyzing the LOSWR. Through the simulation, we demonstrate how the passenger advanced arrival time and the accompany rate influence the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR. In addition, the simulation also illustrates the effect utilities and the priority of different measures that can be used to improve the LOSWR. In detail, the simulation results demonstrate that the passenger advanced arrival time and advanced check-out time have much stronger effect utilities on the maximum number of passengers and the LOSWR than other discussed factors. The simulation suggests that the Arena is an effective simulation platform for analyzing complex passengers-related behaviors at railway passenger station. Bo Yang, Xuedong Yan, and Dahai Guo Copyright © 2015 Bo Yang et al. All rights reserved. Stochastic Synchronization of Neutral-Type Neural Networks with Multidelays Based on -Matrix Mon, 17 Aug 2015 11:07:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/826810/ The problem of stochastic synchronization of neutral-type neural networks with multidelays based on -matrix is researched. Firstly, we designed a control law of stochastic synchronization of the neural-type and multiple time-delays neural network. Secondly, by making use of Lyapunov functional and -matrix method, we obtained a criterion under which the drive and response neutral-type multiple time-delays neural networks with stochastic disturbance and Markovian switching are stochastic synchronization. The synchronization condition is expressed as linear matrix inequality which can be easily solved by MATLAB. Finally, we introduced a numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the method and result obtained in this paper. Wuneng Zhou, Xueqing Yang, Jun Yang, and Jun Zhou Copyright © 2015 Wuneng Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Tradable Credits Scheme and Congestion Pricing with the Efficiency Analysis to Congestion Mon, 17 Aug 2015 08:46:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/801979/ We allow for three traffic scenarios: the tradable credits scheme, congestion pricing, and no traffic measure. The utility functions of different modes (car, bus, and bicycle) are developed by considering the income’s impact on travelers’ behaviors. Their purpose is to analyze the demand distribution of different modes. A social optimization model is built aiming at maximizing the social welfare. The optimal tradable credits scheme (distribution of credits, credits charging, and the credit price), congestion pricing fees, bus frequency, and bus fare are obtained by solving the model. Mode choice behavior under the tradable credits scheme is also studied. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the model’s availability and explore the effects of the three schemes on traffic system’s performance. Results show congestion pricing would earn more social welfare than the other traffic measures. However, tradable credits scheme will give travelers more consumer surplus than congestion pricing. Travelers’ consumer surplus with congestion pricing is the minimum, which injures the travelers’ benefits. Tradable credits scheme is considered the best scenario by comparing the three scenarios’ efficiency. Ge Gao and Jun Hu Copyright © 2015 Ge Gao and Jun Hu. All rights reserved. Vehicle Routing Problem with Soft Time Windows Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm for Fruits and Vegetables Distribution Thu, 13 Aug 2015 11:39:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/483830/ Fresh fruits and vegetables, perishable by nature, are subject to additional deterioration and bruising in the distribution process due to vibration and shock caused by road irregularities. A nonlinear mathematical model was developed that considered not only the vehicle routing problem with time windows but also the effect of road irregularities on the bruising of fresh fruits and vegetables. The main objective of this work was to obtain the optimal distribution routes for fresh fruits and vegetables considering different road classes with the least amount of logistics costs. An improved genetic algorithm was used to solve the problem. A fruit delivery route among the 13 cities in Jiangsu Province was used as a real analysis case. The simulation results showed that the vehicle routing problem with time windows, considering road irregularities and different classes of toll roads, can significantly influence total delivery costs compared with traditional VRP models. The comparison between four models to predict the total cost and actual total cost in distribution showed that the improved genetic algorithm is superior to the Group-based pattern, CW pattern, and O-X type cross pattern. Peiqing Li, Jie He, Dunyong Zheng, Yongsheng Huang, and Chenhao Fan Copyright © 2015 Peiqing Li et al. All rights reserved. Developing a Traffic Management Framework for Coastal Expressway Bridges under Adverse Weather Conditions: Case Study of Rain Day in Shenzhen, China Tue, 11 Aug 2015 11:53:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/218672/ Adverse weather can reduce visibility and road surface friction, lower vehicle maneuverability, and increase crash frequency and injury severity. The impacts of adverse weather and its interactions with drivers and roadway on the operation and management of expressway or expressway bridges have drawn the researchers’ and managers’ attention to develop traffic management frameworks to mitigate the negative influence. Considering the peculiar geographical location and meteorological conditions, the Guangshen Coast Expressway-Shenzhen Segment (GSCE-SS) was selected as a case in this study to illustrate the proposed traffic management framework on rain days. Conditions categorized by rainfall intensity and traffic flow were the main precondition to make the management decisions. CORSIM simulator was used to develop the alternate routes choice schemes, providing reference for other systems in the proposed traffic management framework. Maps of (a) entrance ramp control (ERC) strategies; (b) mainline control strategies; (c) alternate routes choice; (d) information release schemes, under scenarios of different volume and rainstorm warning grades (BLUE to RED), were drawn to present a reference or demonstration for managers of long-span expressway bridges not only in China, but even in the world. Chenming Jiang, Jian John Lu, Yuming Jiang, Xiaonan Cai, and Anning Ni Copyright © 2015 Chenming Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of Saturation Flow Rate and Start-Up Lost Time for Signal Timing Based on Headway Distribution Mon, 10 Aug 2015 14:26:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/304823/ This study aimed to calibrate saturation flow rate (SFR) and start-up lost time (SLT) when developing signal timing. In current commonly used methods, SFR for one given lane is usually calibrated from many subjective adjustment factors and a fixed result. SLT is calculated based on the fixed SFR, which prevents local applications in China. Considering the importance of traffic behavior (headway) in determining SFR and SLT, this study started from headway distribution and attempted to specify the relationships between headway and vehicle position directly. A common intersection in Nanjing, China, was selected to implement field study and data from 920 queues was collected. Headway distribution was explored and the 78th percentile of headway at each position was selected to build model. Based on the developed relationships, SFR and SLT were calibrated. The results showed that SFR and SLT were correlated with queue length. Moreover, the results showed that it was difficult to reach saturated state even with a long queue length. This paper provides a new perspective on calibrating important parameters in signal timing, which will be useful for traffic agencies to complete signal timing by making the process simpler. Yi Zhao, Wenbo Zhang, Jian Lu, Wenjun Zhang, and Yongfeng Ma Copyright © 2015 Yi Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Evolution Game Model of Travel Mode Choice in Metropolitan Mon, 10 Aug 2015 11:53:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/638972/ The paper describes an evolution game model of travel mode choice to determine whether transportation policies would have the desired effect. The model is first expressed as a two-stage sequential game in the extensive form based on the similarity between evolution game theory and the travel mode choice process. Second, backward induction is used to solve for Nash equilibrium of the game based on the Folk Theorem. Third, the sensitivity analysis suggests that a payoff reduction of travel by any mode will result in a rising proportion of inhabitants travelling by that mode and falling proportions of inhabitants travelling by other modes. Finally, the model is applied to Beijing inhabitants’ travel mode choices during morning peak hours and draws the conclusion that the proportion of inhabitants travelling by rail would increase when traffic congestion is more severe. This confirms that fast construction of the urban rail transit would be an effective means of alleviating traffic congestion. The model may be a useful tool for policy makers for analyzing the complex influence of travel mode choice processes on transport policies and transport construction projects. Chaoqun Wu, Yulong Pei, and Jingpeng Gao Copyright © 2015 Chaoqun Wu et al. All rights reserved. Modeling and Simulation of Polarization in Internet Group Opinions Based on Cellular Automata Sun, 09 Aug 2015 11:34:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/140984/ Hot events on Internet always attract many people who usually form one or several opinion camps through discussion. For the problem of polarization in Internet group opinions, we propose a new model based on Cellular Automata by considering neighbors, opinion leaders, and external influences. Simulation results show the following: (1) It is easy to form the polarization for both continuous opinions and discrete opinions when we only consider neighbors influence, and continuous opinions are more effective in speeding the polarization of group. (2) Coevolution mechanism takes more time to make the system stable, and the global coupling mechanism leads the system to consensus. (3) Opinion leaders play an important role in the development of consensus in Internet group opinions. However, both taking the opinion leaders as zealots and taking some randomly selected individuals as zealots are not conductive to the consensus. (4) Double opinion leaders with consistent opinions will accelerate the formation of group consensus, but the opposite opinions will lead to group polarization. (5) Only small external influences can change the evolutionary direction of Internet group opinions. Yaofeng Zhang and Renbin Xiao Copyright © 2015 Yaofeng Zhang and Renbin Xiao. All rights reserved. Does Expectation of Correlation Breakdown in Financial Market Fulfill Itself? Wed, 05 Aug 2015 11:44:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/263908/ This paper develops a model appeared in the literature whose focus was the way rational risk averse investors anticipate the correlation breakdowns of asset returns in periods of excess demand. That model analysed the dynamics of the “expected” returns of the risky asset, and their consistency with empirical evidence. However, the same model did not provide any evidence on actual correlation generated by the dynamics of returns. A model to link asset returns to excess demand is required to analyse the implied correlation between the securities traded. In this work we estimate such a model. Results confirm that the expected and ex-post correlation tend to move closely. In other words a self-fulfilling prophecy about correlation breakdown can take place, even when rational agents dominate the financial market. Paolo Falbo and Rosanna Grassi Copyright © 2015 Paolo Falbo and Rosanna Grassi. All rights reserved. Advanced Dynamic Simulations in Transportation Wed, 05 Aug 2015 09:28:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/675263/ Wei Guan, Xuedong Yan, Essam Radwan, Sze Chun Wong, and Xiaoliang Ma Copyright © 2015 Wei Guan et al. All rights reserved. Existence of Solutions for Boundary Value Problem of a Caputo Fractional Difference Equation Tue, 04 Aug 2015 13:07:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/206261/ We investigate the existence of solutions for a Caputo fractional difference equation boundary value problem. We use Schauder fixed point theorem to deduce the existence of solutions. The proofs are based upon the theory of discrete fractional calculus. We also provide some examples to illustrate our main results. Zhiping Liu, Shugui Kang, Huiqin Chen, Jianmin Guo, Yaqiong Cui, and Caixia Guo Copyright © 2015 Zhiping Liu et al. All rights reserved. Simulation-Based Sensor Location Model for Arterial Street Tue, 04 Aug 2015 11:23:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/854089/ Traffic sensors serve as an important way to a number of intelligent transportation system applications which rely heavily on real-time data. However, traffic sensors are costly. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize sensor placement to maximize various benefits. Arterial street traffic is highly dynamic and the movement of vehicles is disturbed by signals and irregular vehicle maneuver. It is challenging to estimate the arterial street travel time with limited sensors. In order to solve the problem, the paper presents travel time estimation models that rely on speed data collected by sensor. The relationship between sensor position and vehicle trajectory in single link is investigated. A sensor location model in signalized arterial is proposed to find the optimal sensor placement with the minimum estimation error of arterial travel time. Numerical experiments are conducted in 3 conditions: synchronized traffic signals, green wave traffic signals, and vehicle-actuated signals. The results indicate that the sensors should not be placed in vehicle queuing area. Intersection stop line is an ideal sensor position. There is not any fixed sensor position that can cope with all traffic conditions. Qinxiao Yu, Ning Zhu, Geng Li, and Shoufeng Ma Copyright © 2015 Qinxiao Yu et al. All rights reserved. A Segmented Signal Progression Model for the Modern Streetcar System Tue, 04 Aug 2015 11:09:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/763565/ This paper is on the purpose of developing a segmented signal progression model for modern streetcar system. The new method is presented with the following features: (1) the control concept is based on the assumption of only one streetcar line operating along an arterial under a constant headway and no bandwidth demand for streetcar system signal progression; (2) the control unit is defined as a coordinated intersection group associated with several streetcar stations, and the control joints must be streetcar stations; (3) the objective function is built to ensure the two-way streetcar arrival times distributing within the available time of streetcar phase; (4) the available time of streetcar phase is determined by timing schemes, intersection structures, track locations, streetcar speeds, and vehicular accelerations; (5) the streetcar running speed is constant separately whether it is in upstream or downstream route; (6) the streetcar dwell time is preset according to historical data distribution or charging demand. The proposed method is experimentally examined in Hexi New City Streetcar Project in Nanjing, China. In the experimental results, the streetcar system operation and the progression impacts are shown to affect transit and vehicular traffic. The proposed model presents promising outcomes through the design of streetcar system segmented signal progression, in terms of ensuring high streetcar system efficiency and minimizing negative impacts on transit and vehicular traffic. Baojie Wang, Wei Wang, Xiaojian Hu, and Xiaowei Li Copyright © 2015 Baojie Wang et al. All rights reserved. Timetable Design for Urban Rail Line with Capacity Constraints Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:34:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/429219/ To design an efficient and economical timetable for a heavily congested urban rail corridor, a scheduling model is proposed in this paper. The objective of the proposed model is to find the departure time of trains at the start terminal to minimize the system cost, which includes passenger waiting cost and operating cost. To evaluate the performance of the timetable, a simulation model is developed to simulate the detailed movements of passengers and trains with strict constraints of station and train capacities. It assumes that passengers who arrive early will have more chances to access a station and board a train. The accessing and boarding processes of passengers are all based on a first-come-first-serve basis. When a station is full, passengers unable to access must wait outside until the number of waiting passengers at platform falls below a given value. When a train is full, passengers unable to board must wait at the platform for the next train to arrive. Then, based on the simulation results, a two-stage genetic algorithm is introduced to find the best timetable. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution method. Yu-Ting Zhu, Bao-Hua Mao, Lu Liu, and Ming-Gao Li Copyright © 2015 Yu-Ting Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Supplier Selection Group Decision Making in Logistics Service Value Cocreation Based on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:28:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/719240/ Intuitionistic fuzzy information aggregation plays an important role in intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and is widely used in group decision making. In this paper, an induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator (I-IFEHA) is investigated for supplier selection group decision making in logistics service value cocreation based on fuzzy measures. We first introduce some aggregation operators and Einstein operations on intuitionistic fuzzy sets and develop a new induced intuitionistic fuzzy Einstein hybrid aggregation operator to accommodate the environment in which the given arguments are intuitionistic fuzzy values. Then, we study the supplier selection group decision model in logistics service value cocreation based on intuitionistic fuzzy sets with the I-IFEHA operator. Finally, an example of 3PL supplier selection in logistics service value cocreation environment is given to verify the developed approach and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach. Qifeng Wang and Hongbo Lv Copyright © 2015 Qifeng Wang and Hongbo Lv. All rights reserved. Big Data-Driven Based Real-Time Traffic Flow State Identification and Prediction Mon, 03 Aug 2015 14:23:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/284906/ With the rapid development of urban informatization, the era of big data is coming. To satisfy the demand of traffic congestion early warning, this paper studies the method of real-time traffic flow state identification and prediction based on big data-driven theory. Traffic big data holds several characteristics, such as temporal correlation, spatial correlation, historical correlation, and multistate. Traffic flow state quantification, the basis of traffic flow state identification, is achieved by a SAGA-FCM (simulated annealing genetic algorithm based fuzzy c-means) based traffic clustering model. Considering simple calculation and predictive accuracy, a bilevel optimization model for regional traffic flow correlation analysis is established to predict traffic flow parameters based on temporal-spatial-historical correlation. A two-stage model for correction coefficients optimization is put forward to simplify the bilevel optimization model. The first stage model is built to calculate the number of temporal-spatial-historical correlation variables. The second stage model is present to calculate basic model formulation of regional traffic flow correlation. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling and computing methods. Hua-pu Lu, Zhi-yuan Sun, and Wen-cong Qu Copyright © 2015 Hua-pu Lu et al. All rights reserved. Modeling Mixed Bicycle Traffic Flow: A Comparative Study on the Cellular Automata Approach Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:24:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/420581/ Simulation, as a powerful tool for evaluating transportation systems, has been widely used in transportation planning, management, and operations. Most of the simulation models are focused on motorized vehicles, and the modeling of nonmotorized vehicles is ignored. The cellular automata (CA) model is a very important simulation approach and is widely used for motorized vehicle traffic. The Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) CA model and the multivalue CA (M-CA) model are two categories of CA model that have been used in previous studies on bicycle traffic flow. This paper improves on these two CA models and also compares their characteristics. It introduces a two-lane NS CA model and M-CA model for both regular bicycles (RBs) and electric bicycles (EBs). In the research for this paper, many cases, featuring different values for the slowing down probability, lane-changing probability, and proportion of EBs, were simulated, while the fundamental diagrams and capacities of the proposed models were analyzed and compared between the two models. Field data were collected for the evaluation of the two models. The results show that the M-CA model exhibits more stable performance than the two-lane NS model and provides results that are closer to real bicycle traffic. Dan Zhou, Sheng Jin, Dongfang Ma, and Dianhai Wang Copyright © 2015 Dan Zhou et al. All rights reserved. The Optimization of Transportation Costs in Logistics Enterprises with Time-Window Constraints Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/365367/ This paper presents a model for solving a multiobjective vehicle routing problem with soft time-window constraints that specify the earliest and latest arrival times of customers. If a customer is serviced before the earliest specified arrival time, extra inventory costs are incurred. If the customer is serviced after the latest arrival time, penalty costs must be paid. Both the total transportation cost and the required fleet size are minimized in this model, which also accounts for the given capacity limitations of each vehicle. The total transportation cost consists of direct transportation costs, extra inventory costs, and penalty costs. This multiobjective optimization is solved by using a modified genetic algorithm approach. The output of the algorithm is a set of optimal solutions that represent the trade-off between total transportation cost and the fleet size required to service customers. The influential impact of these two factors is analyzed through the use of a case study. Qingyou Yan and Qian Zhang Copyright © 2015 Qingyou Yan and Qian Zhang. All rights reserved. A Pest Management Model with Stage Structure and Impulsive State Feedback Control Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:18:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/617379/ A pest management model with stage structure and impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semicontinuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained. Guoping Pang, Zhiqing Liang, Weijian Xu, Lijie Li, and Gang Fu Copyright © 2015 Guoping Pang et al. All rights reserved. Recycler Reaction for the Government Behavior in Closed-Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network: Based on the System Dynamics Mon, 03 Aug 2015 13:04:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/206149/ With system dynamics, we establish three-closed-loop supply chain distribution network system model which consists of supplier, manufacturer, two retailers, and products (parts) recycler. We proposed that recycler make reflect for the government policy by adjusting the recycling ratio and recycling delay. We use vensim software to simulate this model and investigate how the products (parts) recyclers behavior influences the loop supply chain distribution system. The result shows that (1) when recyclers respond positively to government policies, recycling will increase the proportion of recyclers. When recyclers respond negatively to government policy making, recycling will reduce the proportion of recyclers. (2) When the recovery percentage of recyclers improves, manufacturers, Retailer 1, and Retailer 2 quantity fluctuations will reduce and the bullwhip effect will diminish. (3) When the proportion of recycled parts recyclers is lowered, manufacturers, Retailer 1, and Retailer 2 inventory fluctuation will increase and the bullwhip effect will be enhanced. (4) When recyclers recycling product delays increased, volatility manufacturers order quantity will rise, but there is little change in the amount of fluctuation of orders of the two retailers. (5) When recycling parts recyclers delay increases, fluctuations in the supplier order quantity will rise, but there is little change in the amount of fluctuation of orders of the two retailers. Xi gang Yuan and Xiao qing Zhang Copyright © 2015 Xi gang Yuan and Xiao qing Zhang. All rights reserved. The Asymptotic Behavior in a Nonlinear Cobweb Model with Time Delays Sun, 26 Jul 2015 06:39:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/312574/ We study the effects of production delays on the local as well as global dynamics of nonlinear cobweb models in a continuous-time framework. After reviewing a single delay model, we proceed to two models with two delays. When the two delays are used to form an expected price or feedback for price adjustment, we have a winding stability switching curve and in consequence obtain repetition of stability losses and gains via Hopf bifurcation. When the two delays are involved in two interrelated markets, we find that the stability switching occurs on straight lines and complicated dynamics can arise in unstable markets. Akio Matsumoto and Ferenc Szidarovszky Copyright © 2015 Akio Matsumoto and Ferenc Szidarovszky. All rights reserved. An Approach to Modeling the Impact of Traffic Incident on Urban Expressway Wed, 22 Jul 2015 06:38:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/605016/ To identify network bottlenecks of urban expressway effectively is a foundational work for improving network traffic condition and preventing traffic congestion. This study proposes a methodology to estimate the impact of traffic incident on urban expressway on the basis of modified cell transmission model. The metastable state was taken into account in the proposed method to reflect the actual operating state of traffic flow on urban expressway as much as possible. Regarding the location of traffic incident, the method of cell restructuring settings was discussed. We then proceed to introduce a new concept of the effected length in a given time period as the evaluation indicator to directly depict the influence of traffic incident. The proposed method was tested on a 6516-meter urban expressway section of west second ring road in Beijing. The simulation results indicated that the proposed methodology performs well to predict the impact of traffic incident on urban expressway. Yaping Li, Jian Lu, HongWu Li, Huihui Xiao, and Qingchao Liu Copyright © 2015 Yaping Li et al. All rights reserved. Effects of the Interest Rate and Reserve Requirement Ratio on Bank Risk in China: A Panel Smooth Transition Regression Approach Tue, 21 Jul 2015 13:31:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/571384/ This paper applies the Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR) model to simulate the effects of the interest rate and reserve requirement ratio on bank risk in China. The results reveal the nonlinearity embedded in the interest rate, reserve requirement ratio, and bank risk nexus. Both the interest rate and reserve requirement ratio exert a positive impact on bank risk for the low regime and a negative impact for the high regime. The interest rate performs a significant effect while the reserve requirement ratio shows an insignificant effect on bank risk on a statistical basis for both the high and low regimes. Zhongyuan Geng and Xue Zhai Copyright © 2015 Zhongyuan Geng and Xue Zhai. All rights reserved.