Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Bifurcation Analysis for Nonlinear Recurrence Relations with Threshold Control and -Periodic Coefficients Wed, 22 Apr 2015 07:33:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/610345/ A nonlinear recurrence involving a piecewise constant McCulloch-Pitts function and -periodic coefficient sequences is investigated. By allowing the threshold parameter to vary from 0 to , we work out a complete bifurcation analysis for the asymptotic behaviors of the corresponding solutions. Among other things, we show that each solution tends towards one of four different limits. Furthermore, the accompanying initial regions for each type of solutions can be determined. It is hoped that our analysis will provide motivation for further results for recurrent McCulloch-Pitts type neural networks. Liping Dou, Chengmin Hou, and Sui Sun Cheng Copyright © 2015 Liping Dou et al. All rights reserved. Mobile Target Tracking Based on Hybrid Open-Loop Monocular Vision Motion Control Strategy Tue, 21 Apr 2015 13:13:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/690576/ This paper proposes a new real-time target tracking method based on the open-loop monocular vision motion control. It uses the particle filter technique to predict the moving target’s position in an image. Due to the properties of the particle filter, the method can effectively master the motion behaviors of the linear and nonlinear. In addition, the method uses the simple mathematical operation to transfer the image information in the mobile target to its real coordinate information. Therefore, it requires few operating resources. Moreover, the method adopts the monocular vision approach, which is a single camera, to achieve its objective by using few hardware resources. Firstly, the method evaluates the next time’s position and size of the target in an image. Later, the real position of the objective corresponding to the obtained information is predicted. At last, the mobile robot should be controlled in the center of the camera’s vision. The paper conducts the tracking test to the L-type and the S-type and compares with the Kalman filtering method. The experimental results show that the method achieves a better tracking effect in the L-shape experiment, and its effect is superior to the Kalman filter technique in the L-type or S-type tracking experiment. Cao Yuan, Ma Lianchuan, and Weigang Ma Copyright © 2015 Cao Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach Tue, 21 Apr 2015 09:11:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/682390/ Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM) filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhibits various characteristics in different time scales, three time series were developed, named weekly, daily, and 15 min time series. After the correlation, periodicity, and stationarity analyses, time series models were constructed. Particularly, the heteroscedasticity of time series was explored to achieve better prediction performance. Finally, IMM filter algorithm was applied to combine individual forecasting models with dynamically predicted passenger demand for next interval. Different error indices were adopted for the analyses of individual and hybrid models. The performance comparison indicates that hybrid model forecasts are superior to individual ones in accuracy. Findings of this study are of theoretical and practical significance in bus scheduling. Rui Xue, Daniel (Jian) Sun, and Shukai Chen Copyright © 2015 Rui Xue et al. All rights reserved. Integrated Model of Joint Residence-Workplace Location Choice and Commute Behavior Using Latent Class and Mixed Logit Methods Tue, 21 Apr 2015 07:02:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/251781/ With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization, urban commute trips are becoming increasingly serious due to the unbalanced distribution of residence and workplace land-use types in most Chinese cities. To explore the inherent interrelations among residence location, workplace, and commute trip, an integrated model framework of joint residence-workplace location choice and commute behavior is put forward based on the personal trip survey data of Beijing in 2005. First, to extract households’ different choice characteristics, this paper presents a latent class model, clusters all households into several groups, and analyzes the conditional probability of each group. Second, the paper integrates the residence location and workplace together as the joint choice alternative, employs the socioeconomic factors, individual attributes, household attributes, and trip characteristics as explanatory variables, and formulates the joint residence-workplace location choice model using mixed logit method. Estimations of the latent class model show that four latent groups fit the data best. Further results of the joint residence-workplace location choice model indicate that there exist significantly different choice characteristics in each latent group. Generally, the integrated model framework outperforms traditional location choice methods. Pengpeng Jiao, Meiqi Liu, and Jin Guo Copyright © 2015 Pengpeng Jiao et al. All rights reserved. Active Disturbance Rejection Fuzzy Controller for Roll Stabilization of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle under Wave Disturbance Mon, 20 Apr 2015 13:56:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/835126/ Considering the case of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating with low speed near water surface, a new method for designing of roll motion controller is proposed in order to restrain wave disturbance effectively and improve roll stabilizing performance under different sea conditions. Active disturbance rejection fuzzy control is applied, which is based on nonlinear motion model of autonomous underwater vehicle and the principle of zero-speed fin stabilizer. Extended state observer is used for estimation of roll motion state and unknown wave disturbance. Wave moment is counteracted by introducing compensation term into the roll control law which is founded on nonlinear feedback. Fuzzy reasoning is used for parameter adjustment of the controller online. Simulation experiments on roll motion are conducted under different sea conditions, and the results show better robustness improved by active disturbance rejection fuzzy controller of autonomous underwater vehicle navigating near water surface. Lin-Lin Wang, Hong-Jian Wang, Li-Xin Pan, and Jun-Xi Guo Copyright © 2015 Lin-Lin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Multiperiod Mixed Train Schedule on High-Speed Railway Mon, 20 Apr 2015 09:50:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/107048/ For providing passengers with periodic operation trains and making trains’ time distribution better fit that of passengers, the multiperiod mixed train schedule is first proposed in this paper. It makes each type of train having same origin, destination, route, and stop stations operate based on a periodic basis and allows different types of train to have various operation periods. Then a model of optimizing multiperiod mixed train schedule is built to minimize passengers generalized travel costs with the constraints of trains of same type operating periodically, safe interval requirements of trains’ departure, and arrival times, and so forth. And its heuristic algorithm is designed to optimize the multiperiod mixed train schedule beginning with generating an initial solution by scheduling all types of train type by type and then repeatedly improving their periodic schedules until the objective value cannot be reduced or the iteration number reaches its maximum. Finally, example results illustrate that the proposed model and algorithm can effectively gain a better multiperiod mixed train schedule. However, its passengers deferred times and advanced times are a little higher than these of an aperiodic train schedule. Wenliang Zhou, Junli Tian, Jin Qin, Lianbo Deng, and TangJian Wei Copyright © 2015 Wenliang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Development of an Evaluating Method for Carbon Emissions of Manufacturing Process Plans Mon, 20 Apr 2015 08:38:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/784751/ Carbon intensity reduction and energy utilization enhancement in manufacturing industry are becoming a timely topic. In a manufacturing system, the process planning is the combination of all production factors which influences the entail carbon emissions during manufacturing. In order to meet the current low carbon manufacturing requirements, a carbon emission evaluation method for the manufacturing process planning is highly desirable to be developed. This work presents a method to evaluate the carbon emissions of a process plan by aggregating the unit process to form a combined model for evaluating carbon emissions. The evaluating results can be used to decrease the resource and energy consumption and pinpoint detailed breakdown of the influences between manufacturing process plan and carbon emissions. Finally, the carbon emission analysis method is applied to a process plan of an axis to examine its feasibility and validity. Yanhong Wang, Hua Zhang, Zhiqing Zhang, and Jing Wang Copyright © 2015 Yanhong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Exploring Different Order Decision Behaviors with Bullwhip Effect and Service Level Measures in Supply Chain System Sun, 19 Apr 2015 11:20:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/657352/ Since decision makers’ bounded rationality would impact supply chain performance, it is necessary to explore how the individual decisions work in the supply chain. This paper investigates bullwhip effect variation and service level tendency while the decisions are made by different decision makers. Based on the existing study results, the paper establishes a system dynamics model of supply chain conforming to modern supply chain characters. In the model, two adjustment parameters are adopted to describe individual differences in decision makers. The simulation result demonstrates that the behavioral adjustment with different extent results in different supply chain performance. The impact of two parameters is very different. The decision makers should try to avoid the overadjustment to the scarcity of supply from their upstream member. Zhuoqun Li and Guangle Yan Copyright © 2015 Zhuoqun Li and Guangle Yan. All rights reserved. A Proposed Chaotic-Switched Turbo Coding Design and Its Application for Half-Duplex Relay Channel Thu, 16 Apr 2015 15:48:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/818421/ Both reliability and security are two important subjects in modern digital communications, each with a variety of subdisciplines. In this paper we introduce a new proposed secure turbo coding system which combines chaotic dynamics and turbo coding reliability together. As we utilize the chaotic maps as a tool for hiding and securing the coding design in turbo coding system, this proposed system model can provide both data secrecy and data reliability in one process to combat problems in an insecure and unreliable data channel link. To support our research, we provide different schemes to design a chaotic secure reliable turbo coding system which we call chaotic-switched turbo coding schemes. In these schemes the design of turbo codes chaotically changed depending on one or more chaotic maps. Extensions of these chaotic-switched turbo coding schemes to half-duplex relay systems are also described. Results of simulations of these new secure turbo coding schemes are compared to classical turbo codes with the same coding parameters and the proposed system is able to achieve secured reasonable bit error rate performance when it is made to switch between different puncturing and design configuration parameters especially with low switching rates. Tamer H. M. Soliman, Fengfan Yang, and S. Ejaz Copyright © 2015 Tamer H. M. Soliman et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Synchronization in Complex Network with Different Order Node Dynamics Wed, 15 Apr 2015 14:24:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/919146/ This paper investigates the adaptive cluster synchronization in the complex networks with different orders. By means of Lyapunov stability theory and the adaptive control technique, a novel adaptive synchronization controller is developed. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed method, the examples for the synchronization of systems with the chaotic and hyperchaotic node dynamics are presented. Fan-di Zhang, Jin-ping Jia, and Li-xin Yang Copyright © 2015 Fan-di Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Stochastic Phenomena in One-Dimensional Rulkov Model of Neuronal Dynamics Tue, 14 Apr 2015 11:34:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/495417/ We study the nonlinear Rulkov map-based neuron model forced by random disturbances. For this model, an overview of the variety of stochastic regimes is given. For the parametric analysis of these regimes, the stochastic sensitivity functions technique is used. In a period-doubling zone, we analyze backward stochastic bifurcations modelling changes of modality of noisy neuron spiking. Noise-induced transitions in a zone of bistability are considered. It is shown how such random transitions can generate a new neuronal regime of the stochastic bursting and transfer the system from order to chaos. A transient zone of values of noise intensity corresponding to the onset of noise-induced bursting and chaotization is localized by the stochastic sensitivity functions technique. Irina Bashkirtseva Copyright © 2015 Irina Bashkirtseva. All rights reserved. Oscillation Criteria of Third-Order Nonlinear Damped Dynamic Equations on Time Scales Tue, 14 Apr 2015 11:31:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/231261/ We establish oscillation criteria of third-order nonlinear damped dynamic equations on time scales of the form by employing functions in some function classes and the generalized Riccati transformation. Two examples are given to show the significance of the conclusions. Yang-Cong Qiu Copyright © 2015 Yang-Cong Qiu. All rights reserved. Wind Shear Target Echo Modeling and Simulation Tue, 14 Apr 2015 09:20:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/479804/ Wind shear is a dangerous atmospheric phenomenon in aviation. Wind shear is defined as a sudden change of speed or direction of the wind. In order to analyze the influence of wind shear on the efficiency of the airplane, this paper proposes a mathematical model of point target rain echo and weather target signal echo based on Doppler effect. The wind field model is developed in this paper, and the antenna model is also studied by using Bessel function. The spectrum distribution of symmetric and asymmetric wind fields is researched by using the mathematical model proposed in this paper. The simulation results are in accordance with radial velocity component, and the simulation results also confirm the correctness of the established model of antenna. Xiaoyang Liu, Chao Liu, and Wanping Liu Copyright © 2015 Xiaoyang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Scheduling Problems with Due Date Assignment Sun, 12 Apr 2015 13:40:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/683269/ Yunqiang Yin, Shuenn-Ren Cheng, John Y. Chiang, Jason C. H. Chen, Xuerong Mao, and Chin-Chia Wu Copyright © 2015 Yunqiang Yin et al. All rights reserved. Two-Agent Scheduling to Minimize the Maximum Cost with Position-Dependent Jobs Sun, 12 Apr 2015 13:38:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/932680/ This paper investigates a single-machine two-agent scheduling problem to minimize the maximum costs with position-dependent jobs. There are two agents, each with a set of independent jobs, competing to perform their jobs on a common machine. In our scheduling setting, the actual position-dependent processing time of one job is characterized by variable function dependent on the position of the job in the sequence. Each agent wants to fulfil the objective of minimizing the maximum cost of its own jobs. We develop a feasible method to achieve all the Pareto optimal points in polynomial time. Long Wan Copyright © 2015 Long Wan. All rights reserved. Recognition and Empirical Research on Key Influencing Factors of Low Carbon Development for Logistics Company Sun, 12 Apr 2015 12:35:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/851492/ The questionnaire paper used was work out by modifying the existing mature research scale and interviewing the experts and enterprises. The purpose of this study is to explore the key influencing factors of low carbon development for logistics companies by using the data from the questionnaire, which might contribute to further investigation of low carbon development pathway. Through correlation and stepwise regression analysis, differences between influencing factors and impact-degree were found since specific environmental behaviors of low carbon logistics might vary significantly. The driving factor of low carbon input comes from external points such as government and public external pressure, so the low carbon input is driven by an outside force. Yet, low carbon operation is significantly affected by internal factors such as low carbon behavior capacity, which is driven by an inside force. Xiang-Yun Duan, Hsiu-Jung Chou, and Shuenn-Ren Cheng Copyright © 2015 Xiang-Yun Duan et al. All rights reserved. A Single-Machine Two-Agent Scheduling Problem by a Branch-and-Bound and Three Simulated Annealing Algorithms Sun, 12 Apr 2015 12:32:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/681854/ In the field of distributed decision making, different agents share a common processing resource, and each agent wants to minimize a cost function depending on its jobs only. These issues arise in different application contexts, including real-time systems, integrated service networks, industrial districts, and telecommunication systems. Motivated by its importance on practical applications, we consider two-agent scheduling on a single machine where the objective is to minimize the total completion time of the jobs of the first agent with the restriction that an upper bound is allowed the total completion time of the jobs for the second agent. For solving the proposed problem, a branch-and-bound and three simulated annealing algorithms are developed for the optimal solution, respectively. In addition, the extensive computational experiments are also conducted to test the performance of the algorithms. Shangchia Liu, Wen-Hsiang Wu, Chao-Chung Kang, Win-Chin Lin, and Zhenmin Cheng Copyright © 2015 Shangchia Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Column Generation Based Hyper-Heuristic to the Bus Driver Scheduling Problem Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:22:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/638104/ Public transit providers are facing continuous pressure to improve service quality and reduce operating costs. Bus driver scheduling is among the most studied problems in this area. Based on this, flexible and powerful optimization algorithms have thus been developed and used for many years to help them with this challenge. Particularly, real-life large and complex problem instances often need new approaches to overcome the computational difficulties in solving them. Thus, we propose a column generation based hyper-heuristic for finding near-optimal solutions. Our approach takes advantages of the benefits offered by heuristic method since the column selection mode is driven by a hyper-heuristic using various strategies for the column generation subproblem. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the approaches in the literature. Computational results on real-life instances are presented and discussed. Hong Li, Ying Wang, Shi Li, and Sujian Li Copyright © 2015 Hong Li et al. All rights reserved. A Cellular Automata Traffic Flow Model considering Bus Lane Changing Behavior with Scheduling Parameters Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:22:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/348582/ According to different driving behavioral characteristics of bus drivers, a cellular automata traffic model considering the bus lane changing behavior with scheduling parameters is proposed in this paper. Traffic bottleneck problems caused by bus stops are simulated in multiple lanes roads with no-bay bus stations. With the mixed traffic flow composed of different bus arrival rate, flow-density graph, density distribution graph, and temporal-spatial graph are presented. Furthermore, the mixed traffic flow characteristics are analyzed. Numerical experiment results show that the proposed model can generate a variety of complicated realistic phenomena in the traffic system with bus stops and provide theoretical basis for better using of traffic flow model. Zun-dong Zhang, Yan-fang Yang, Wenjiao Qi, Abderrahim Chariete, and Xing-xiang Lin Copyright © 2015 Zun-dong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Bounded Fatou Components of Composite Transcendental Entire Functions with Gaps Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:17:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/149182/ We prove that composite transcendental entire functions with certain gaps have no unbounded Fatou component. Cunji Yang and Shaoming Wang Copyright © 2015 Cunji Yang and Shaoming Wang. All rights reserved. Integrated Optimization of Service-Oriented Train Plan and Schedule on Intercity Rail Network with Varying Demand Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:16:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/419042/ For a better service level of a train operating plan, we propose an integrated optimization method of train planning and train scheduling, which generally are optimized, respectively. Based on the cost analysis of both passengers travelling and enterprises operation, and the constraint analysis of trains operation, we construct a multiobjective function and build an integrated optimization model with the aim of reducing both passenger travel costs and enterprise operating costs. Then, a solving algorithm is established based on the simulated annealing algorithm. Finally, using as an example the Changzhutan intercity rail network, as an example we analyze the optimized results and the influence of the model parameters on the results. Wenliang Zhou, Junli Tian, Lianbo Deng, and Jin Qin Copyright © 2015 Wenliang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Online Scheduling on a Single Machine with Grouped Processing Times Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:08:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/805294/ We consider the online scheduling problem on a single machine with the assumption that all jobs have their processing times in , where and . All jobs arrive over time, and each job and its processing time become known at its arrival time. The jobs should be first processed on a single machine and then delivered by a vehicle to some customer. When the capacity of the vehicle is infinite, we provide an online algorithm with the best competitive ratio of . When the capacity of the vehicle is finite, that is, the vehicle can deliver at most c jobs at a time, we provide another best possible online algorithm with the competitive ratio of . Qijia Liu, Long Wan, and Lijun Wei Copyright © 2015 Qijia Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Note on Two-Agent Scheduling with Resource Dependent Release Times on a Single Machine Sun, 12 Apr 2015 11:07:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/503297/ We consider a scheduling problem in which both resource dependent release times and two agents exist simultaneously. Two agents share a common single machine, and each agent wants to minimize a cost function dependent on its own jobs. The release time of each A-agent’s job is related to the amount of resource consumed. The objective is to find a schedule for the problem of minimizing A-agent’s total amount of resource consumption with a constraint on B-agent’s makespan. The optimal properties and the optimal polynomial time algorithm are proposed to solve the scheduling problem. Peng Liu and Lini Duan Copyright © 2015 Peng Liu and Lini Duan. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Heuristic Algorithm for Ship Block Construction Space Scheduling Problem Sun, 12 Apr 2015 10:01:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/841637/ Ship block construction space is an important bottleneck resource in the process of shipbuilding, so the production scheduling optimization is a key technology to improve the efficiency of shipbuilding. With respect to ship block construction space scheduling problem, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, Bottom-Left-Fill (BLF) process is introduced. Next, an initial solution is obtained by guiding the sorting process with corners. Then on the basis of the initial solution, the simulated annealing arithmetic (SA) is used to improve the solution by offering a possibility to accept worse neighbor solutions in order to escape from local optimum. Finally, the simulation experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. Shicheng Hu, Tengjiao Liu, Song Wang, Yonggui Kao, and Xuedong Sun Copyright © 2015 Shicheng Hu et al. All rights reserved. Scheduling and Common Due Date Assignment on a Single Parallel-Batching Machine with Batch Delivery Sun, 12 Apr 2015 09:46:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/464390/ We consider a single parallel-batching machine scheduling problem with delivery involving both batching scheduling and common due date assignment. The orders are first processed on the single parallel-batching machine and then delivered in batches to the customers. The batching machine can process several orders at the same time. The processing time of a production batch on the machine is equal to the longest processing time of the orders assigned into this batch. A common due date for all the orders in the same delivery batch and a delivery date for each order need to be determined in order to minimize total weighted flow time. We first prove that this problem is NP hard in the strong sense. Two optimal algorithms by using dynamic programming are derived for the two special cases with a given sequence of orders on the machine and a given batching in the production part, respectively. Hua Gong, Biao Zhang, and Wuliang Peng Copyright © 2015 Hua Gong et al. All rights reserved. Chaos Synchronization of Financial Chaotic System with External Perturbation Wed, 08 Apr 2015 14:40:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/731376/ This paper investigates the problem of two kinds of function projective synchronization of financial chaotic system with definite integration scaling function, which are not fully considered in the existing research. Different from the previous methods, in this paper, the following two questions are investigated: (1) two kinds of the definite integration scaling function projective synchronization are given; (2) the upper and lower limit of the definite integral scaling function are the bound dynamical systems. Finally, illustrative example is provided to show the effectiveness of this method. Chengrong Xie, Yuhua Xu, and Dongbing Tong Copyright © 2015 Chengrong Xie et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Contextual Information Recommendation Model and Its Application in e-Commerce Customer Satisfaction Management Tue, 07 Apr 2015 14:20:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/691781/ In the current supply chain environment, distributed cognition theory tells us that various types of context information in which a recommendation is provided are important for e-commerce customer satisfaction management. However, traditional recommendation model does not consider the distributed and differentiated impact of different contexts on user needs, and it also lacks adaptive capacity of contextual recommendation service. Thus, a contextual information recommendation model based on distributed cognition theory is proposed. Firstly, the model analyzes the differential impact of various sensitive contexts and specific examples on user interest and designs a user interest extraction algorithm based on distributed cognition theory. Then, the sensitive contexts extracted from user are introduced into the process of collaborative filtering recommendation. The model calculates similarity among user interests. Finally, a novel collaborative filtering algorithm integrating with context and user similarity is designed. The experimental results in e-commerce and benchmark dataset show that this model has a good ability to extract user interest and has higher recommendation accuracy compared with other methods. Feipeng Guo and Qibei Lu Copyright © 2015 Feipeng Guo and Qibei Lu. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Bus Networks in China: From Topology and Transfer Perspectives Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:29:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/328320/ With the development of the public transportation, bus network becomes complicated and hard to evaluate. Transfer time is a vital indicator to evaluate bus network. This paper proposed a method to calculate transfer times using Space P. Four bus networks in China have been studied in this paper. Some static properties based on graph theory and complex theory are used to evaluate bus topological structure. Moreover, a bus network evolution model to reduce transfer time is proposed by adding lines. The adding method includes four types among nodes with random choice, large transfer time, degree, and small degree. The results show that adding lines with nodes of small degree is most effective comparing with the other three types. Hui Zhang, Peng Zhao, Yinhai Wang, Xiangming Yao, and Chengxiang Zhuge Copyright © 2015 Hui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Time-Varying Strategy Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:12:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/674595/ Artificial bee colony (ABC) is one of the newest additions to the class of swarm intelligence. ABC algorithm has been shown to be competitive with some other population-based algorithms. However, there is still an insufficiency that ABC is good at exploration but poor at exploitation. To make a proper balance between these two conflictive factors, this paper proposed a novel ABC variant with a time-varying strategy where the ratio between the number of employed bees and the number of onlooker bees varies with time. The linear and nonlinear time-varying strategies can be incorporated into the basic ABC algorithm, yielding ABC-LTVS and ABC-NTVS algorithms, respectively. The effects of the added parameters in the two new ABC algorithms are also studied through solving some representative benchmark functions. The proposed ABC algorithm is a simple and easy modification to the structure of the basic ABC algorithm. Moreover, the proposed approach is general and can be incorporated in other ABC variants. A set of 21 benchmark functions in 30 and 50 dimensions are utilized in the experimental studies. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed time-varying strategy. Quande Qin, Shi Cheng, Qingyu Zhang, Li Li, and Yuhui Shi Copyright © 2015 Quande Qin et al. All rights reserved. Dynamical Behavior of a System of Third-Order Rational Difference Equation Tue, 07 Apr 2015 13:06:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/530453/ This paper deals with the boundedness, persistence, and global asymptotic stability of positive solution for a system of third-order rational difference equations , , , where , ; , . Some examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the results obtained. Qianhong Zhang, Jingzhong Liu, and Zhenguo Luo Copyright © 2015 Qianhong Zhang et al. All rights reserved.