Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Construction of an Early Risk Warning Model of Organizational Resilience: An Empirical Study Based on Samples of R&D Teams Mon, 23 May 2016 14:18:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4602870/ Facing fierce competition, it is critical for organizations to keep advantages either actively or passively. Organizational resilience is the ability of an organization to anticipate, prepare for, respond to, and adapt to incremental change and sudden disruptions in order to survive and prosper. It is of particular importance for enterprises to apprehend the intensity of organizational resilience and thereby judge their abilities to withstand pressure. By conducting an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis, this paper clarifies a five-factor model for organizational resilience of R&D teams. Moreover, based on it, this paper applies fuzzy integrated evaluation method to build an early risk warning model for organizational resilience of R&D teams. The application of the model to a company shows that the model can adequately evaluate the intensity of organizational resilience of R&D teams. The results are also supposed to contribute to applied early risk warning theory. Si-hua Chen Copyright © 2016 Si-hua Chen. All rights reserved. Game Models on Optimal Strategies in a Tourism Dual-Channel Supply Chain Sun, 22 May 2016 09:24:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5760139/ This paper explores a two-echelon tourism supply chain consisting of a hotel and an online travel agency. The upside hotel rooms can be sold through the downside hotel alliance and online travel agency. The hotel alliance, selling rooms at a lower price, is a direct sale platform with a negligible entry fee. Notwithstanding, the online travel agency sells the room at a higher price with related personalized service. Customers will be refunded partially in case of their cancellation or no-show. An integrated model and two decentralized models based on Bertrand and Stackelberg games are developed, respectively. The results show that when the wholesale price is lower than a certain value, both the hotel and the online travel agency can gain more profit from the Stackelberg game than that from the Bertrand game. In the case that the hotel allows overbooking, the optimal overbooking quantity is obtained. If the overbooking proportion is too high, overbooking is profitable for the hotel only when the overbooking cost is lower than a certain value. At the end of the study, some experiments are conducted to analyze the sensitivity of the optimal prices and profits in the light of certain parameters. Lei Yang, Jingna Ji, and Kebing Chen Copyright © 2016 Lei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Attractor and Boundedness of Switched Stochastic Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks Thu, 19 May 2016 06:14:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4958217/ We address the problem of stochastic attractor and boundedness of a class of switched Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (CGNN) with discrete and infinitely distributed delays. With the help of stochastic analysis technology, the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method, linear matrix inequalities technique (LMI), and the average dwell time approach (ADT), some novel sufficient conditions regarding the issues of mean-square uniformly ultimate boundedness, the existence of a stochastic attractor, and the mean-square exponential stability for the switched Cohen-Grossberg neural networks are established. Finally, illustrative examples and their simulations are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed results. Chuangxia Huang, Jie Cao, and Peng Wang Copyright © 2016 Chuangxia Huang et al. All rights reserved. The Application of Recurrence Quantification Analysis in Detection of Abrupt Climate Change Tue, 17 May 2016 14:17:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2689429/ This paper explores the possible application of recurrence quantification analysis in the detection of abrupt change of the dynamic structure of the climate system. It is discovered in the recurrence quantification analysis of the typical chaotic system-logistic model that the method may well distinguish the state of logistic model with different parameters, demonstrating its potential value in identifying the dynamic change of the system. When recurrence quantification analysis is later applied to the detection of abrupt change of average daily precipitation of all regions in China, the result indicates that the abrupt change of the dynamic structure corresponding to the precipitation of China in recent 50 years occurred in the late 1970s and the early 1980s. It is in agreement with the Chinese commonly recognized years of abruption; therefore the effectiveness is further demonstrated regarding the recognition of complexity of dynamical system. Wen Zhang, Guoling Feng, and Qunqun Liu Copyright © 2016 Wen Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Border Collision Bifurcations in a Generalized Model of Population Dynamics Tue, 17 May 2016 11:24:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/9724139/ We analyze the dynamics of a generalized discrete time population model of a two-stage species with recruitment and capture. This generalization, which is inspired by other approaches and real data that one can find in literature, consists in considering no restriction for the value of the two key parameters appearing in the model, that is, the natural death rate and the mortality rate due to fishing activity. In the more general case the feasibility of the system has been preserved by posing opportune formulas for the piecewise map defining the model. The resulting two-dimensional nonlinear map is not smooth, though continuous, as its definition changes as any border is crossed in the phase plane. Hence, techniques from the mathematical theory of piecewise smooth dynamical systems must be applied to show that, due to the existence of borders, abrupt changes in the dynamic behavior of population sizes and multistability emerge. The main novelty of the present contribution with respect to the previous ones is that, while using real data, richer dynamics are produced, such as fluctuations and multistability. Such new evidences are of great interest in biology since new strategies to preserve the survival of the species can be suggested. Lilia M. Ladino, Cristiana Mammana, Elisabetta Michetti, and Jose C. Valverde Copyright © 2016 Lilia M. Ladino et al. All rights reserved. Positive Filtering with -Gain for Discrete-Time Positive Systems Mon, 16 May 2016 12:35:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1967875/ This paper is concerned with the positive filtering problem for discrete-time positive systems under the -induced performance. We aim to propose a pair of positive filters with error-bounding features to estimate the output of positive systems. A novel characterization is first constructed so that the filtering error system is asymptotically stable with a prescribed -induced performance. Then, necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of required filters are presented, and the obtained results are expressed as linear programming problems. Moreover, it is pointed out that the results can be easily checked by standard software. In addition, a numerical example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed design procedures. Xiaoming Chen Copyright © 2016 Xiaoming Chen. All rights reserved. Transit-Based Emergency Evacuation with Transit Signal Priority in Sudden-Onset Disaster Mon, 16 May 2016 12:05:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3625342/ This study presents methods of transit signal priority without transit-only lanes for a transit-based emergency evacuation in a sudden-onset disaster. Arterial priority signal coordination is optimized when a traffic signal control system provides priority signals for transit vehicles along an evacuation route. Transit signal priority is determined by “transit vehicle arrival time estimation,” “queuing vehicle dissipation time estimation,” “traffic signal status estimation,” “transit signal optimization,” and “arterial traffic signal coordination for transit vehicle in evacuation route.” It takes advantage of the large capacities of transit vehicles, reduces the evacuation time, and evacuates as many evacuees as possible. The proposed methods were tested on a simulation platform with Paramics V6.0. To evaluate and compare the performance of transit signal priority, three scenarios were simulated in the simulator. The results indicate that the methods of this study can reduce the travel times of transit vehicles along an evacuation route by 13% and 10%, improve the standard deviation of travel time by 16% and 46%, and decrease the average person delay at a signalized intersection by 22% and 17% when the traffic flow saturation along an evacuation route is and , respectively. Ciyun Lin and Bowen Gong Copyright © 2016 Ciyun Lin and Bowen Gong. All rights reserved. Dynamics Analysis and Biomass Productivity Optimisation of a Microbial Cultivation Process through Substrate Regulation Mon, 16 May 2016 08:37:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3685941/ A microbial cultivation process model with variable biomass yield, control of substrate concentration, and biomass recycle is formulated, where the biochemical kinetics follows an extension of the Monod and Contois models. Control of substrate concentration allows for indirect monitoring of biomass and dissolved oxygen concentrations and consequently obtaining high yield and productivity of biomass. Dynamics analysis of the proposed model is carried out and the existence of order-1 periodic solution is deduced with a formulation of the period, which provides a theoretical possibility to convert the state-dependent control to a periodic one while keeping the dynamics unchanged. Moreover, the stability of the order-1 periodic solution is verified by a geometric method. The stability ensures a certain robustness of the adopted control; that is, even with an inaccurately detected substrate concentration or a deviation, the system will be always stable at the order-1 periodic solution under the control. The simulations are carried out to complement the theoretical results and optimisation of the biomass productivity is presented. Kaibiao Sun, Shan Liu, Andrzej Kasperski, and Yuan Tian Copyright © 2016 Kaibiao Sun et al. All rights reserved. Fiscal Decentralization and Regional Financial Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis of Spatial Durbin Model Thu, 12 May 2016 15:01:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6597138/ Based on panel data covering the period from 2003 to 2012 in China’s 281 prefecture-level cities, we use superefficiency SBM model to measure regional financial efficiency and empirically test the spatial effects of fiscal decentralization on regional financial efficiency with SDM. The estimated results indicate that there exist significant spatial spillover effects among regional financial efficiency with the features of time inertia and spatial dependence. The positive promoting effect of fiscal decentralization on financial efficiency in local region depends on the symmetry between fiscal expenditure decentralization and revenue decentralization. Additionally, there exists inconsistency in the spatial effects of fiscal expenditure decentralization and revenue decentralization on financial efficiency in neighboring regions. The negative effect of fiscal revenue decentralization on financial efficiency in neighboring regions is more significant than that of fiscal expenditure decentralization. Jianmin Liu, Xiaomei Hu, and Hongli Tang Copyright © 2016 Jianmin Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid IP/GA Approach to the Parallel Production Lines Scheduling Problem Thu, 12 May 2016 07:50:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5201937/ A special parallel production lines scheduling problem is studied in this paper. Considering the time window and technical constraints, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model is formulated for the problem. A few valid inequalities are deduced and a hybrid mixed integer linear programming/constraint programming (MILP/CP) decomposition strategy is introduced. Based on them, a hybrid integer programming/genetic algorithm (IP/GA) approach is proposed to solve the problem. At last, the numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed solution approach is effective and efficient. Huizhi Ren and Shenshen Sun Copyright © 2016 Huizhi Ren and Shenshen Sun. All rights reserved. Investment Decision-Making and Coordination of Supply Chain: A New Research in the Big Data Era Thu, 12 May 2016 07:04:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2026715/ In a Big Data environment, in order to study the decision-making problem of Big Data information investment and the effects of using Big Data information to improve industry cost on supply chain coordination, firstly the importance of Data Company in supply chain was analyzed, and the original supply chain model was built. Meanwhile, some changes of consumer behavior were analyzed in a Big Data environment. Based on these, the market demand function and the benefit model of stakeholder were built and analyzed. Findings: The first finding is whether an enterprise was suitable for gaining Big Data to improve its costs, which was determined by the cost improvement coefficient; namely, it was related to the ability of excavating and using the value of Big Data. Whether the supply chain was the decentralized decision-making and the centralized decision-making, the thresholds of acquisition costs on Big Data information were equal. Moreover, the maximum value that they could undertake was same. Meanwhile the fact that the quantity discount contract could achieve a win-win outcome for supply chain members was proved. The discount coefficient was related to consumers’ behavior preference in a Big Data environment. Pan Liu and Shu-ping Yi Copyright © 2016 Pan Liu and Shu-ping Yi. All rights reserved. Dynamic Behaviors and Energy Transition Mechanism of Droplets Impacting on Hydrophobic Surfaces Wed, 11 May 2016 11:21:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8517309/ The wettability of hydrophobic surfaces and the dynamic behaviors of droplets impacting on hydrophobic surfaces are simulated using a lattice Boltzmann method, and the condition for the rebound phenomenon of droplets impacting on solid surfaces is analyzed. The results show that there is a linear relationship between the intrinsic contact angle and the interaction strength of fluid-wall particles. For hydrophobic surfaces with the same intrinsic contact angle, the micromorphology can increase the surface hydrophobicity, especially the hierarchical micromorphology. The dynamic behaviors of droplets impacting on solid surfaces are affected by the wettability. The surface hydrophobicity is stronger, and the rebound phenomenon occurs easier. If the droplet’s kinetic energy is greater than the sum of the surface energy and the minimum conversion gravitational potential energy when the spreading and shrinking finish, the rebound phenomenon will occur. As the hydrophobic surface’s viscous dissipation is much smaller than the hydrophilic surface’s, the droplet still has high kinetic energy after the spreading and shrinking, which is advantageous to rebound for droplets. Qiaogao Huang, Ya Zhang, and Guang Pan Copyright © 2016 Qiaogao Huang et al. All rights reserved. Extended Ellipsoidal Outer-Bounding Set-Membership Estimation for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems with Unknown-but-Bounded Disturbances Wed, 11 May 2016 08:34:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3918797/ This paper develops an extended ellipsoidal outer-bounding set-membership estimation (EEOB-SME) algorithm with high accuracy and efficiency for nonlinear discrete-time systems under unknown-but-bounded (UBB) disturbances. The EEOB-SME linearizes the first-order terms about the current state estimations and bounds the linearization errors by ellipsoids using interval analysis for nonlinear equations of process and measurement equations, respectively. It has been demonstrated that the EEOB-SME algorithm is stable and the estimation errors of the EEOB-SME are bounded when the nonlinear system is observable. The EEOB-SME decreases the computation load and the feasible sets of EEOB-SME contain more true states. The efficiency of the EEOB-SME algorithm has been shown by a numerical simulation under UBB disturbances. Yushuang Liu, Yan Zhao, and Falin Wu Copyright © 2016 Yushuang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Research on the Low Frequency Broadband Piezoelectric-Magnetostrictive Hybrid Transducer Mon, 09 May 2016 13:42:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1652080/ The effective ways for underwater transducer to lower its operating frequency, to broaden its bandwidth, and to develop its miniaturization are investigated. According to the theory of coupled multimode vibrations, a novel Hybrid transducer is developed. Different from the traditional Hybrid transducer, the improved point is the low frequency vibration controlled by the zigzag piezoelectric section and the high frequency vibration controlled by the one-dimensional magnetostrictive section. Through building the equivalent circuit model and finite element model, the performances of transducer will be predicted. The analysis shows that FEM is suitable for analyzing such a Hybrid underwater transducer within 5% deviation. The corresponding tests show that the volume and weight of the Hybrid transducer undergo a sharp drop after improvement. The novel Hybrid transducer has a distinct advantage in low frequency, bandwidth, and miniaturization. The prototype has the resonance at 1.82 kHz and 3.76 kHz. It can be used effectively in the bandwidth of 1.5 kHz to 5 kHz. Its main body has an external diameter of 54 mm. The whole prototype is 235 mm long and weighs 2.61 kg. Duo Teng and Ning Zhu Copyright © 2016 Duo Teng and Ning Zhu. All rights reserved. The System Dynamics Model in Electronic Products Closed-Loop Supply Chain Distribution Network with Three-Way Recovery and the Old-for-New Policy Mon, 09 May 2016 11:59:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4074710/ With the technological developments and rapid changes in demand pattern, diverse varieties of electronic products are entering into the market with reduced lifecycle which leads to the environmental problems. The awareness of electronic products take-back and recovery has been increasing in electronic products supply chains. In this paper, we build a system dynamics model for electronic products closed-loop supply chain distribution network with the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways, namely, electronic products remanufacturing, electronic component reuse and remanufacturing, and electronic raw material recovery. In the simulation study, we investigate the significance of various factors including the old-for-new policy, collection and remanufacturing, their interactions and the type of their impact on bullwhip, and profitability through sensitivity analysis. Our results instruct that the old-for-new policy and three electronic products recovery ways can reduce the bullwhip effect in the retailers and the distributors and increases the profitability in the closed-loop supply chain distribution network. Xiao-qing Zhang and Xi-gang Yuan Copyright © 2016 Xiao-qing Zhang and Xi-gang Yuan. All rights reserved. Analysis and Control of the Complex Dynamics of a Multimarket Cournot Investment Game with Bounded Rationality Mon, 09 May 2016 08:24:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7342405/ A dynamic multimarket Cournot model is introduced based on a specific inverse demand function. Puu’s incomplete information approach, as a realistic method, is used to contract the corresponding dynamical model under this function. Therefore, some stability analysis is carried out on the model to detect the stability and instability conditions of the system’s Nash equilibrium. Based on the analysis, some dynamic phenomena such as bifurcation and chaos are found. Numerical simulations are used to provide experimental evidence for the complicated behaviors of the system evolution. It is observed that the equilibrium of the system can lose stability via flip bifurcation or Neimark-Sacker bifurcation and time-delayed feedback control is used to stabilize the chaotic behaviors of the system. LiuWei Zhao Copyright © 2016 LiuWei Zhao. All rights reserved. A New Coordinated Control Method on the Intersection of Traffic Region Sun, 08 May 2016 07:14:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5985840/ Intersection regions widely exist in road networks as crucial connections, and the congestion effects on traffic in the networks cannot be ignored. In general, a conventional intersection region includes a merging region and more than two ramps, whose congestion brings a serious negative effect on traffic service quality and satisfaction of drivers. Specifically, intersection region congestion is caused by congestion in merging regions. However, current control methods regarding coordination of the variable speed limits and ramp metering in order to solve merging region congestion are insufficient to handle congestion occurring in the intersection region. Therefore, a new method of coordinated control is proposed in this paper based on mainline control using the variable speed limits and coordinated ramp metering. The coordinated control method is formulated considering the degree of crowdedness indexes and implemented based on the queue length, with the goal to relieve congestion in conventional intersection regions caused by merging region congestion. The coordinated control method is further evaluated based on an actual traffic network. The results show that the proposed method is effective in terms of improving traffic service quality and relieving intersection region congestion. Minghui Ma, Qingfang Yang, Shidong Liang, and Yashi Wang Copyright © 2016 Minghui Ma et al. All rights reserved. Harberger-Laursen-Metzler Effect with Modified Becker-Mulligan Preference by Dynamic Optimization Thu, 05 May 2016 14:16:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4190294/ We investigate the effects of terms-of-trade shocks on the spending and current account where households with the modified Becker-Mulligan endogenous time preference maximize their utility over an infinite planning period. Our results show that, with the modified Becker-Mulligan preference, the effect of the deterioration in terms of trade on the current account depends on people’s characters. However, with the second preference we have considered, the deterioration in terms of trade will result in a current account deficit, which is the same as Obstfeld (1982), where households with Uzawa endogenous time preference are considered; deterioration in terms of trade leads to a decline in the current account. These theoretical results are consistent with the empirical evidence by numerical simulations. Deng-Shan Wang, Miao Jin, and Zeng-Gang Guo Copyright © 2016 Deng-Shan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Performance of Different Methods in Detecting Abrupt Climate Changes Thu, 05 May 2016 06:46:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5898697/ We compared and evaluated the performance of five methods for detecting abrupt climate changes using a time series with artificially generated abrupt characteristics. Next, we analyzed these methods using annual mean surface air temperature records from the Shenyang meteorological station. Our results show that the moving -test (MTT), Yamamoto (YAMA), and LePage (LP) methods can correctly and effectively detect abrupt changes in means, trends, and dynamic structure; however, they cannot detect changes in variability. We note that the sample size of the subseries used in these tests can affect their results. When the sample size of the subseries ranges from one-quarter to three-quarters of the jump scale, these methods can effectively detect abrupt changes; they perform best when the sample size is one-half of the jump scale. The Cramer method can detect abrupt changes in the mean and trend of a series but not changes in variability or dynamic structure. Finally, we found that the Mann-Kendall test could not detect any type of abrupt change. We found no difference in the results of any of the methods following removal of the mean, creation of an anomaly series, or normalization. However, detrending and study period selection affected the results of the Cramer and Mann-Kendall methods; in the latter case, they could lead to a completely different result. Chunyu Zhao, Yan Cui, Xiaoyu Zhou, and Ying Wang Copyright © 2016 Chunyu Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Dynamics of a Toxin-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton System with Self- and Cross-Diffusion Wed, 04 May 2016 06:23:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4893451/ A nonlinear system describing the interaction between toxin-producing phytoplankton and zooplankton was investigated analytically and numerically, where the system was represented by a couple of reaction-diffusion equations. We analyzed the effect of self- and cross-diffusion on the system. Some conditions for the local and global stability of the equilibrium were obtained based on the theoretical analysis. Furthermore, we found that the equilibrium lost its stability via Turing instability and patterns formation then occurred. In particular, the analysis indicated that cross-diffusion can play an important role in pattern formation. Subsequently, we performed a series of numerical simulations to further study the dynamics of the system, which demonstrated the rich dynamics induced by diffusion in the system. In addition, the numerical simulations indicated that the direction of cross-diffusion can influence the spatial distribution of the population and the population density. The numerical results agreed with the theoretical analysis. We hope that these results will prove useful in the study of toxic plankton systems. Pengfei Wang, Min Zhao, Hengguo Yu, Chuanjun Dai, Nan Wang, and Beibei Wang Copyright © 2016 Pengfei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Outer Synchronization between Two Coupled Complex Networks and Its Application in Public Traffic Supernetwork Thu, 28 Apr 2016 15:05:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8920764/ The paper presents a new urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the existing bus network modeling method, consisting of the conventional bus traffic network and the urban rail traffic network. We investigate the synchronization problem of urban public traffic supernetwork model by using the coupled complex network’s outer synchronization theory. Analytical and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the impact of traffic dispatching frequency and traffic lines optimization to the urban public traffic supernetwork balance. Wen-ju Du, Jian-gang Zhang, Xin-lei An, Shuang Qin, and Jian-ning Yu Copyright © 2016 Wen-ju Du et al. All rights reserved. The Dynamics of the Discrete Ultimatum Game and the Role of the Expectation Level Thu, 28 Apr 2016 06:18:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8517345/ We have studied evolutionary ultimatum game with spatially arranged players, who have choice between the two kinds of strategies (named greedy and altruist). The strategies in the ultimatum game here are described by and , that is, the probability of offering to himself and the accepting probability when receiving . By using computer simulations with C++ builder, we have provided the dynamics of the greedy and altruistic strategies and found that the proportion evolution of the “greedy” strategy for different initial cases is approximately 60%. Furthermore, the explanations for the interesting phenomenon are presented from different aspects. In addition, we illustrate that the factor of the expectation level (aspiration level) in the updating rule plays an important role in the promotion of altruistic behaviors. Lili Deng, Wei Zhang, Cheng Wang, Yi Han, and Jianhu Cai Copyright © 2016 Lili Deng et al. All rights reserved. The Coupling Effect Research of Ash Deposition and Condensation in Low Temperature Flue Gas Thu, 28 Apr 2016 05:54:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8352317/ Ash deposition is a key factor that deteriorates the heat transfer performance and leads to higher energy consumption of low pressure economizer working in low temperature flue gas. In order to study the ash deposition of heat exchange tubes in low temperature flue gas, two experiments are carried out with different types of heat exchange tubes in different flue gas environments. In this paper, Nusselt Number Nu and fouling factor are calculated to describe the heat transfer characteristics so as to study the ash deposition condition. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used for the analysis of ash samples obtained from the outer wall of heat exchange tubes. The dynamic process of ash deposition is studied under different temperatures of outer wall. The results showed that ash deposition of heat exchanger will achieve a stable state in constant flue gas environment. According to the condition of condensation of acid vapor and water vapor, the process of ash deposition can be distinguished as mere ash deposition, acid-ash coupling deposition, and acid-water-ash coupling deposition. Lei Ma, Feng-zhong Sun, Zhi-min Li, Pei Chen, and Fei Li Copyright © 2016 Lei Ma et al. All rights reserved. A Discrete-Time Algorithm for Stiffness Extraction from sEMG and Its Application in Antidisturbance Teleoperation Wed, 27 Apr 2016 06:57:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6897030/ We have developed a new discrete-time algorithm of stiffness extraction from muscle surface electromyography (sEMG) collected from human operator’s arms and have applied it for antidisturbance control in robot teleoperation. The variation of arm stiffness is estimated from sEMG signals and transferred to a telerobot under variable impedance control to imitate human motor control behaviours, particularly for disturbance attenuation. In comparison to the estimation of stiffness from sEMG, the proposed algorithm is able to reduce the nonlinear residual error effect and to enhance robustness and to simplify stiffness calibration. In order to extract a smoothing stiffness enveloping from sEMG signals, two enveloping methods are employed in this paper, namely, fast linear enveloping based on low pass filtering and moving average and amplitude monocomponent and frequency modulating (AM-FM) method. Both methods have been incorporated into the proposed stiffness variance estimation algorithm and are extensively tested. The test results show that stiffness variation extraction based on the two methods is sensitive and robust to attenuation disturbance. It could potentially be applied for teleoperation in the presence of hazardous surroundings or human robot physical cooperation scenarios. Peidong Liang, Chenguang Yang, Ning Wang, and Ruifeng Li Copyright © 2016 Peidong Liang et al. All rights reserved. Application of Filter on the Angular Rate Matching in the Transfer Alignment Tue, 26 Apr 2016 09:13:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4859475/ The transfer alignment (TA) scheme is used for the initial alignment of Inertial Navigation System (INS) on dynamical base. The Kalman filter is often used in TA to improve the precision of TA. And the statistical characteristics of interference signal which is difficult to get must be known before the Kalman filter is used in the TA, because the interference signal is a random signal and there are some changes on the dynamic model of system. In this paper, the filter is adopted in the TA scheme of the angular rate matching when the various stages of disturbance in measurement are unknown. And it is compared with the Kalman filter in the same environment of simulation and evaluation. The result of simulation shows that the filter and the Kalman filter are both effective. The Kalman filter is more accurate than the filter when system noise and measurement noise are white noise, but the filter is more accurate and quicker than the Kalman filter when system noise and measurement noise are color noise. In the engineering practice, system noise and measurement noise are always color noise, so the filter is more suitable for engineering practice than the Kalman filter. Lijun Song, Zhongxing Duan, and Jiwu Sun Copyright © 2016 Lijun Song et al. All rights reserved. Research on the Heat Dissipation Characteristics of Lithium Battery Spatial Layout in an AUV Thu, 21 Apr 2016 08:14:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6269539/ To meet the power demand requirements of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), the power supply is generally composed of a large number of high-energy lithium battery groups. The lithium battery heat dissipation properties not only affect the underwater vehicle performance but also bring some security risks. Based on the widespread application of lithium batteries, lithium batteries in an AUV are taken as an example to investigate the heat dissipation characteristics of the lithium battery spatial layout in an AUV. With the aim of increasing the safety of lithium batteries, a model is developed for the heat transfer process based on the energy conservation equation, and the battery heat dissipation characteristics of the spatial layout are analyzed. The results indicate that the most suitable distance between the cells and the cross arrangement is better than the sequence arrangement in terms of cooling characteristics. The temperature gradient and the temperature change inside the cabin with time are primarily affected by the navigation speed, but they have little relationship with the environmental temperature. Zhaoyong Mao and Shaokun Yan Copyright © 2016 Zhaoyong Mao and Shaokun Yan. All rights reserved. Novel Exponentially Fitted Two-Derivative Runge-Kutta Methods with Equation-Dependent Coefficients for First-Order Differential Equations Wed, 20 Apr 2016 14:23:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/9827952/ The construction of exponentially fitted two-derivative Runge-Kutta (EFTDRK) methods for the numerical solution of first-order differential equations is investigated. The revised EFTDRK methods proposed, with equation-dependent coefficients, take into consideration the errors produced in the internal stages to the update. The local truncation errors and stability of the new methods are analyzed. The numerical results are reported to show the accuracy of the new methods. Yanping Yang, Yonglei Fang, Xiong You, and Bin Wang Copyright © 2016 Yanping Yang et al. All rights reserved. Extinction in Two-Species Nonlinear Discrete Competitive System Wed, 20 Apr 2016 12:51:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2806405/ We propose a nonlinear discrete system of two species with the effect of toxic substances. By constructing a suitable Lyapunov-type function, we obtain the sufficient conditions which guarantee that one of the components will be driven to extinction while the other will be globally attractive with any positive solution of a discrete equation. Two examples together with their numerical simulations illustrate the feasibility of our main results. The results not only improve but also complement some known results. Liqiong Pu, Xiangdong Xie, Fengde Chen, and Zhanshuai Miao Copyright © 2016 Liqiong Pu et al. All rights reserved. Time Delayed Equations as Models in Nature and Society Tue, 19 Apr 2016 14:00:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1245765/ Luca Guerrini, Luca Gori, Akio Matsumoto, Mauro Sodini, Zizhen Zhang, and Carlo Bianca Copyright © 2016 Luca Guerrini et al. All rights reserved. On Weak Contractive Cyclic Maps in Generalized Metric Spaces and Some Related Results on Best Proximity Points and Fixed Points Tue, 19 Apr 2016 12:02:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4186960/ This paper discusses the properties of convergence of sequences to limit cycles defined by best proximity points of adjacent subsets for two kinds of weak contractive cyclic maps defined by composite maps built with decreasing functions with either the so-called -weaker Meir-Keeler or -stronger Meir-Keeler functions in generalized metric spaces. Particular results about existence and uniqueness of fixed points are obtained for the case when the sets of the cyclic disposal have a nonempty intersection. Illustrative examples are discussed. M. De la Sen Copyright © 2016 M. De la Sen. All rights reserved.