Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Dynamic Complexities in 2-Dimensional Discrete-Time Predator-Prey Systems with Allee Effect in the Prey Thu, 25 Aug 2016 14:05:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4275372/ The Allee effect is incorporated into a predator-prey model with linear functional response. Compared with the predator-prey which only takes the crowding effect and predator partially dependent on prey into consideration, it is found that the Allee effect of the prey species would increase the extinction risk of both the prey and predator. Moreover, by using a center manifold theorem and bifurcation theory, it is shown that the model with Allee effect undergoes the flip bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the interior of with different Allee effect values. In the two bifurcations, we can come to the conclusion that different Allee effect will have different bifurcation value and the increasing of the Allee effect will increase the value of bifurcation, respectively. Jie Yan, Chunli Li, Xueli Chen, and Lishun Ren Copyright © 2016 Jie Yan et al. All rights reserved. Existence of Nonoscillatory Solutions of Higher-Order Neutral Differential Equations with Distributed Coefficients and Delays Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:05:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1026726/ We consider the existence of nonoscillatory solutions of higher-order neutral differential equations with distributed coefficients. We use the contraction principle to obtain new sufficient condition for the existence of nonoscillatory solutions. Youjun Liu, Huanhuan Zhao, and Jurang Yan Copyright © 2016 Youjun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Convergence of Global Solutions to the Cauchy Problem for the Replicator Equation in Spatial Economics Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:32:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4021516/ We study the initial-value problem for the replicator equation of the -region Core-Periphery model in spatial economics. The main result shows that if workers are sufficiently agglomerated in a region at the initial time, then the initial-value problem has a unique global solution that converges to the equilibrium solution expressed by full agglomeration in that region. Minoru Tabata and Nobuoki Eshima Copyright © 2016 Minoru Tabata and Nobuoki Eshima. All rights reserved. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Shanghai Rail Transit System Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:52:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1290138/ With increasing passenger flows and construction scale, Shanghai rail transit system (RTS) has entered a new era of networking operation. In addition, the structure and properties of the RTS network have great implications for urban traffic planning, design, and management. Thus, it is necessary to acquire their network properties and impacts. In this paper, the Shanghai RTS, as well as passenger flows, will be investigated by using complex network theory. Both the topological and dynamic properties of the RTS network are analyzed and the largest connected cluster is introduced to assess the reliability and robustness of the RTS network. Simulation results show that the distribution of nodes strength exhibits a power-law behavior and Shanghai RTS network shows a strong weighted rich-club effect. This study also indicates that the intentional attacks are more detrimental to the RTS network than to the random weighted network, but the random attacks can cause slightly more damage to the random weighted network than to the RTS network. Our results provide a richer view of complex weighted networks in real world and possibilities of risk analysis and policy decisions for the RTS operation department. Yingying Xing, Jian Lu, and Shengdi Chen Copyright © 2016 Yingying Xing et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Tracking Performance of MIMO Discrete-Time Systems with Network Parameters Tue, 23 Aug 2016 11:59:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6826130/ The optimal regulation properties of multi-input and multioutput (MIMO) discrete-time networked control systems (NCSs), over additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) fading channels, based on state space representation, are investigated. The average performance index is introduced. Moreover, the regulation performance is measured by the control energy and the error energy of the system, and fundamental limitations are obtained. Two kinds of network parameters, fading and the additive white Gaussian noise, are considered. The best attainable regulation performance limitations can be obtained by the limiting steady state solution of the corresponding algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). The simulation results are given to demonstrate the main results of the theoretical development. Chao-Yang Chen, Weihua Gui, Zhi-Hong Guan, Shaowu Zhou, and Cailun Huang Copyright © 2016 Chao-Yang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Qualitative Analysis on Differential, Fractional Differential, and Dynamic Equations and Related Topics Mon, 22 Aug 2016 14:11:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3590319/ Said R. Grace, Taher S. Hassan, Shurong Sun, and Elvan Akin Copyright © 2016 Said R. Grace et al. All rights reserved. Bounded Traveling Wave Solutions and Their Relations for the Generalized HD Type Equation Sun, 21 Aug 2016 09:18:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5383527/ The generalized HD type equation is studied by using the bifurcation method of dynamical systems. From a dynamic point of view, the existence of different kinds of traveling waves which include periodic loop soliton, periodic cusp wave, smooth periodic wave, loop soliton, cuspon, smooth solitary wave, and kink-like wave is proved and the sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of the above solutions in different regions of the parametric space are given. Also, all possible exact parametric representations of the bounded waves are presented and their relations are stated. Qing Meng and Bin He Copyright © 2016 Qing Meng and Bin He. All rights reserved. Asymptotic Behavior of Certain Integrodifferential Equations Thu, 18 Aug 2016 08:33:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4231050/ This paper deals with asymptotic behavior of nonoscillatory solutions of certain forced integrodifferential equations of the form: From the obtained results, we derive a technique which can be applied to some related integrodifferential as well as integral equations. Said Grace and Elvan Akin Copyright © 2016 Said Grace and Elvan Akin. All rights reserved. Bidding Strategy to Support Decision-Making Based on Comprehensive Information in Construction Projects Thu, 11 Aug 2016 06:28:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4643630/ This paper develops a unified method to support contractor for bidding selection in construction projects. A cross-functional contractor with 28 candidate units distributed in the three departments (construction units, design units, and suppliers) is used as an example. This problem is first formulated as a 0-1 quadratic programming problem through optimizing individual performance and collaborative performance of the candidate units based on individual information and collaborative information. Then, a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is designed to solve this problem and a bidding selection problem for a major bridge project is used to demonstrate our proposed method. The results show that the decision-maker (DM) obtains a better contractor if he pays more attention to collaborative performance. Ru Liang, Zhaohan Sheng, Feng Xu, and Changzhi Wu Copyright © 2016 Ru Liang et al. All rights reserved. Existence and Upper Semicontinuity of Attractors for Nonautonomous Stochastic Sine-Gordon Lattice Systems with Random Coupled Coefficients Wed, 10 Aug 2016 06:06:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7986203/ We study nonautonomous stochastic sine-Gordon lattice systems with random coupled coefficients and multiplicative white noise. We first consider the existence of random attractors in a weighted space for this system and then establish the upper semicontinuity of random attractors as the intensity of noise approaches zero. Zhaojuan Wang and Shengfan Zhou Copyright © 2016 Zhaojuan Wang and Shengfan Zhou. All rights reserved. An Arterial Signal Coordination Optimization Model for Trams Based on Modified AM-BAND Sun, 07 Aug 2016 09:24:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5028095/ Modern trams are developing fast because of their characteristics like medium capability and energy saving. Exclusive way is always set in practice to avoid interruption from general vehicles, while trams have to stop at intersections frequently due to signal rules in the road network. Therefore, signal optimization has great effects on operational efficiency of trams system. In this paper, an arterial signal coordination optimization model is proposed for trams progression based on the Asymmetrical Multi-BAND (AM-BAND) method. The AM-BAND is modified from the following aspects. Firstly, BAM-BAND is developed by supplementing active bandwidth constraints to AM-BAND. Assisted by the IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio, two arterial signals plans with eight intersections are achieved from AM-BAND and BAM-BAND for comparison. Secondly, based on the modified BAM-BAND, a BAM-TRAMBAND model is presented, which incorporates three constraints regarding tram operations, including dwell time at stations, active signal priority, and minimum bandwidth value. The case study and VISSIM simulation results show that travel times of trams decrease with signal plan from BAM-TRAMBAND comparing with the original signal plan. Moreover, traffic performance indicators such as stops and delay are improved significantly. Yangfan Zhou, Shunping Jia, Baohua Mao, Tin Kin Ho, and Wei Wei Copyright © 2016 Yangfan Zhou et al. All rights reserved. On Mean Square Stability and Dissipativity of Split-Step Theta Method for Nonlinear Neutral Stochastic Delay Differential Equations Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:28:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7397941/ A split-step theta (SST) method is introduced and used to solve the nonlinear neutral stochastic delay differential equations (NSDDEs). The mean square asymptotic stability of the split-step theta (SST) method for nonlinear neutral stochastic delay differential equations is studied. It is proved that under the one-sided Lipschitz condition and the linear growth condition, the split-step theta method with is asymptotically mean square stable for all positive step sizes, and the split-step theta method with is asymptotically mean square stable for some step sizes. It is also proved in this paper that the split-step theta (SST) method possesses a bounded absorbing set which is independent of initial data, and the mean square dissipativity of this method is also proved. Haiyan Yuan, Jihong Shen, and Cheng Song Copyright © 2016 Haiyan Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Asymptotic Distribution of Isolated Nodes in Secure Wireless Sensor Networks under Transmission Constraints Wed, 03 Aug 2016 14:10:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4319426/ The Eschenauer-Gligor (EG) key predistribution is regarded as a typical approach to secure communication in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we establish asymptotic results about the distribution of isolated nodes and the vanishing small impact of the boundary effect on the number of isolated nodes in WSNs with the EG scheme under transmission constraints. In such networks, nodes are distributed either Poissonly or uniformly over a unit square. The results reported here strengthen recent work by Yi et al. Y. Tang and Q. L. Li Copyright © 2016 Y. Tang and Q. L. Li. All rights reserved. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer under Yield and Demand Uncertainties Wed, 03 Aug 2016 12:16:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8928035/ This paper investigates the channel coordination of a supply chain (SC) consisting of a loss-averse retailer and a risk-neutral supplier under yield and demand uncertainties. Three existing contracts are analyzed. Our results demonstrate that the buyback (BB) and quantity flexibility (QF) contracts can not only coordinate the supply chain but also lead to Pareto improvement for each player, while the wholesale price (WP) contract fails to coordinate the chain due to the effects of double marginalization and risk preference. For comparison, a chain with a risk-neutral retailer is also analyzed. Furthermore, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the coordination contracts, and the impacts of loss aversion and random yield on the decision-making behaviors and system performance are then discussed. Weiwei Luo, Dongguo Shao, Wei Liu, and Zhuomin Wang Copyright © 2016 Weiwei Luo et al. All rights reserved. Modeling the Separating Pedestrian Flow in T-Shaped Passage Based on Guide Sign Wed, 03 Aug 2016 09:32:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5625286/ Considering the actual situation of separating pedestrian flow in T-shaped passage, the guide sign is set to guide the pedestrians and subconscious strength is introduced to show the effect of guide sign. Pedestrian subconscious strength model is established, and the subconscious strength calculation result is added to the pedestrian simulation model which is based on cellular automata. On the platform of MATLAB software, separating pedestrian flow simulation with the effect of guide sign is realized. Simulations indicate that, compared with the separating pedestrian flow without guide sign, the efficiency of pedestrians passing with guide sign is higher. Analyzing the effect of guide sign in different positions, the suitable position of guide sign is obtained. Hong-fei Jia, Yong-xing Li, Li-li Yang, and Ya-nan Zhou Copyright © 2016 Hong-fei Jia et al. All rights reserved. A Dynamic Evolutionary Game Model of Modular Production Network Tue, 02 Aug 2016 14:34:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6425158/ As a new organization mode of production in the 21st century, modular production network is deemed extensively to be a source of competitiveness for lead firms in manufacturing industries. However, despite the abundant studies on the modular production network, there are very few studies from a dynamic perspective to discuss the conditions on which a modular production network develops. Based on the dynamic evolutionary game theory, this paper constructs a model, which incorporates several main factors influencing the development of modular production network. By calculating the replicator dynamics equations and analyzing the evolutionary stable strategies, this paper discusses the evolution process of cooperation strategies of member enterprises in a modular production network. Furthermore, by using NetLogo software to simulate the model, this paper verifies the effectiveness of the model. From the model, we can find that the final stable equilibrium strategy is related to such factors as the initial cost, the extra payoff, the cooperation willingness of both parties, the cooperation efforts, and the proportion each party can get from the extra payoff. To encourage the cooperation of production integrator and modular supplier, some suggestions are also provided. Wei He Copyright © 2016 Wei He. All rights reserved. Simple Motion Pursuit and Evasion Differential Games with Many Pursuers on Manifolds with Euclidean Metric Tue, 02 Aug 2016 05:56:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1386242/ We consider pursuit and evasion differential games of a group of pursuers and one evader on manifolds with Euclidean metric. The motions of all players are simple, and maximal speeds of all players are equal. If the state of a pursuer coincides with that of the evader at some time, we say that pursuit is completed. We establish that each of the differential games (pursuit or evasion) is equivalent to a differential game of groups of countably many pursuers and one group of countably many evaders in Euclidean space. All the players in any of these groups are controlled by one controlled parameter. We find a condition under which pursuit can be completed, and if this condition is not satisfied, then evasion is possible. We construct strategies for the pursuers in pursuit game which ensure completion the game for a finite time and give a formula for this time. In the case of evasion game, we construct a strategy for the evader. Atamurat Kuchkarov, Gafurjan Ibragimov, and Massimiliano Ferrara Copyright © 2016 Atamurat Kuchkarov et al. All rights reserved. Existence and Nonexistence of Positive Solutions for Coupled Riemann-Liouville Fractional Boundary Value Problems Sun, 31 Jul 2016 11:33:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2823971/ We investigate the existence and nonexistence of positive solutions for a system of nonlinear Riemann-Liouville fractional differential equations with two parameters, subject to coupled integral boundary conditions. Johnny Henderson, Rodica Luca, and Alexandru Tudorache Copyright © 2016 Johnny Henderson et al. All rights reserved. Positive Observer Design for Positive Delayed Markovian Jump Systems Sun, 31 Jul 2016 07:55:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8085327/ The positive observer design problem is considered for a class of positive delayed Markovian jump systems (PDMJSs). Firstly, a necessary and sufficient condition is established to check the positivity of delayed Markovian jump systems (DMJSs). Then, necessary and sufficient conditions for PDMJSs being asymptotically mean stable are established to be independent of time delay. Based on the proposed results, sufficient conditions for the existence of the desired positive observer gains including mode-independent case are provided. Additionally, more general cases that transition rate matrix (TRM) is partially unknown or uncertain are considered, respectively. Finally, a numerical example is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Guoliang Wang Copyright © 2016 Guoliang Wang. All rights reserved. New Exact Solutions for the (3+1)-Dimensional Generalized BKP Equation Thu, 28 Jul 2016 14:06:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5420156/ The Wronskian technique is used to investigate a (3+1)-dimensional generalized BKP equation. Based on Hirota’s bilinear form, new exact solutions including rational solutions, soliton solutions, positon solutions, negaton solutions, and their interaction solutions are formally derived. Moreover we analyze the strangely mechanical behavior of the Wronskian determinant solutions. The study of these solutions will enrich the variety of the dynamics of the nonlinear evolution equations. Jun Su and Genjiu Xu Copyright © 2016 Jun Su and Genjiu Xu. All rights reserved. Optimal Investment-Consumption Strategy under Inflation in a Markovian Regime-Switching Market Wed, 27 Jul 2016 14:18:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/9606497/ This paper studies an investment-consumption problem under inflation. The consumption price level, the prices of the available assets, and the coefficient of the power utility are assumed to be sensitive to the states of underlying economy modulated by a continuous-time Markovian chain. The definition of admissible strategies and the verification theory corresponding to this stochastic control problem are presented. The analytical expression of the optimal investment strategy is derived. The existence, boundedness, and feasibility of the optimal consumption are proven. Finally, we analyze in detail by mathematical and numerical analysis how the risk aversion, the correlation coefficient between the inflation and the stock price, the inflation parameters, and the coefficient of utility affect the optimal investment and consumption strategy. Huiling Wu Copyright © 2016 Huiling Wu. All rights reserved. Complete Moment Convergence for Negatively Dependent Sequences of Random Variables Wed, 27 Jul 2016 13:44:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/9039345/ We study the complete moment convergence for sequences of negatively dependent identically distributed random variables with ,  ,  , and ,  . As a result, we establish the new complete moment convergence theorems. Qunying Wu and Yuanying Jiang Copyright © 2016 Qunying Wu and Yuanying Jiang. All rights reserved. A Study of Online Review Promptness in a B2C System Tue, 26 Jul 2016 14:03:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3849153/ Web 2.0 technologies have attracted an increasing number of active online writers and viewers. A deeper understanding of when customers will review and what motivates them to write online reviews is of both theoretical and practical significance. In this paper, we present a novel methodological framework, which consists of theoretical modeling and text-mining technologies, to study the relationships among customers’ review promptness, their review opinions, and their review motivations. We first study customers’ online “purchase-review” behavior dynamics; then, we introduce the LDA method to mine customers’ opinion from their review text; finally, we propose a theoretical model to explore some motivations for those people publishing review online. The analytical and experimental results with real data from a Chinese B2C website demonstrate that the behavior dynamics of customers’ online review are influenced by the multidimensional motivations, and some of them can be observed from their review behaviors, such as review promptness. Junqiang Zhang, Liangqiang Li, and Yu Qian Copyright © 2016 Junqiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Discrete Dynamics in Evolutionary Computation and Its Applications Tue, 26 Jul 2016 06:01:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6043597/ Yong-Hyuk Kim, Ahmed Kattan, Michael Kampouridis, and Yourim Yoon Copyright © 2016 Yong-Hyuk Kim et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics of a Seasonally Forced Phytoplankton-Zooplankton Model with Impulsive Biological Control Mon, 25 Jul 2016 13:12:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2560195/ This paper investigates the dynamics of a seasonally forced phytoplankton-zooplankton model with impulsive biological control. It shows that the periodic eradicated solution is unstable. Further, the condition for permanence of the system is established by relations between the model parameters and the intensity of the impulses. The numerical analysis is performed to study the effect of seasonality and impulsive perturbations on plankton dynamics. The numerical results imply that the seasonal forcing can trigger more periodic mode and the impulsive period for control of the size of phytoplankton is more practicable to the system than the impulsive release of zooplankton. These conclusions provide a better understanding of controlling harmful algae blooms. Jianglin Zhao and Yong Yan Copyright © 2016 Jianglin Zhao and Yong Yan. All rights reserved. Unilateral Global Bifurcation for Fourth-Order Problems and Its Applications Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:56:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8457098/ We will establish unilateral global bifurcation result for a class of fourth-order problems. Under some natural hypotheses on perturbation function, we show that is a bifurcation point of the above problems and there are two distinct unbounded continua, and , consisting of the bifurcation branch from , where is the th eigenvalue of the linear problem corresponding to the above problems. As the applications of the above result, we study the existence of nodal solutions for the following problems: , , where is a parameter and are given constants; with on any subinterval of ; and is continuous with for We give the intervals for the parameter which ensure the existence of nodal solutions for the above fourth-order Dirichlet problems if or where and We use unilateral global bifurcation techniques and the approximation of connected components to prove our main results. Wenguo Shen Copyright © 2016 Wenguo Shen. All rights reserved. Simulating the Effects of Noncrossing Block Sections Setting Rules on Capacity Loss of Double-Track Railway Line due to the Operation of out-of-Gauge Trains Mon, 25 Jul 2016 06:55:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2319437/ Dispatchers often set noncrossing block sections (NCBSs) for railway out-of-gauge train (OGT) running on double-track railway line for safety reasons. In this paper, we will investigate the best location, length, and number of noncrossing block sections to reduce railway capacity loss due to the operation of OGTs. Firstly, yielding, overtaking, stopping, starting, and other operation rules for OGTs running on double-track railway line were designed, and a simulation model based on cellular automata was further put forward. Then, an assessment model for double-track railway line capacity loss due to the operation of OGTs was set up. Some simulation experiments and the comparisons of these results were further given to achieve the optimal setting of NCBS for OGTs running on double-track railway line. In the case of NCBSs number minus one, capacity loss caused by the operation of OGTs can be reduced up to 15.2% in the upstream direction and 6.3% in the downstream direction. Also, the NCBSs should lie at the nearest block sections (BSs) to depot stations and the NCBSs lengths should be as less as possible. Yinggui Zhang, Qiong-fang Zeng, Dingyou Lei, and Xinyu Wang Copyright © 2016 Yinggui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Analysis for a Fractional-Order Autonomous Chaotic System Thu, 21 Jul 2016 12:36:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8712496/ We introduce a discretization process to discretize a modified fractional-order optically injected semiconductor lasers model and investigate its dynamical behaviors. More precisely, a sufficient condition for the existence and uniqueness of the solution is obtained, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of stability of the discrete system are investigated. The results show that the system’s fractional parameter has an effect on the stability of the discrete system, and the system has rich dynamic characteristics such as Hopf bifurcation, attractor crisis, and chaotic attractors. Jiangang Zhang, Juan Nan, Wenju Du, Yandong Chu, and Hongwei Luo Copyright © 2016 Jiangang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. P2P Lending Risk Contagion Analysis Based on a Complex Network Model Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:58:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5013954/ This paper analyzes two major channels of P2P lending risk contagion in China—direct risk contagion between platforms and indirect risk contagion with other financial organizations as the contagion medium. Based on this analysis, the current study constructs a complex network model of P2P lending risk contagion in China and performs dynamics analogue simulations in order to analyze general characteristics of direct risk contagion among China’s online P2P lending platforms. The assumed conditions are that other financial organizations act as the contagion medium, with variations in the risk contagion characteristics set under the condition of significant information asymmetry in Internet lending. It is indicated that, compared to direct risk contagion among platforms, both financial organizations acting as the contagion medium and information asymmetry magnify the effect of risk contagion. It is also found that the superposition of media effects and information asymmetry is more likely to magnify the risk contagion effect. Qi Wei and Qiang Zhang Copyright © 2016 Qi Wei and Qiang Zhang. All rights reserved. Differential Dynamic Evolutionary Model of Emergency Financial Service Supply Chain in Natural Disaster Risk Management Wed, 20 Jul 2016 13:42:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5103716/ A government-market-public partnership (GMPP) could be a feasible arrangement for providing insurance coverage for natural disaster. Firstly, we put forward GMPP management mode. Secondly, the emergency financial service supply chain for natural disaster risk is built from the view of supply chain. Finally, the objective of this paper is to obtain insights into the cooperative and competitive relationship in GMPP system. We establish the cooperative and competitive differential dynamic evolutionary models and prove the existence of equilibrium solutions in order to solve the coordination problems. In conclusion, the equilibrium solutions can be achieved among the insurers, the operating governments, and the public. Shujian Ma Copyright © 2016 Shujian Ma. All rights reserved.