Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Multilevel Comprehensive Evaluation and Decision Making of Ergonomics Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:40:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/689203/ Due to the improvement of living standards, higher level of ergonomic performance is required for the products. As a result, the ergonomic evaluation has become one of the key points in the decisions making of modern products, especially the complex products. Aiming at improving the situation that the methods for ergonomic evaluation and decision making are one-sided and discrete, this paper proposed several methods for measuring multiply factors and data format of products and built a comprehensive evaluation and decision making system. In this system, the data supplied by soft hardware and specialists were calculated separately to gain the preliminary scores, and the preliminary scores were processed to get the final results for the decision making using the AHP-GRA analytic hierarchy process-gray relational analysis method proposed in this paper. Wen-jun Wang, Sui-huai Yu, Shu-xia Wang, Junxuan Chen, and Li Deng Copyright © 2015 Wen-jun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Approximation of a Class of Incompressible Third Grade Fluids Equations Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:05:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/627584/ This paper discusses the approximation of weak solutions for a class of incompressible third grade fluids equations. We first introduce a family of perturbed slightly compressible third grade fluids equations (depending on a positive parameter ) which approximate the incompressible equations as . Then we prove the existence and uniqueness of weak solutions for the slightly compressible equations and establish that the solutions of the slightly compressible equations converge to the solutions of the incompressible equations. Zeqi Zhu, Hongxia Li, Jianjun Fu, and Qian Sheng Copyright © 2015 Zeqi Zhu et al. All rights reserved. On Factorizations of Upper Triangular Nonnegative Matrices of Order Three Sun, 29 Mar 2015 13:42:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/960182/ Let denote the semigroup of upper triangular matrices with nonnegative integral-valued entries. In this paper, we investigate factorizations of upper triangular nonnegative matrices of order three. Firstly, we characterize the atoms of the subsemigroup of the matrices in with nonzero determinant and give some formulas. As a consequence, problems 4a and 4c presented by Baeth et al. (2011) are each half-answered for the case . And then, we consider some factorization cases of matrix in with and give formulas for the minimum factorization length of some special matrices in . Yi-Zhi Chen Copyright © 2015 Yi-Zhi Chen. All rights reserved. Discrete Dynamics in Transportation System 2014 Thu, 26 Mar 2015 09:12:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/830896/ Wuhong Wang, Geert Wets, Heiner Bubb, and Yongjun Shen Copyright © 2015 Wuhong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Market Share Delegation in a Bertrand Duopoly: Synchronisation and Multistability Thu, 26 Mar 2015 09:00:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/394810/ This paper tackles the issue of local and global analyses of a duopoly game with price competition and market share delegation. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a differentiable two-dimensional discrete time system. The paper stresses the importance of complementarity between products as a source of synchronisation in the long term, in contrast to the case of their substitutability. This means that when products are complements, players may coordinate their behaviour even if initial conditions are different. In addition, there exist multiple attractors so that even starting with similar conditions may end up generating very different dynamic patterns. Luciano Fanti, Luca Gori, Cristiana Mammana, and Elisabetta Michetti Copyright © 2015 Luciano Fanti et al. All rights reserved. Recent Advances in Scheduling and Its Applications Wed, 25 Mar 2015 12:33:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/738637/ Peng Liu, Hua Gong, Baoqiang Fan, Radoslaw Rudek, Purushothaman Damodaran, and Guochun Tang Copyright © 2015 Peng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Research on Safety and Static-Dynamic Legibility of Distressed Pavement Wed, 25 Mar 2015 07:27:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/235974/ In order to study the impacts of distressed pavement on driving safety, the drivers’ driving behavior and driving characteristics need to be analyzed. By analyzing the drivers’ characteristics, driving behavior’ and braking characteristics of vehicles, relation between static legibility distance of the distressed pavement under different driving conditions and dynamic legibility distance during driving is revealed via statistical analysis. The relation between vehicle speeds, braking performance, and the minimum safety legibility distance is developed. The recommended static legibility distances for different speed limits are proposed, which would be useful to improve the driving safety under adverse road conditions. Chengyuan Mao, Yiming Bie, Yulong Pei, and Weiwei Qi Copyright © 2015 Chengyuan Mao et al. All rights reserved. Research on Stability Control Based on the Wheel Speed Difference for the AT Vehicles Tue, 24 Mar 2015 09:26:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/251207/ This paper utilizes a linear two-degree-of-freedom vehicle model to calculate the nominal value of the vehicle’s nondrive-wheel speed difference and investigates methods of estimating the yaw acceleration and sideslip angular speed. A vehicular dynamic stability control system utilizing this nondrive-wheel speed difference is then developed, which can effectively improve a vehicle’s dynamic stability at a very low cost. Vehicle cornering processes on roads of different frictions and with different vehicle speeds are explored via simulation, with speed control being applied when vehicle speed is high enough to make the vehicle unstable. Driving simulator tests of vehicle cornering capacity on roads of different friction coefficients are also conducted. Hui Jin and Shijie Li Copyright © 2015 Hui Jin and Shijie Li. All rights reserved. A Modified Nature Publishing Index via Shannon Entropy Tue, 24 Mar 2015 07:26:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/640924/ This paper develops a Shannon Entropy approach based only on the number of papers published to propose scientific institution rankings. A simple and efficient approach with weight restrictions is employed to derive the score under specific preferences. The importance degrees for each preference are determined using the concept of Shannon Entropy. Finally, a weighted linear combination of different lexicographic preferences with subjective perceptions between the corrected count and the number of articles criteria is proposed. An application to Asia-Pacific ranking of the Nature Publishing Index is to illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed method. Yelin Fu, Ming Wang, and Kin Keung Lai Copyright © 2015 Yelin Fu et al. All rights reserved. Estimating Vehicle Stability Region Based on Energy Function Tue, 24 Mar 2015 06:18:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/805063/ In order to improve the deficiency of vehicle stability region, according to vehicle nonlinear dynamic model, method of estimating vehicle spatial stability region was proposed. With Pacejka magic formula tire model, nonlinear 3DOF vehicle model was deduced and verified though vehicle test. Detailed detecting system and data processing were introduced. In addition, stability of the vehicle system was discussed using Hurwitz criterion. By establishing energy function for vehicle system, the vehicle’s stability region in 20 m/s was estimated based on Lyapunov theorem and vehicle system characteristics. Vehicle test in the same condition shows that the calculated stability region defined by Lyapunov and system stability theorem has good effect on characterized vehicle stability and it could be a valuable reference for vehicle stability evaluation. Yu-guang Yan, Hong-guo Xu, and Hong-fei Liu Copyright © 2015 Yu-guang Yan et al. All rights reserved. An Experimental Study on Lateral Acceleration of Cars in Different Environments in Sichuan, Southwest China Mon, 23 Mar 2015 11:09:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/494130/ In view of the tremendous improvements in the dynamic performance of automobiles and changes in the composition of drivers over the past several decades, it is valuable to examine the distribution of automobile’s lateral acceleration in new environments. The lateral accelerations, speeds, and trajectory curvatures of a passenger car on twelve highways with different design speeds and topographies were obtained. By synchronizing, matching, and counting, the distribution of the lateral acceleration was obtained, and the level of driving comfort was estimated. The , , , , and percentile values of the lateral acceleration on three road types (six-lane road, four-lane road, and two-lane road) were found. Combined with scatter diagrams of the lateral acceleration over the curvature, the negative correlation between the lateral acceleration and the curvature was analyzed and interpreted. In addition, regression models of the lateral acceleration with the curvature for the three kinds of roads were established. Based on scatter diagrams of the lateral acceleration over the speed, regression models of the average depending on the speed and the percentile depending on the speed of passenger cars and buses were established. The research provides calculation parameters and a control basis for operating speed prediction, pavement material design, and maximum and minimum limit value determination for the superelevation ratios and curve radii. Jin Xu, Kui Yang, YiMing Shao, and GongYuan Lu Copyright © 2015 Jin Xu et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Competition and Cooperation of Road Infrastructure Investment of Multiple Tourism Destinations: A Case Study of Xidi and Hongcun World Cultural Heritage Mon, 23 Mar 2015 08:27:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/962028/ The transportation infrastructure always plays an important role in the development of the local tourism. A system dynamics method incorporated with a destination choice model is proposed in this paper to analyze the dynamic impacts of transportation infrastructure on the tourism development, where multiple tourism destinations share a common market. Tourists’ destination choice behaviors are characterized by a multinomial logit choice model based on the utility of destinations, which depends heavily on the accessibility of destinations that the local administration has strong willingness to improve. The system dynamics method is used to model dynamic interactions among destinations and to simulate the dynamic evolution of the competition on the tourism market. A case study of the World Cultural Heritage Sites, Xidi and Hongcun villages, shows the competition for road infrastructure investment can produce a win-win situation and bring the cooperation on investment due to the positive externality of transport infrastructure and two villages show a tendency to merge into one bigger destination. Finally, the tourism development strategies for two villages are discussed based on the scenario analysis. Jun Li, Wenna Zhang, Honggang Xu, and Jie Jiang Copyright © 2015 Jun Li et al. All rights reserved. Merrifield-Simmons Index in Random Phenylene Chains and Random Hexagon Chains Mon, 23 Mar 2015 08:25:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/568926/ The author obtains explicit expressions for the expected value of the Merrifield-Simmons index of a random phenylene chain and a random hexagon chain, respectively. The author also computes the corresponding entropy constants and obtains the maximum and minimum values in both random systems, respectively. Ailian Chen Copyright © 2015 Ailian Chen. All rights reserved. Urban Freight Management with Stochastic Time-Dependent Travel Times and Application to Large-Scale Transportation Networks Mon, 23 Mar 2015 07:24:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/914309/ This paper addressed the vehicle routing problem (VRP) in large-scale urban transportation networks with stochastic time-dependent (STD) travel times. The subproblem which is how to find the optimal path connecting any pair of customer nodes in a STD network was solved through a robust approach without requiring the probability distributions of link travel times. Based on that, the proposed STD-VRP model can be converted into solving a normal time-dependent VRP (TD-VRP), and algorithms for such TD-VRPs can also be introduced to obtain the solution. Numerical experiments were conducted to address STD-VRPTW of practical sizes on a real world urban network, demonstrated here on the road network of Shenzhen, China. The stochastic time-dependent link travel times of the network were calibrated by historical floating car data. A route construction algorithm was applied to solve the STD problem in 4 delivery scenarios efficiently. The computational results showed that the proposed STD-VRPTW model can improve the level of customer service by satisfying the time-window constraint under any circumstances. The improvement can be very significant especially for large-scale network delivery tasks with no more increase in cost and environmental impacts. Shichao Sun, Zhengyu Duan, and Dongyuan Yang Copyright © 2015 Shichao Sun et al. All rights reserved. Route Choice in Subway Station during Morning Peak Hours: A Case of Guangzhou Subway Mon, 23 Mar 2015 07:06:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/151434/ This paper is aimed at crowding phenomenon in the subway. As passengers are inclined to choose the route with minimum disutility, we put forward a route choice model which is constructed to achieve minimum objective function of feasibility for the optimal solution. Meanwhile we set passenger volume threshold values according to capacity of facilities. In the case of actual capacity exceeding the threshold, the decision node of constrained route will be selected; computing procedure about searching decision points will be presented. Then we should set rational restrictions at the decision node of the minimum utility function route to prevent too many passengers’ access to platform. Through certification, this series of methods can effectively ensure the safety of the station efficient operation. Jie Xu, Yao Ning, Heng Wei, Wei Xie, Jianyuan Guo, Limin Jia, and Yong Qin Copyright © 2015 Jie Xu et al. All rights reserved. Development and Evaluation of Bus Operation Control System Based on Cooperative Speed Guidance Sun, 22 Mar 2015 14:15:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/928350/ Buses often have strong bunching or large interval tendency when traveling further along the route. To restrain this further deterioration of operation service, this paper developed a bus operation control system to dynamically adjust bus speed, bus dwell time, and traffic signal timings along the running path. In addition, a simulation platform was developed to evaluate the proposed control system with the actual data collected from bus route number 210 in Shanghai. The simulation results show that the proposed control system can mitigate the amplification trend of the headway deviation along the route to produce headways within a given tolerance. Jing Teng and Weimin Jin Copyright © 2015 Jing Teng and Weimin Jin. All rights reserved. Research on Congestion Pricing in Multimode Traffic considering Delay and Emission Sun, 22 Mar 2015 13:10:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/769251/ Rapid development of urbanization and automation has resulted in serious urban traffic congestion and air pollution problems in many Chinese cities recently. As a traffic demand management strategy, congestion pricing is acknowledged to be effective in alleviating the traffic congestion and improving the efficiency of traffic system. This paper proposes an urban traffic congestion pricing model based on the consideration of transportation network efficiency and environment effects. First, the congestion pricing problem under multimode (i.e., car mode and bus mode) urban traffic network condition is investigated. Second, a traffic congestion pricing model based on bilevel programming is formulated for a dual-mode urban transportation network, in which the delay and emission of vehicles are considered. Third, an improved mathematical algorithm combining successive average method with the genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the bilevel programming problem. Finally, a numerical experiment based on a hypothetical network is performed to validate the proposed congestion pricing model and algorithm. Hongna Dai, Enjian Yao, and Rui Zhao Copyright © 2015 Hongna Dai et al. All rights reserved. Distributed Dynamic Traffic Modeling and Implementation Oriented Different Levels of Induced Travelers Sun, 22 Mar 2015 12:32:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/642389/ In order to respond to the variable state of traffic network in time, a distributed dynamic traffic assignment strategy is proposed which can improve the intelligent traffic management. The proposed dynamic assignment method is based on utility theory and is oriented to different levels of induced users. A distributed model based on the marginal utility is developed which combines the advantages of both decentralized paradigm and traveler preference, so as to provide efficient and robust dynamic traffic assignment solutions under uncertain network conditions. Then, the solution algorithm including subroute update and subroute calculation is proposed. To testify the effectiveness of the proposed model in optimizing traffic network operation and minimizing traveler’s cost on different induced levels, a sequence numerical experiment is conducted. In the experiment, there are two test environments: one is in different network load conditions and the other is in different deployment coverage of local agents. The numerical results show that the proposed model not only can improve the running efficiency of road network but also can significantly decrease the average travel time. Yan Liu and Yao Yu Copyright © 2015 Yan Liu and Yao Yu. All rights reserved. Discrimination of Effects between Directional and Nondirectional Information of Auditory Warning on Driving Behavior Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:10:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/980281/ This study examines the impacts of directional and nondirectional auditory warning information in a collision warning system (CWS) on driving behavior. The data on driving behavior is collected through experiment, with scenarios containing unexpected hazard events that include different warning content. As drivers approached the collision event, either a CWS auditory warning was given or no warning was given for a reference group. Discriminant analysis was used to investigate the relationship between directional auditory warning information and driving behavior. In the experiment, the CWS warnings significantly reduced brake reaction time and prompted drivers to press the brake pedal more heavily, demonstrating the effectiveness of CWS warnings in alerting drivers to avoid red-light running (RLR) vehicles when approaching a signalized intersection. Providing a clear warning with directional information about an urgent hazard event could give drivers adequate time to prepare for the potential collision. In terms of deceleration, a directional information warning was shown to greatly help drivers react to critical events at signalized intersections with more moderate braking. From these results, requirements can be derived for the design of effective warning strategies for critical intersections. Yuting Zhang, Xuedong Yan, and Zhuo Yang Copyright © 2015 Yuting Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Estimating the Capacity of Urban Transportation Networks with an Improved Sensitivity Based Method Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:50:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/827094/ The throughput of a given transportation network is always of interest to the traffic administrative department, so as to evaluate the benefit of the transportation construction or expansion project before its implementation. The model of the transportation network capacity formulated as a mathematic programming with equilibrium constraint (MPEC) well defines this problem. For practical applications, a modified sensitivity analysis based (SAB) method is developed to estimate the solution of this bilevel model. The high-efficient origin-based (OB) algorithm is extended for the precise solution of the combined model which is integrated in the network capacity model. The sensitivity analysis approach is also modified to simplify the inversion of the Jacobian matrix in large-scale problems. The solution produced in every iteration of SAB is restrained to be feasible to guarantee the success of the heuristic search. From the numerical experiments, the accuracy of the derivatives for the linear approximation could significantly affect the converging of the SAB method. The results also show that the proposed method could obtain good suboptimal solutions from different starting points in the test examples. Muqing Du, Xiaowei Jiang, and Lin Cheng Copyright © 2015 Muqing Du et al. All rights reserved. Choice Model and Influencing Factor Analysis of Travel Mode for Migrant Workers: Case Study in Xi’an, China Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:35:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/236216/ Based on the basic theory and methods of disaggregate choice model, the influencing factors in travel mode choice for migrant workers are analyzed, according to 1366 data samples of Xi’an migrant workers. Walking, bus, subway, and taxi are taken as the alternative parts of travel modes for migrant workers, and a multinomial logit (MNL) model of travel mode for migrant workers is set up. The validity of the model is verified by the hit rate, and the hit rates of four travel modes are all greater than 80%. Finally, the influence of different factors affecting the choice of travel mode is analyzed in detail, and the inelasticity of each factor is analyzed with the elasticity theory. Influencing factors such as age, education level, and monthly gross income have significant impact on travel choice mode for migrant workers. The elasticity values of education degree are greater than 1, indicating that it on the travel mode choice is of elasticity, while the elasticity values of gender, industry distribution, and travel purpose are less than 1, indicating that these factors on travel mode choice are of inelasticity. Hong Chen, Zuo-xian Gan, and Yu-ting He Copyright © 2015 Hong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:24:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/415237/ This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012) of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1) most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direction of traffic, inattentive driving, and drunk driving; (2) e-bike riders with lower educational background tended to perform illegal or inattentive driving behaviors in fatal crashes; (3) most drivers were not found to commit any faults and very few drivers were found to commit drunk driving offences; (4) most nighttime fatal crashes were related to absence of street lightings; (5) heavy good vehicles (HGVs) and small passenger cars were the two vehicle types that were mostly involved in the e-bike fatal crashes. This study provides useful information that can help traffic engineers better understand e-bike safety in China and develop safety countermeasures. Linjun Lu, Chen Wang, and Tao Wang Copyright © 2015 Linjun Lu et al. All rights reserved. A Reliability-Based Analysis of Bicyclist Red-Light Running Behavior at Urban Intersections Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/794080/ This paper describes the red-light running behavior of bicyclists at urban intersections based on reliability analysis approach. Bicyclists’ crossing behavior was collected by video recording. Four proportional hazard models by the Cox, exponential, Weibull, and Gompertz distributions were proposed to analyze the covariate effects on safety crossing reliability. The influential variables include personal characteristics, movement information, and situation factors. The results indicate that the Cox hazard model gives the best description of bicyclists’ red-light running behavior. Bicyclists’ safety crossing reliabilities decrease as their waiting times increase. There are about 15.5% of bicyclists with negligible waiting times, who are at high risk of red-light running and very low safety crossing reliabilities. The proposed reliability models can capture the covariates’ effects on bicyclists’ crossing behavior at signalized intersections. Both personal characteristics and traffic conditions have significant effects on bicyclists’ safety crossing reliability. A bicyclist is more likely to have low safety crossing reliability and high violation risk when more riders are crossing against the red light, and they wait closer to the motorized lane. These findings provide valuable insights in understanding bicyclists’ violation behavior; and their implications in assessing bicyclists’ safety crossing reliability were discussed. Mei Huan and Xiaobao Yang Copyright © 2015 Mei Huan and Xiaobao Yang. All rights reserved. Fault Diagnosis of Train Axle Box Bearing Based on Multifeature Parameters Sun, 22 Mar 2015 09:02:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/846918/ Failure of the train axle box bearing will cause great loss. Now, condition-based maintenance of train axle box bearing has been a research hotspot around the world. Vibration signals generated by train axle box bearing have nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics. The methods used in traditional bearing fault diagnosis do not work well with the train axle box. To solve this problem, an effective method of axle box bearing fault diagnosis based on multifeature parameters is presented in this paper. This method can be divided into three parts, namely, weak fault signal extraction, feature extraction, and fault recognition. In the first part, a db4 wavelet is employed for denoising the original signals from the vibration sensors. In the second part, five time-domain parameters, five IMF energy-torque features, and two amplitude-ratio features are extracted. The latter seven frequency domain features are calculated based on the empirical mode decomposition and envelope spectrum analysis. In the third part, a fault classifier based on BP neural network is designed for automatic fault pattern recognition. A series of tests are carried out to verify the proposed method, which show that the accuracy is above 90%. Xiaofeng Li, Limin Jia, and Xin Yang Copyright © 2015 Xiaofeng Li et al. All rights reserved. Multimodal Transport System Coevolution Model Based on Synergetic Theory Sun, 22 Mar 2015 08:59:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/108926/ This study investigates multimodal transport system evolution law with the consideration of synergetic theory. Compared with previous studies, this paper focuses on understanding influencing factors of system collaborative development. In particular, we have applied a multimodal system order parameter model to obtain the order parameter. Based on order parameters, the coevolution equations of the multimodal transport system are constructed with consideration of cooperation and competitive relationship between the subsystems. We set out the multimodal system followed the coevolution law of the freight system and dominated by the combined effects of order parameter line length and freight density. The results show that the coordination effects between railway, road, and water subsystems are stronger than aviation subsystem; the railway system is the short plank of the system. Some functional implications from this study are also discussed. Finally the results indicate that expansion of railway system capacity and mutual cooperation within the subsystems are required to reach an optimal multimodal transport system. Fenling Feng and Qingya Zhang Copyright © 2015 Fenling Feng and Qingya Zhang. All rights reserved. Study on a Stratified Sampling Investigation Method for Resident Travel and the Sampling Rate Sun, 22 Mar 2015 08:56:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/496179/ This text first dissected the relationship between average travel frequency, trip mode structure, and the characteristics of residential areas. The results showed that conducting a stratified resident travel investigation in accordance with the characteristics of residential areas will yield samples with much smaller differences and reduce the investigation sampling rate. Accordingly, a new type of resident travel investigation method was put forward based on the above ideas. The stratified sampling rate formula and the sampling rate of each layer have been derived in detail according to Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistical Methods. Finally, for the main urban area of Kunshan City in Jiangsu province, China, we discussed the reasonable values of parameters in the formulas and obtained sampling rates for travel surveys in different residential areas. Theory and case studies illustrated the operability of this method and its advantages compared to random sampling. Fei Shi Copyright © 2015 Fei Shi. All rights reserved. Analysis of Drivers’ Eye-Movement Characteristics When Driving around Curves Sun, 22 Mar 2015 08:55:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/462792/ To investigate drivers’ visual strategies and the distribution of fixation points, much work had been done and salient conclusions had been drawn. However, there is still no consensus on what the gaze target is and what functional significance the point might have. To improve theories on this subject, research was done to investigate drivers’ visual characteristics. On-road experiment was carried out, and drivers’ eye-movement and vehicle driving parameters were registered when driving around left- and right-hand curves. The results showed that drivers’ gaze direction fluctuates around the reference axis, and the fixation points are distributed in the region centered on the horizontal gaze position rather than a particular point that has geographical meanings. With the consideration of the traffic rules in China, we suggest here that there is no particular point on which drivers concentrate. Any point or position that could indicate the bend’s curvature could be the so-called target point. Drivers just want to operate their vehicle so as to pass through bends safely in a comfortable and labor-saving way. Yuan-yuan Ren, Xian-sheng Li, Xue-lian Zheng, Zhe Li, and Qi-chao Zhao Copyright © 2015 Yuan-yuan Ren et al. All rights reserved. A Fault Tolerance Optimization Model of the China Railway Geographic Network Topological Structure Sun, 22 Mar 2015 08:52:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/871074/ With degree distribution characteristics of the China Railway geographic network, an optimization model from macro to micro is established on the relative entropy. Firstly, Poisson distribution of the China Railway geographic network is verified and fitted. Secondly, the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” of the railway geographic network is chosen as an example on which a macro model is built. Finally, the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” of Guangzhou Railway Group’s geographic network is chosen as the other example on which a micro model is built and our optimization scheme is proposed. Results reveal that, for improving the railway network fault tolerance, from the macroscopic aspect the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” railway network should strengthen the railway agglomeration degree; then the microscopic optimization model is able to improve the fault tolerance effectively. Fenling Feng, Ziwen Tang, and Lei Wang Copyright © 2015 Fenling Feng et al. All rights reserved. Driving Risk Affected Areas and Distribution Function of Sharp Horizontal Curves of Expressway Sun, 22 Mar 2015 08:42:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/208564/ The average death and injury intensity on sharp horizontal curves (SHCs) are much higher than those of straight sections of the expressway in China. In this paper, the statistics of crashes from 2008 to 2012 on 2200 km expressways in Guangdong province are collected, and the relationships between the radius of plane curves and the crash rate are analyzed. After that, the curved expressway section with radius equal to or less than 1000 m is defined as SHCs. According to the results of the test of the operating speed, the heart rate change of drivers, and the vehicle acceleration, the distribution patterns of driving risks on the certain SHCs were theoretically analyzed. Hence, the driving risk affected areas on adjacent line units of SHCs are determined as 200 m sections before entering or after exiting the SHCs. Combining with surveyed data, the spatial distribution of crashes on SHCs is analyzed, and the driving risk distribution function of SHCs in expressway is finally deduced. The result of this research provides a theoretical basis to enhance expressway safety management and to improve the driving safety on SHCs. Xiao-fei Wang, Xin-wei Li, Ying Yan, and Xin-sha Fu Copyright © 2015 Xiao-fei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Establishment of Track Quality Index Standard Recommendations for Beijing Metro Thu, 19 Mar 2015 16:30:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2015/473830/ Since 2007, Beijing Metro started to use track geometry car to measure quality of its tracks under wheel loading conditions. The track quality measurement data from the track geometry car were only used to assess local track quality by means of scoring 1000 m long track segments based on track exceptions. Track quality management experience of national railroads of China shows that, in addition to local track quality assessment, an overall track quality assessment method should be employed. The paper presented research results funded by Road Administration of Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport. The paper proposed an overall track quality assessment method for Beijing Metro and determined the overall track quality standards by means of a statistical method which was proposed in the paper. The standards are necessary for the proposed method to be applied and have been approved by Road Administration of Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport and put into practice. Reng-Kui Liu, Peng Xu, Zhuang-Zhi Sun, Ce Zou, and Quan-Xin Sun Copyright © 2015 Reng-Kui Liu et al. All rights reserved.