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Disease Markers
Volume 27 (2009), Issue 3-4, Pages 157-172
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/DMA-2009-0657

suPAR: The Molecular Crystal Ball

Maria Thunø,1 Betina Macho,1 and Jesper Eugen-Olsen2

1Virogates A/S, blokken 45, DK-3460 Birkerød, Denmark
2Clinical Research Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre hospital, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark

Received 28 October 2009; Accepted 28 October 2009

Copyright © 2009 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

soluble urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor (suPAR) levels reflect inflammation and elevated suPAR levels are found in several infectious diseases and cancer. suPAR exists in three forms; suPARI-III, suPARII-III and suPARI which show different properties due to structural differences. Studies suggest that full-length suPAR is a regulator of uPAR/uPA by acting as uPA-scavenger, whereas the cleaved suPARII-III act as a chemotactic agent promoting the immune response via the SRSRY sequence in the linker-region. This review focus on the various suPAR fragments and their involvement in inflammation and pathogenic processes. We focus on the molecular mechanisms of the suPAR fragments and the link to the inflammatory process, as this could lead to medical applications in infectious and pathological conditions.