Disease Markers http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Chemokine Coreceptor-2 Gene Polymorphisms among HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Kenya Sun, 02 Aug 2015 16:06:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/952067/ Chemokine Coreceptor-2 (CCR2) is an entry coreceptor for HIV-1. A mutation in the coding gene for this coreceptor, CCR2-64I, has been shown to be an important factor for delaying disease progression. In Kenya no studies have been done to determine the status of CCR2 gene polymorphisms among HIV-1 infected individuals. To determine the existence and distribution of CCR2 gene mutations and identify polymorphic groups of the coreceptor gene in the population, a cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze the differences in allelic frequencies of CCR2-64I among HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Blood samples were collected from HIV/AIDS screening centers and analyzed for the presence of CCR2-64I using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). One hundred and eighteen samples collected from different regions of the country were genotyped for the CCR2-64I mutation. Of these, 4 (3.4%) were homozygous mutants (I/I) and 21 (17.8%) were heterozygous (V/I). Ninety-three subjects (78.8%) were wild type (V/V). With the search for a preventive/therapeutic HIV vaccine elusive, the presence of CCR-2 gene polymorphisms that delay disease progression and prolong the lives of the infected in the Kenyan population may contribute to the growing evidence that host genetic factors are important in predicting susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Dorcas Wachira, Raphael Lihana, Vincent Okoth, Alex Maiyo, and Samoel Ashimosi Khamadi Copyright © 2015 Dorcas Wachira et al. All rights reserved. The Clinical and Pathological Significance of Nectin-2 and DDX3 Expression in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas Thu, 30 Jul 2015 11:46:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/379568/ Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly malignant disease, but the genetic basis of PDAC is still unclear. In this study, Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression in 106 PDAC, 35 peritumoral tissues, 55 benign pancreatic lesions, and 13 normal pancreatic tissues were measured by immunohistochemical methods. Results showed that the percentage of positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression was significantly higher in PDAC tumors than in peritumoral tissues, benign pancreatic tissues, and normal pancreatic tissues (). The percentage of cases with positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression was significantly lower in PDAC patients without lymph node metastasis and invasion and having TNM stage I/II disease than in patients with lymph node metastasis, invasion, and TNM stage III/IV disease ( or ). Positive DDX3 expression is associated with poor differentiation of PDAC. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression were significantly associated with survival in PDAC patients (). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression were independent poor prognosis factors in PDAC patients. In conclusion, positive Nectin-2 and DDX3 expression are associated with the progression and poor prognosis in PDAC patients. Shan Liang, Zhulin Yang, Daiqiang Li, Xiongying Miao, Leping Yang, Qiong Zou, and Yuan Yuan Copyright © 2015 Shan Liang et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “The Analysis of Sialylation, N-Glycan Branching, and Expression of O-Glycans in Seminal Plasma of Infertile Men” Wed, 29 Jul 2015 13:24:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/652781/ Ewa M. Kratz, Anna Kałuża, Mariusz Zimmer, and Mirosława Ferens-Sieczkowska Copyright © 2015 Ewa M. Kratz et al. All rights reserved. Carboxyhemoglobin Formation in Preterm Infants Is Related to the Subsequent Development of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Wed, 29 Jul 2015 06:40:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/620921/ Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) levels as a biomarker to predict the development and severity of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Methods. Twenty-five infants born at <33 wk of gestational age or with a birth weight of <1,500 g were enrolled. CO-Hb levels were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8, 12 and 15, 19 and 22, and 26 and 29. Urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), advanced oxidation protein products, and Nε-(hexanoyl) lysine were measured between postnatal days 5 and 8 and 26 and 29. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the biomarkers’ predictive values. Results. Compared with infants in the no-or-mild BPD group, infants with moderate-to-severe BPD exhibited higher CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period and higher 8-OHdG levels between postnatal days 5 and 8. Using ROC analysis to predict the development of moderate-to-severe BPD, the area under the curve (AUC) for CO-Hb levels between postnatal days 5 and 8 was higher than AUCs for the urinary markers. Conclusions. CO-Hb levels during the early postnatal period may serve as a practical marker for evaluating oxidative stress and the severity of subsequently developing BPD. Shuko Tokuriki, Takashi Okuno, Genrei Ohta, and Yusei Ohshima Copyright © 2015 Shuko Tokuriki et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction Sun, 26 Jul 2015 14:08:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/260101/ Objective. Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism) factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. Results. We identified (32.4%) 4G/4G, (49.5%) 4G/5G, and (18.1%) 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009–2.718, ). Conclusions. Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes. Tajinder Kumar Parpugga, Vacis Tatarunas, Vilius Skipskis, Nora Kupstyte, Diana Zaliaduonyte-Peksiene, and Vaiva Lesauskaite Copyright © 2015 Tajinder Kumar Parpugga et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Value of FOXM1 in Patients with Malignant Solid Tumor: A Meta-Analysis and System Review Wed, 22 Jul 2015 13:12:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/352478/ Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), a member of the Fox transcription factors family, was closely related with cell cycle. FOXM1 played an important role in MST and prompted a poor prognosis for MST patients. However, there were also some studies revealing no significant association between the FOXM1 expression and prognosis of patients. Therefore, we conducted meta-analysis to investigate whether the expression of FOXM1 was associated with MST prognosis. We collected 36 relevant studies through PubMed database and obtained research data of 4946 patients. Stata 12.0 was used to express the results as hazard ratio (HR) for time-to-event outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). It was shown that overexpression of FOXM1 was relevant to worse survival of MST patients (HR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.79–2.21, ; %, ). Subgroup analysis suggested that overexpression of FOXM1 in breast cancer (BC), gastric cancer (GC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) all predicted a worse survival (), in addition to ovarian cancer (OC) (). In conclusion, our research indicated that overexpression of FOXM1 was to the disadvantage of the prognosis for majority of MST and therefore can be used as an evaluation index of prognosis. Jun Dai, Lili Yang, Jinyu Wang, Ying Xiao, and Qiurong Ruan Copyright © 2015 Jun Dai et al. All rights reserved. Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Spinocerebellar Ataxia: A Pilot Study Wed, 22 Jul 2015 11:30:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/413098/ Neurodegenerative diseases, including the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA), would benefit from the identification of reliable biomarkers that could serve as disease subtype-specific and stage-specific indicators for the development and monitoring of treatments. We analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) level of tau, α-synuclein, DJ-1, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), proteins previously associated with neurodegenerative processes, in patients with the autosomal dominant SCA1, SCA2, and SCA6, and the sporadic disease multiple system atrophy, cerebellar type (MSA-C), compared with age-matched controls. We estimated disease severity using the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). Most proteins measured trended higher in disease versus control group yet did not reach statistical significance. We found the levels of tau in both SCA2 and MSA-C patients were significantly higher than control. We found that α-synuclein levels were lower with higher SARA scores in SCA1 and tau levels were higher with greater SARA in MSA-C, although this final correlation did not reach statistical significance after post hoc correction. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are needed to improve the power of these studies and validate the use of CSF biomarkers in SCA and MSA-C. Ashley M. Brouillette, Gülin Öz, and Christopher M. Gomez Copyright © 2015 Ashley M. Brouillette et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Applications of Natriuretic Peptides in Assessment of Valvular Heart Disease Wed, 22 Jul 2015 08:14:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/807861/ Biomarkers such as natriuretic peptides (NPs) have evolving clinical utility beyond the scope of heart failure. The role of NPs in the management of valvular heart disease is a growing area of investigation. NPs have much potential in the assessment of asymptomatic patients with hemodynamically significant valvular lesions who have traditionally been excluded from consideration of surgical intervention. NPs also have a role in the risk stratification of these patients as well as in routine surveillance and monitoring. Together with echocardiographic data and functional status, NPs are being incorporated into the management of valvular heart disease. In this review we examine the evidence for the role of natriuretic peptides in assessment of VHD. Abhishek Sharma, Vaseem Ahmed, Aakash Garg, and Chirag Aggarwal Copyright © 2015 Abhishek Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Serum GRP78 as a Tumor Marker and Its Prognostic Significance in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: A Retrospective Study Tue, 21 Jul 2015 06:51:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/814670/ Introduction. Glucose-regulated protein 78 (78 kDa, GRP78), which is also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BIP), is a major chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The expression and clinical significance of GRP78 in the serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients have not yet been clearly described. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of GRP78 in the serum of non-small cell lung cancer patients, the relationships with clinicopathological parameters, and the potential implications for survival. Patients and Methods. A total of 163 peripheral blood samples from non-small cell lung cancer patients were prospectively collected at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer, China. Clinical characteristics data, including age, gender, stage, overall survival (OS) time, and relapse-free survival (RFS) time, were also collected. Serum GRP78 levels were measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. The associations between GRP78 levels and clinicopathological characteristics and survival were examined using Student’s t-test, Kaplan-Meier, or Cox regression analyses. Results. The mean ± standard error (SE) value of GRP78 was 326.5 ± 49.77 pg/mL. This level was significantly lower compared with the level in late-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients (1227 ± 223.6, ). There were no significant correlations with the clinicopathological parameters. No significant difference was found between high GRP78 expression and low GRP78 expression with regard to RFS . However, the OS of patients with higher GRP78 expression was significantly poorer . Conclusions. GRP78 was expressed in non-small cell lung cancer patients and was highly enriched in late-stage lung cancer. GRP78 may have an important role in the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer and may be a prognostic marker for non-small cell lung cancer. Xiao Ma, Wei Guo, Su Yang, Xiaoli Zhu, Jiaqing Xiang, and Hecheng Li Copyright © 2015 Xiao Ma et al. All rights reserved. Hemoglobin A1c Level Is Not Related to the Severity of Atherosclerosis in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Thu, 16 Jul 2015 10:31:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/192108/ Background. The relationship between hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and the extent of coronary artery stenosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains uncertain. The present study aimed to assess the correlation of HbA1c level with angiographic coronary atherosclerosis. Methods. 292 consecutive ACS patients were enrolled and stratified into three groups according to HbA1c levels (group 1: <6.0%, ; group 2: 6.0–6.4%, ; group 3: ≥6.5%, ). The severity of coronary arteriosclerosis was assessed by Gensini score. The relationship between HbA1c and Gensini score was analyzed by multiple variables analysis. Results. HbA1c level was not associated with the severity of CAD assessed by Gensini score in patients with ACS, even after the adjustment for other risk factors. However, NT-proBNP, ApoA1 and LVEF levels were independent predictors for CAD severity. Moreover, HbA1c level was not associated with the risk of high Gensini score (>40) by logistic regression analysis. Diabetes mellitus (DM) and LVEF levels were two independent risk factors for high Gensini score. Conclusions. HbA1c level is not a significant and independent marker for the severity of angiography in ACS patients, even in high-risk patients. Xinhong Wang, Zhenhua Han, Guanghua Hao, Yongqin Li, Xin Dong, and Congxia Wang Copyright © 2015 Xinhong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Power Doppler in Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Thu, 16 Jul 2015 10:01:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/917687/ Purpose. In the present study, the three-dimensional power Doppler was used as a quantitative method to evaluate its reliability in detecting and assessing of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Methods. 52 GTD patients who received diagnosis and treatment at the first affiliated hospitals of Xi’an Jiaotong University in China between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated using Voluson E8 (GE Medical System). Demographic information, pathological characteristics, clinical history, sonographic images, and related indices (resistance index, vascularization index, and flow and vascularization index) were evaluated. Result. Three-dimension power Doppler indicated that there were significant differences in the resistance index, vascularization index, flow index, and vascularization-flow index between the healthy individuals and each subgroup of patients (). Further, in combining invasive hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma groups, there was a significant difference between hydatidiform mole and the combined malignant group (). And the abnormal sonographic and power Doppler findings in GTD were resolved when chemotherapy was done successfully. Conclusion. Combined with the clinical features, sonography and three-dimension power Doppler imaging were helpful in diagnosing GTD as a noninvasive method, distinguishing the invasive nature of disease, detecting the recurrence of the disease, and assessing the effectiveness of the chemotherapy. Wei Wang, Xueye Tian, Ting Zhang, Yanyan Wang, Zhen Han, and Ruifang An Copyright © 2015 Wei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Electrocardiographic Predictors of Cardiovascular Mortality Thu, 16 Jul 2015 07:39:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/727401/ Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of mortality. Sudden cardiac death may also appear in athletes, due to underlying congenital or inherited cardiac abnormalities. The electrocardiogram is used in clinical practice and clinical trials, as a valid, reliable, accessible, inexpensive method. The aim of the present paper was to review electrocardiographic (ECG) signs associated with cardiovascular mortality and the mechanisms underlying those associations, providing a brief description of the main studies in this area, and consider their implication for clinical practice in the general population and athletes. The main ECG parameters associated with cardiovascular mortality in the present paper are the P wave (duration, interatrial block, and deep terminal negativity of the P wave in V1), prolonged QT and Tpeak-Tend intervals, QRS duration and fragmentation, bundle branch block, ST segment depression and elevation, T waves (inverted, T wave axes), spatial angles between QRS and T vectors, premature ventricular contractions, and ECG hypertrophy criteria. Ioana Mozos and Alexandru Caraba Copyright © 2015 Ioana Mozos and Alexandru Caraba. All rights reserved. Association of DNA Repair Gene APE1 Asp148Glu Polymorphism with Breast Cancer Risk Thu, 16 Jul 2015 07:04:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/869512/ Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of APE1 Asp148Glu polymorphism in breast cancer progression in Saudi population. Methods. We examined the genetic variations (rs1130409) in the DNA base excision repair gene APE1 at codon 148 (Asp148Glu) and its association with breast cancer risk using genotypic assays and in silico structural as well as functional predictions. In silico structural analysis was performed with Asp148Glu allele and compared with the predicted native protein structure. The wild and mutant 3D structures of APE1 were compared and analyzed using solvent accessibility models for protein stability confirmation. Results. Genotypic analysis of APE1 (rs1130409) showed statistically significant association of Asp148Glu with elevated susceptibility to breast cancer. The in silico analysis results indicated that the nsSNP Asp148Glu may cause changes in the protein structure and is associated with breast cancer risk. Conclusion. Taken together, this is the first report that established that Asp148Glu variant has structural and functional effect on the APE1 and may play an important role in breast cancer progression in Saudi population. Fatima AlMutairi, Akbar Ali Khan Pathan, Mohammed Alanazi, Manal Shalaby, Huda A. Alabdulkarim, Abdullah Alamri, Abdulrahman Al Naeem, Moammad Elrobh, Jilani P. Shaik, Wajahatullah Khan, Zahid Khan, and Narasimha Reddy Parine Copyright © 2015 Fatima AlMutairi et al. All rights reserved. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Inactivation Alleviated Atherosclerotic Progression and Inhibited Macrophage Polarized to M1 Phenotype in ApoE−/− Mice Wed, 15 Jul 2015 12:43:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/909572/ Objective. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is involved in many inflammatory diseases, but its role in atherosclerosis remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the role of TLR9 in atherosclerosis development and macrophage polarization. Methods. ApoE−/− mice were treated with vehicle or IRS869 for 12 weeks. Plaque vulnerability was assessed with immunohistochemical analysis, picro-sirius red, and oil red O staining. The expressions of M1- and M2-associated markers in plaques were detected by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence. The aorta TLR9 and its downstream molecules including myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88), phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB), and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) were determined by western blot analysis. The frequency of M1 and M2 subtype in RAW264.7 cells treated with IRS869 and/or ODN1826 was evaluated with flow cytometry. Results. In ApoE−/− mice, functional inactivation of TLR9 pathway resulted in attenuated atherosclerosis development, as manifested by reduced plaque burden and by decreased plaque vulnerability. Mechanistically, TLR9 inhibition prevented the activation of MyD88/NF-κB pathway and shifted the balance of M1/M2 toward M2 macrophages that were involved. Conclusions. Our data indicated that TLR9 inactivation ameliorated atherosclerosis via skewing macrophage plasticity to M2 phenotype in ApoE-deficient mice. These findings may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis. Chunmei Ma, Qiufang Ouyang, Ziyang Huang, Xiaoqing Chen, Ye Lin, Weiping Hu, and Ling Lin Copyright © 2015 Chunmei Ma et al. All rights reserved. The Difference between Growth Factor Expression after Single and Multiple Fractures: Preliminary Results in Human Fracture Healing Mon, 13 Jul 2015 07:55:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/203136/ Objectives. Circulating levels of VEGF-A (Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor-A), TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1), and M-CSF (Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor) were found to be predictors of bone healing and therefore prognostic criteria of delayed bone healing or nonunion. The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential rise of these markers in patients with multiple fractures of long bones compared to patients with single fractured long bone. Methods. 92 patients were included in the study and finally after excluding all female patients 45 male patients were left for final analysis and divided into the single or multiple fracture group. TGF-β1, M-CSF, and VEGF-A serum levels were analysed over a time period of two weeks. Results. MCSF serum concentrations were higher in the group with multiple fractures as also TGF-β1 serum concentrations were at one and two weeks after trauma. No statistically significant difference was observed in the VEGF-A serum concentrations of both groups at either measurement point. Conclusion. We did observe a correlation between the quantity of the M-CSF and TGF-β1 expressions in serum and the number of fractured bones; surprisingly there was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels between patients with single and multiple fractures of long bones. Harald Binder, Stefan Eipeldauer, Markus Gregori, Leonard Höchtl-Lee, Anita Thomas, Thomas M. Tiefenboeck, Stefan Hajdu, and Kambiz Sarahrudi Copyright © 2015 Harald Binder et al. All rights reserved. Hemostatic Parameters according to Renal Function and Time after Transplantation in Brazilian Renal Transplanted Patients Wed, 01 Jul 2015 11:52:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/472750/ Kidney transplantation is the key for patients with end-stage renal disease, improving quality of life and longer survival. However, kidney transplant triggers an intense inflammatory response and alters the hemostatic system, but the pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are not completely understood. The aim of this cross-sectional cohort study was to investigate hemostatic biomarkers in Brazilian renal transplanted patients according to renal function and time after transplantation. A total of 159 renal transplanted patients were enrolled and D-Dimer (D-Di), Thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand Factor (VWF), and ADAMTS13 plasma levels were assessed by ELISA. An increase of D-Di was observed in patients with higher levels of creatinine. ADAMTS13 levels were associated with creatinine plasma levels and D-Di levels with Glomerular Filtration Rate. These results suggested that D-Di and ADAMTS13 can be promising markers to estimate renal function. ADAMTS13 should be investigated throughout the posttransplant time to clarify the participation of this enzyme in glomerular filtration and acceptance or rejection of the graft in Brazilian transplanted patients. Ana Paula Lucas Mota, Patrícia Nessralla Alpoim, Roberta Carvalho de Figueiredo, Ana Cristina Simões e Silva, Karina Braga Gomes, and Luci Maria SantAna Dusse Copyright © 2015 Ana Paula Lucas Mota et al. All rights reserved. Radiosynthesis, In Vivo Biological Evaluation, and Imaging of Brain Lesions with [123I]-CLINME, a New SPECT Tracer for the Translocator Protein Thu, 25 Jun 2015 11:10:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/729698/ The high affinity translocator protein (TSPO) ligand 6-chloro-2-(4′-iodophenyl)-3-(N,N-methylethyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine-3-acetamide (CLINME) was radiolabelled with iodine-123 and assessed for its sensitivity for the TSPO in rodents. Moreover neuroinflammatory changes on a unilateral excitotoxic lesion rat model were detected using SPECT imaging. [123I]-CLINME was prepared in 70–80% radiochemical yield. The uptake of [123I]-CLINME was evaluated in rats by biodistribution, competition, and metabolite studies. The unilateral excitotoxic lesion was performed by injection of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid unilaterally into the striatum. The striatum lesion was confirmed and correlated with TSPO expression in astrocytes and activated microglia by immunohistochemistry and autoradiography. In vivo studies with [123I]-CLINME indicated a biodistribution pattern consistent with TPSO distribution and the competition studies with PK11195 and Ro 5-4864 showed that [123I]-CLINME is selective for this site. The metabolite study showed that the extractable radioactivity was unchanged [123I]-CLINME in organs which expresses TSPO. SPECT/CT imaging on the unilateral excitotoxic lesion indicated that the mean ratio uptake in striatum (lesion : nonlesion) was 2.2. Moreover, TSPO changes observed by SPECT imaging were confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunochemistry, and autoradiography. These results indicated that [123I]-CLINME is a promising candidate for the quantification and visualization of TPSO expression in activated astroglia using SPECT. F. Mattner, M. Quinlivan, I. Greguric, T. Pham, X. Liu, T. Jackson, P. Berghofer, C. J. R. Fookes, B. Dikic, M.-C. Gregoire, F. Dolle, and A. Katsifis Copyright © 2015 F. Mattner et al. All rights reserved. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Polymorphisms and Blood Pressure Elevation in the Japanese: A Cross-Sectional and a Longitudinal Study over 20 Years in the Shimane CoHRE Study Mon, 22 Jun 2015 11:19:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/825435/ Purpose. Effects of a genetic polymorphism in the aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) on blood pressure (BP) were investigated in a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study over 20 years on Japanese rural residents. Methods. Health examinations were held through 2006 to 2012, and 3,202 participates were recruited for this study. Among these participants, 560 individuals had medical records that were obtained in a health examination 20 years ago. Genomic DNA of participants was extracted from blood and the genotype of a polymorphism in ALDH2 was determined by the TaqMan method. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine association between BP and the genetic polymorphism in the ALDH2 gene. Results. Systolic and diastolic BP were higher in the ALDH21/1 than the others (ALDH21/2 or ALDH22/2). Genetic variation of the ALDH2 gene apparently influenced drinking behavior as the number of the drinkers was significantly reduced in the ALDH22/2 after 20 years of the observation period. This polymorphism, however, did not confer a risk for BP increase in the longitudinal observation. Conclusion. The present cross-sectional study confirmed a genetic effect of the ALDH2 gene on BP. In contrast, no significant effects on BP were identified in a longitudinal study, which may require a careful consideration. Minoru Isomura, Tao Wang, Masayuki Yamasaki, Md. Zahid Hasan, Kuninori Shiwaku, and Toru Nabika Copyright © 2015 Minoru Isomura et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Gene Polymorphisms on the Success of Anticholinergic Treatment in Children with Overactive Bladder Wed, 17 Jun 2015 11:55:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/732686/ Aim. To determine the impact of gene polymorphisms on detrusor contraction-relaxation harmony in children with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Materials and Methods. Toilet trained children older than 5 years of age with LUTS and normal neurological examination underwent videourodynamic study. The control group was composed of age matched children with no voiding complaints. The study group who filled out the voiding dysfunction symptom score before and after the treatment received standard oxybutynin treatment and was reevaluated 1 year after treatment. Genomic DNA was isolated from all patients and subjected to PCR for amplification. Genotyping of ARGHEF10, ROCK2, ADRB3, and CYP3A4 was carried out with Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results. 34 (45%) and 42 (55%) patients were enrolled in the study and control group, respectively. ARGEF10 GG, ADRB3 TC, and CYP3A4 AG genotype patients displayed insignificant difference between pre- and posttreatment voiding dysfunction symptom score and bladder volumes. Conclusions. The polymorphism of genes in the cholinergic pathway did not significantly differ clinical parameters. On the other hand, polymorphic patients in the adrenergic pathway seemed to suffer from clinical disappointment. For this reason, we think that the neglected adrenergic pathway could be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of anticholinergic resistant LUTS in children. Serhat Gurocak, Ece Konac, Iyimser Ure, Cem Senol, Ilke Hacer Onen, Sinan Sozen, and Adnan Menevse Copyright © 2015 Serhat Gurocak et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System Wed, 17 Jun 2015 08:59:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/496928/ Disease Markers Copyright © 2015 Disease Markers. All rights reserved. Predicting Preterm Labour: Current Status and Future Prospects Mon, 15 Jun 2015 11:59:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/435014/ Preterm labour and birth are a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Despite modern advances in obstetric and neonatal management, the rate of preterm birth in the developed world is increasing. Yet even though numerous risk factors associated with preterm birth have been identified, the ability to accurately predict when labour will occur remains elusive, whether it is at a term or preterm gestation. In the latter case, this is likely due to the multifactorial aetiology of preterm labour wherein women may display different clinical presentations that lead to preterm birth. The discovery of novel biomarkers that could reliably identify women who will subsequently deliver preterm may allow for timely medical intervention and targeted therapeutic treatments aimed at improving maternal and fetal outcomes. Various body fluids including amniotic fluid, urine, saliva, blood (serum/plasma), and cervicovaginal fluid all provide a rich protein source of putative biochemical markers that may be causative or reflective of the various pathophysiological disorders of pregnancy, including preterm labour. This short review will highlight recent advances in the field of biomarker discovery and the utility of single and multiple biomarkers for the prediction of preterm birth in the absence of intra-amniotic infection. Harry M. Georgiou, Megan K. W. Di Quinzio, Michael Permezel, and Shaun P. Brennecke Copyright © 2015 Harry M. Georgiou et al. All rights reserved. Serum Chemerin Levels in relation to Osteoporosis and Bone Mineral Density: A Case-Control Study Mon, 15 Jun 2015 07:17:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/786708/ Background. To evaluate serum chemerin levels in patients with osteoporosis and healthy controls and to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods. An age- and gender-matched case-control study was conducted. Pearson’s correlation test was performed to investigate the relationship between serum chemerin levels and BMD. Results. There were 93 patients included in the osteoporosis group and 93 matched controls. Serum chemerin level was significantly higher in patients with osteoporosis ( ng/mL) than patients in control ( ng/mL) (). There was a negative correlation between femoral bone mineral density and chemerin in both groups (, in osteoporosis group; , in control) and also a negative correlation between lumbar bone mineral density with chemerin in both groups (, in osteoporosis group; , in control). Conclusions. Patients with osteoporosis presented a higher level of serum chemerin, which witnessed an inverse correlation with BMD. Further studies are needed to explore the role of chemerin in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Jing He, Ji-Chun Li, Hua Xie, Zhong-Hua Xu, Ya-Wen Sun, and Qiao Shan Copyright © 2015 Jing He et al. All rights reserved. Serum Cystatin C for the Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Admitted in the Emergency Department Mon, 15 Jun 2015 06:53:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/416059/ Background. Early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) at emergency department (ED) is a challenging issue. Current diagnostic criteria for AKI poorly recognize early renal dysfunction and may cause delayed diagnosis. We evaluated the use of serum cystatin C (CysC) for the early and accurate diagnosis of AKI in patients hospitalized from the ED. Methods. In a total of 198 patients (105 males and 93 females), serum CysC, serum creatinine (sCr), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were calculated at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after presentation to the ED. We compared two groups according to the presence or absence of AKI. Results. Serial assessment of CysC, sCr, and eGFR was not a strong, reliable tool to distinguish AKI from non-AKI. CysC > 1.44 mg/L at admission, both alone (Odds Ratio = 5.04; 95%CI 2.20–11.52; ) and in combination with sCr and eGFR (Odds Ratio = 5.71; 95%CI 1.86–17.55; ), was a strong predictor for the risk of AKI. Conclusions. Serial assessment of CysC is not superior to sCr and eGFR in distinguishing AKI from non-AKI. Admission CysC, both alone and in combination with sCr and eGFR, could be considered a powerful tool for the prediction of AKI in ED patients. Cristina Bongiovanni, Laura Magrini, Gerardo Salerno, Chiara Serena Gori, Patrizia Cardelli, Mina Hur, Marco Buggi, and Salvatore Di Somma Copyright © 2015 Cristina Bongiovanni et al. All rights reserved. HULC and H19 Played Different Roles in Overall and Disease-Free Survival from Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Curative Hepatectomy: A Preliminary Analysis from Gene Expression Omnibus Sun, 07 Jun 2015 13:59:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/191029/ Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumor tissues and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) aggressiveness and survival. Methods. We correlated the lncRNAs in tumor tissues with HCC survival and clinicopathological features based on Gene Expression Omnibus expression profile GSE36376. Results. Eight lncRNAs and 240 HCC patients were included. Cox regression analysis indicated that HULC was a positive factor for HCC overall survival (HR = 0.885, 95% CI = 0.797–0.983, and ) and disease-free survival time (HR = 0.913, 95% CI = 0.835–0.998, and ). H19 and UCA1 were both demonstrated to be risk factors of HCC disease-free survival in multivariate Cox model (HR = 1.071, 95% CI = 1.01–1.137, and and HR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.092–5.273, and , resp.). But Kaplan-Meier method showed no significant association between UCA1 and HCC disease-free survival (log rank ). Logistic regression demonstrated that H19 was overexpressed in HBV-infected patients (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.008–1.29, and ). HULC had a significant association with vascular invasion (OR = 0.648, 95% CI = 0.523–0.803, and ). H19 and MEG3 were both considered to be risk factors for high AFP level (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.277–1.646, and and OR = 1.613, 95% CI = 1.1–2.365, and , resp.). Conclusions. Contributing to decreased susceptibility to vascular invasion, upregulation of HULC in tumor tissues was positively associated with HCC survival. In contrast, H19 overexpression might be risk factor for HCC aggressiveness and poor outcomes. Zongguo Yang, Yunfei Lu, Qingnian Xu, Bozong Tang, Cheol-Keun Park, and Xiaorong Chen Copyright © 2015 Zongguo Yang et al. All rights reserved. First-Trimester Serum Acylcarnitine Levels to Predict Preeclampsia: A Metabolomics Approach Thu, 04 Jun 2015 08:43:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/857108/ Objective. To expand the search for preeclampsia (PE) metabolomics biomarkers through the analysis of acylcarnitines in first-trimester maternal serum. Methods. This was a nested case-control study using serum from pregnant women, drawn between 8 and 14 weeks of gestational age. Metabolites were measured using an UPLC-MS/MS based method. Concentrations were compared between controls () and early-onset- (EO-) PE () or late-onset- (LO-) PE () women. Metabolites with a false discovery rate <10% for both EO-PE and LO-PE were selected and added to prediction models based on maternal characteristics (MC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and previously established biomarkers (PAPPA, PLGF, and taurine). Results. Twelve metabolites were significantly different between EO-PE women and controls, with effect levels between −18% and 29%. For LO-PE, 11 metabolites were significantly different with effect sizes between −8% and 24%. Nine metabolites were significantly different for both comparisons. The best prediction model for EO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, taurine, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.784). The best prediction model for LO-PE consisted of MC, MAP, PAPPA, PLGF, and stearoylcarnitine (AUC = 0.700). Conclusion. This study identified stearoylcarnitine as a novel metabolomics biomarker for EO-PE and LO-PE. Nevertheless, metabolomics-based assays for predicting PE are not yet suitable for clinical implementation. Maria P. H. Koster, Rob J. Vreeken, Amy C. Harms, Adrie D. Dane, Sylwia Kuc, Peter C. J. I. Schielen, Thomas Hankemeier, Ruud Berger, Gerard H. A. Visser, and Jeroen L. A. Pennings Copyright © 2015 Maria P. H. Koster et al. All rights reserved. Association of FTO Mutations with Risk and Survival of Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population Thu, 04 Jun 2015 08:37:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/101032/ Recently, several studies have reported associations between fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene mutations and cancer susceptibility. But little is known about their association with risk and survival of breast cancer in Chinese population. The aim of this study is to examine whether cancer-related FTO polymorphisms are associated with risk and survival of breast cancer and BMI levels in controls in a Chinese population. We genotyped six FTO polymorphisms in a case-control study, including 537 breast cancer cases and 537 controls. FTO rs1477196 AA genotype had significant decreased breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34–0.86] compared to GG genotype, and this association was only found in women with BMI < 24 kg/m2 (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76); and rs16953002 AA genotype conferred significant increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.23–2.63) compared to GG genotype. Haplotype analysis showed that FTO TAC haplotype (rs9939609-rs1477196-rs1121980) had significant reduced breast cancer risk (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62–0.93) compared with TGC haplotype. But we failed to find any association between FTO polymorphisms and breast cancer survival. These findings suggest that variants in FTO gene may influence breast cancer susceptibility. Xianxu Zeng, Zhenying Ban, Jing Cao, Wei Zhang, Tianjiao Chu, Dongmei Lei, and Yanmin Du Copyright © 2015 Xianxu Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Specificity and Sensitivity of AMH and FSH in Diagnosis of Premature Ovarian Failure Sun, 31 May 2015 09:50:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/585604/ Introduction. Anti-Müllerian hormone represents the primitive follicular number and ovarian age. Low level of AMH is in relation to early menopausal state and decreased ovarian reserve. AMH level changes occur prior to FSH level in representing ovarian failure. The aim of this study is to compare sensitivity and specificity of AMH with FSH in diagnosis of POF. Material and Methods. This descriptive study is done on 96 patients referred to Dr. Rasekh Clinic. Serum level of AMH and FSH was measured at Day 3 (3rd day of menstrual cycle) and data were analyzed through SPSS 21 software. Results. Results of AMH and FSH serum level indicate that AMH has more sensitivity (80% versus 28.57%) and almost equal specificity (78.89% versus 78.65%) compared with FSH. Also negative predictive value of AMH (98.61%) and FSH (87.5%) is different. But positive predictive value is the same (17.39%). Diagnostic accuracy of AMH is more than FSH and has significant differences. Conclusion. According to the results of this study, AMH serum level is more sensitive than FSH serum level. Also AMH has more negative predictive value. Besides, this hormone can be measured at any time of menstrual cycle, against FSH. AMH seems to be more useful in early diagnosis of POF. Farzaneh Alipour, Athar Rasekhjahromi, Mehrnoosh Maalhagh, Saeid Sobhanian, and Masoumeh Hosseinpoor Copyright © 2015 Farzaneh Alipour et al. All rights reserved. Serum Levels of Progranulin Are Closely Associated with Microvascular Complication in Type 2 Diabetes Thu, 28 May 2015 10:50:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/357279/ Objective. Progranulin (PGRN) was recently introduced as a novel marker of chronic inflammatory response in obesity and type 2 diabetes capable of directly affecting the insulin signaling pathway. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between PGRN and type 2 diabetics with microvascular complications. Methods. PGRN serum levels and glucose metabolism related substance were measured in 84 type 2 diabetic patients with or without microangiopathies and 12 health persons. Further analyses of serum PGRN in different stages of diabetic microangiopathies were conducted. Results. Serum levels of PGRN were markedly higher in type 2 diabetic patients with microangiopathies. PGRN serum levels increased with the progress of diabetic microangiopathies with significantly highest values detectable in clinical diabetic nephropathy (CDN) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) groups. Serum PGRN concentrations in all individuals positively and markedly correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), triglyceride (TG), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), white blood cell (WBC), disease duration, IL-6, and TNF-α, while correlating negatively and significantly with eGFR. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only UAER and CRE were independently associated with serum PGRN. Conclusion. PGRN might be considered as a marker for diabetic microangiopathy and its severity. Lin Xu, Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Junhui Du, Weijin Zang, Shufang Wu, and Hongzhi Sun Copyright © 2015 Lin Xu et al. All rights reserved. Uric Acid as a Marker of Kidney Disease: Review of the Current Literature Wed, 27 May 2015 13:41:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/382918/ Uric acid has been implicated in the pathophysiology of renal disease; however renal clearance makes a causal relationship difficult to prove. We examine the current literature to support a potential role of uric acid in the development of kidney disease and to determine the potential to use uric acid as a marker for future renal decline. After review, we conclude that uric acid is definitively linked to the development of chronic kidney disease and can be a poor prognostic factor for the development of acute renal failure, as well. However, further human research is needed before predictive models utilizing uric acid can be developed and used in the clinical setting. Christin Giordano, Olga Karasik, Kelli King-Morris, and Abdo Asmar Copyright © 2015 Christin Giordano et al. All rights reserved. Hyperoxia-Induced Protein Alterations in Renal Rat Tissue: A Quantitative Proteomic Approach to Identify Hyperoxia-Induced Effects in Cellular Signaling Pathways Wed, 27 May 2015 12:31:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2015/964263/ Introduction. In renal tissue as well as in other organs, supranormal oxygen pressure may lead to deleterious consequences on a cellular level. Additionally, hyperoxia-induced effect in cells and related free radicals may potentially contribute to renal failure. The aim of this study was to analyze time-dependent alterations of rat kidney protein expression after short-term normobaric hyperoxia using proteomics and bioinformatic approaches. Material and Methods. Wistar rats were randomized into six different groups: three groups with normobaric hyperoxia (exposure to 100% oxygen for 3 h) and three groups with normobaric normoxia (NN; room air). After hyperoxia exposure, kidneys were removed immediately, after 3 days and after 7 days. Kidney lysates were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by peptide mass fingerprinting using tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed with DeCyder 2D software (). Biological functions of differential regulated proteins were studied using functional network analysis (Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and PathwayStudio). Results. Expression of 14 proteins was significantly altered : eight proteins (MEP1A_RAT, RSSA_RAT, F16P1_RAT, STML2_RAT, BPNT1_RAT, LGMN_RAT, ATPA_RAT, and VDAC1_RAT) were downregulated and six proteins (MTUS1_RAT, F16P1_RAT, ACTG_RAT, ACTB_RAT, 2ABA_RAT, and RAB1A_RAT) were upregulated. Bioinformatic analyses revealed an association of regulated proteins with inflammation. Conclusions. Significant alterations in renal protein expression could be demonstrated for up to 7 days even after short-term hyperoxia. The identified proteins indicate an association with inflammation signaling cascades. MEP1A and VDAC1 could be promising candidates to identify hyperoxic injury in kidney cells. Jochen Hinkelbein, Lennert Böhm, Oliver Spelten, David Sander, Stefan Soltész, and Stefan Braunecker Copyright © 2015 Jochen Hinkelbein et al. All rights reserved.