Table 1: Genes associated with nonsegmental vitiligo.

GeneFunctionInvolved in other autoimmune diseasesReference

(1) Autoantigen
 TYRProduction of melanin granules in melanosomes
(2) Innate immunity
 NALP1Inflammasome activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18T1D, AD, CeD[1320]
 PTEN22A lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family controlling the signal from antigen receptors, costimulatory receptors, and cytokine receptorsGD, AA, RA, SLE, T1D, AD[2130]
(3) Adaptive immunity
 MHCMajor histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins being indispensable for antigen presentationAT, AA, RA, SLE, T1D, PS[3143]
 FOXP3A functional marker for naturally occurring, thymus-selected CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cellsAT, T1D[4454]
 IL2RA(CD25)T-cell proliferation and a functional marker for naturally occurring, thymus-selected CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cellsGD, AA, RA, SLE, T1D, PS, PS,[35, 51, 5565]
 CCR6 The CCR6/CCL20 chemokine receptor/ligand axis providing key homing signals recruiting both proinflammatory and suppressive T cell subsetsGD, RA[55, 6669]
 TSLPInduction of allogeneic naive T cells to differentiate into cytotoxic T cells, and induction of the proliferation and differentiation of CD4+CD8-CD25-thymocytes into CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cell[7072]
(4) Innate and adaptive immunity
 GZMB(1) A family of conserved serine proteases stored within the cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic lymphocytes[73, 74]
(2) The formation of blebs containing various subcellular compartments on the surface of apoptotic cells
(3) Supply of these peptides for autoimmune response
 XBP1Protective roles against oxidative stress, and unfolded protein response of a stress response to increased levels of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum[7580]
(5) Other function and miscellaneous
 LPPInvolvement of cell-cell adhesion and cell motilityRA, T1D, CeD[8184]
 UBASH3AInvolvement of growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis in T cellsRA, T1D, CeD[8589]
 C1QTNF6UnknownRA, T1D, CeD[90, 91]
 FOXP1A role in cardiac, lung, and lymphocyte development, and tumor-suppressive function

AA: alopecia areata, AD: Addison’s disease, AT: autoimmune thyroiditis, CeD: celiac disease, GD: Graves’ disease, IL: interleukin, PS: psoriasis, PA: psoriatic arthritis, RA: rheumatoid arthritis, SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus, and T1D: type 1 diabetes.