Table 1: Infant and adult skin: similarities and differences.

Structural differencesInfant skinAdult skinReference

Epidermis
 CorneocytesSmallerLarger[2]
 Granular cellsSmallerLarger[2]
 Stratum corneum and epidermisThinnerThicker[1, 2]
 Microrelief linesMore denseLess dense[2]
 Depth of surface glyphicsSimilar to adult[2]
 Facultative pigmentation (melanin)LessMore[142, 143]
Dermis
 Dermal papillae (density, size, and morphology)More homogeneousLess homogeneous[2]
 Distinct papillary-to-reticular dermis transitionAbsentPresent[2]

Compositional differences

Epidermis
 Natural moisturizing factor concentrationLowerHigher[11]
 pHHigher (newborn only)Lower[6, 32, 34]
 SebumLower (7–12 month-old infant)Higher[144]
 Stratum corneum water contentHigherLower[11]
Dermis
 Collagen fiber densityLowerHigher (young adult)[2, 145]

Functional differences

 Rate of water absorptionHigherLower[11]
 Rate of water desorptionHigherLower[11]
 Skin barrier functionCompetentCompetent[9, 10]
 Transepidermal water lossHigherLower[11]