About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Dermatology Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 783924, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/783924
Review Article

Controversies in the Treatment of Ingrown Nails

Eckart Haneke1,2,3,4

1Department of Dermatology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 14, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2Dermatology Practice Dermaticum, Freiburg, Germany
3Centro de Dermatología Epidermis, Instituto CUF, Porto, Portugal
4Department of Dermatology, Acad Hospital, University of Ghent, Gent, Belgium

Received 16 November 2011; Accepted 30 January 2012

Academic Editor: Bertrand Richert

Copyright © 2012 Eckart Haneke. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Haneke, “Surgical treatment of ingrowing toenails,” Cutis, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 251–256, 1986. View at Scopus
  2. W. R. Murray, “Onychocryptosis: principles of non-operative and operative care,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 142, pp. 96–102, 1979. View at Scopus
  3. R. S. Chapman, “Letter: overcurvature of the nails—an inherited disorder,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 317–318, 1973. View at Scopus
  4. E. Haneke, “Etiopathogénie et traitement de l'hypercourbure transversale de l'ongle du gros orteil,” Journal de Médecine Esthétique et de Chirurgie Dermatologique, vol. 19, no. 74, pp. 123–127, 1992.
  5. R. Baran and E. Haneke, “Etiology and treatment of nail malalignment,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 719–721, 1998. View at Scopus
  6. S. Guéro, S. Guichard, and S. R. Fraitag, “Ligamentary structure of the base of the nail,” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 47–52, 1994. View at Scopus
  7. C. J. Heifetz, “Ingrown toe-nail,” The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 298–315, 1937. View at Scopus
  8. J. D. Mozena, “The Mozena classification system and treatment algorithm for ingrown hallux nails,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 131–135, 2002. View at Scopus
  9. A. Martínez-Nova, R. Sánchez-Rodríguez, and D. Alonso-Peña, “A new onychocryptosis classification and treatment plan,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 389–393, 2007. View at Scopus
  10. K. Nishioka, I. Katayama, Y. Kobayashi, C. Takijiri, and K. Nishioka, “Taping for embedded toenails,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 246–247, 1985. View at Scopus
  11. H. Arai, T. Arai, H. Nakajima, and E. Haneke, “Improved conservative treatment of ingrown nail—acrylic affixed gutter treatment, sculptured nail, taping, sofratulle packing, super elastic wire, plastic nail brace and nail ironing,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Dermatology, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 110–119, 2003.
  12. E. Haneke and H. Arai, “Mechanische Therapie von Nagelerkrankungen: Polsterung, Pflasterzug, Röhrchen, Spangen, Kunstnägel,” in Fortschritte der Praktischen Dermatologie und Venerologie, G. Plewig, Ed., vol. 18, pp. 250–253, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2001.
  13. A. Senapati, “Conservative outpatient management of ingrowing toenails,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 339–340, 1986. View at Scopus
  14. S. H. Woo and I. H. Kim, “Surgical pearl: nail edge separation with dental floss for ingrown toenails,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 939–940, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. A. Wallace, D. D. Milne, and T. Andrew, “Gutter treatment for ingrowing toenails,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, no. 6183, pp. 168–171, 1979. View at Scopus
  16. H. Arai, T. Arai, H. Nakajima, and E. Haneke, “Formable acrylic treatment for ingrowing nail with gutter splint and sculptured nail,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 43, no. 10, pp. 759–765, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. J. Harrer, V. Schöffl, W. Hohenberger, and I. Schneider, “Treatment of ingrown toenails using a new conservative method: a prospective study comparing brace treatment with Emmert's procedure,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 542–549, 2005. View at Scopus
  18. I. Effendy, B. Ossowski, and R. Happle, “Zangenagel. Konservative korrektur durch Aufkleben einer kunststoffspange,” Hautarzt, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 800–802, 1993. View at Scopus
  19. M. Ishibashi, N. Tabata, T. Suetake et al., “A simple method to treat an ingrowing toenail with a shape-memory alloy device,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 291–292, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Arai, T. Arai, and E. Haneke, “Treatment methods of pincer and ingrown nails using a new shape memory alloy (Cu–Al–Mn) nail clip, 40% urea paste and anchor taping,” in (PO776) Annual Congress European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, pp. 20–24, Lisbon, Portugal, october 2011.
  21. R. W. Newman, “A simplified treatment of ingrown toenail,” Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 89, no. 5, article 638, 1949.
  22. K. Q. Vandenbos and W. F. Bowers, “Ingrown toenail: a result of weight bearing on soft tissue,” Armed Forces Medical Journal, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1168–1173, 1959.
  23. R. W. Lloyd-Davies and G. C. Brill, “The aetiology and out-patient management of ingrowing toe-nails,” British Journal of Surgery, vol. 50, no. 224, pp. 592–597, 1963. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. E. Haneke, “Segmentale Matrixverschmälerung zur Behandlung des eingewachsenen Zehennagels,” Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, vol. 109, no. 38, pp. 1451–1453, 1984. View at Scopus
  25. J. C. Dagnall, “Embedded toenails,” The Lancet, vol. 2, article 324, 1975.
  26. H. S. Michaelis, “Ueber das Einwachsen des Nagels,” Journal Chir Augenheilk, vol. 14, pp. 234–255, 1830.
  27. C. Emmert, “Zur Operation des eingewachsenen Nagels,” Archiv fur Klinische Chirurgie, vol. 11, pp. 266–267, 1869.
  28. L. Gosselin, “Clinique chirurgicale de l‘hôpital de la Charité,” Gazette Hebdomadaire de Médecine et de Chirurgie, vol. 2, article 29, 1873.
  29. E. M. Foote, “Ingrowing nail: a comparison of methods of operation,” Medical News, vol. 74, article 200, 1899.
  30. C. Emmert, “Zur Operation des Eingewachsenen Nagels,” Centralbl fur Chir Journal, vol. 39, pp. 641–642, 1884.
  31. J. Baudens, “Ongle incarné (par J Moulard),” La Gazette de l'hôpital, vol. 20, article 306, 1850.
  32. S. Rammelt, R. Grass, and H. Zwipp, “Zur Behandlung des eingewachsenen Zehennagels. Was ist eine ‘Emmert-Plastik’?” Chirurg, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 239–243, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. T. Anger, “Sur l'ongle incarné,” Bulletin de la Société chimique de Paris, vol. 15, article 594, 1889.
  34. M. Quénu, “Des limites de la matrice de l'ongle—applications au traitement de l'ongle incarné,” Bulletin de la Société chimique de Paris, vol. 13, article 252, 1887.
  35. F. R. Zadik, “Obliteration of the nail bed of the great toe without shortening the terminal phalanx,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 66–67, 1950.
  36. T. C. Thompson and C. Terwilliger, “The terminal syme operation for ingrown toenail,” The Surgical Clinics of North America, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 575–584, 1950. View at Scopus
  37. R. W. M. Rees, “Radical surgery for embedded or deformed nails,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 57, pp. 355–356, 1964. View at Scopus
  38. R. Ogur, O. F. Tekbas, and M. Hasde, “Managing infected ingrown toenails,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 51, pp. 207–208, 2005. View at Scopus
  39. C. A. Mcwilliams, “The treatment of ingrowing toenails,” New York Medical Journal, vol. 77, pp. 1115–1117, 1903.
  40. O. Vanhooteghem, P. Gillard, B. Dezfoulian, and M. de la Brassinne, “Scedosporium apiospermum septicemia following a wedge excision of an ingrown toenail,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 1137–1139, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. N. Rueff and C. Gapany, “A rare ischemic complication of ingrowing toenail surgery in a child: communications and brief reports,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 250–252, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F. Haas, H. Moshammer, and F. Schwarzl, “Iatrogenic necrosis of the large toe after tourniquet placement—clinical course and reconstruction,” Chirurg, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 608–610, 1999.
  43. Y. Karabağli, A. A. Köse, and C. Cetin, “Toe necrosis due to a neglected tourniquet,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, vol. 116, no. 7, pp. 2036–2037, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. J. Farrelly, J. Minford, and M. O. Jones, “Simple operative management of ingrown toenail using bipolar diathermy,” European Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 304–306, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. A. Bose, “A technique for excision of nail fold for ingrowing toenail,” Surgery Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 511–512, 1971. View at Scopus
  46. E. Sarifakioglu and N. Sarifakioglu, “Crescent excision of the nail fold with partial nail avulsion does work with ingrown toenails,” European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 822–823, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. Chapeskie, “Ingrown toenail or overgrown toe skin? Alternative treatment for onychocryptosis,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 1561–1562, 2008. View at Scopus
  48. H. Chapeskie and J. R. Kovac, “Soft-tissue nail-fold excision: a definitive treatment for ingrown toenails,” Canadian Journal of Surgery, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 282–286, 2010. View at Scopus
  49. B. Noël, “Surgical treatment of ingrown toenail without matricectomy,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 79–83, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. L. DuVries, Surgery of the Foot, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 1959.
  51. G. C. Ney, “An operation for ingrowing toenails,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 374–375, 1923. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. I. P. Rosa, Hipercurvatura transversa da lamina ungueal (pincer nail) e lamina ungueal que não cresce. Tratamento cirúrgico: remoção do “U” largo de pele, osteocorreção do leito e cicatrização por segunda intenção, thesis, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, 2005.
  53. W. R. Howard, “Ingrown toenail; its surgical treatment,” New York Medical Journal, vol. 57, p. 579, 1893.
  54. J. Ph. Dubois, “Un traitement de l'ongle incarné,” La Nouvelle Presse Medicale, vol. 3, no. 31, pp. 1938–1940, 1974. View at Scopus
  55. B. Aksoy, H. M. Aksoy, E. Civas, B. Oc, and N. Atakan, “Lateral foldplasty with or without partial matricectomy for the management of ingrown toenails,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 462–468, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. N. Shaath, J. Shea, I. Whiteman, and A. Zarugh, “A prospective randomized comparison of the zadik procedure and chemical ablation in the treatment of ingrown toenails,” Foot and Ankle International, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 401–405, 2005. View at Scopus
  57. E. Haneke, “Segmental matrix excision for the treatment of ingrown toenails,” in Surgical Gems in Dermatology, P. Robins, Ed., pp. 94–95, Journal Publishing Group, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
  58. T. Ozawa, K. Nose, T. Harada, M. Muraoka, and M. Ishii, “Partial matricectomy with a CO2 laser for ingrown toenail after nail matrix staining,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 302–305, 2005. View at Scopus
  59. J. C. Hassel, A. J. Hassel, and C. Löser, “Phenol chemical matricectomy is less painful, with shorter recovery times but higher recurrence rates, than surgical matricectomy: a patient's view,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1294–1299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. J. Zuber, “Ingrown toenail removal,” American Family Physician, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 2547–2554, 2002. View at Scopus
  61. D. B. Apfelberg, E. Rothermel, A. Widtfeldt, M. R. Maser, and H. Lash, “Preliminary report on use of carbon dioxide laser in podiatry,” Journal of the American Podiatry Association, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 509–513, 1984. View at Scopus
  62. E. Rothermel and D. B. Apfelberg, “Carbon dioxide laser use for certain diseases of the toenails,” Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 809–821, 1987. View at Scopus
  63. Y. C. Lin and H. Y. Su, “A surgical approach to ingrown nail: partial matricectomy using CO2 laser,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 578–580, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Takahashi and Y. Narisawa, “Radical surgery for ingrown nails by partial resection of the nail plate and matrix using a carbon dioxide laser,” Journal of Cutaneous Laser Therapy, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 21–25, 2000. View at Scopus
  65. P. André, “Ingrowing nails and carbon dioxide laser surgery,” Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 288–290, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. Tada, M. Hatoko, A. Tanaka, H. Iioka, K. Niitsuma, and K. Mashiba, “Clinical comparison of the scanning CO2 laser and conventional surgery in the treatment of ingrown nail deformities,” Journal of Dermatological Treatment, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 387–390, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. Wright, “Laser matricectomy in the toes,” Foot and Ankle, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 246–247, 1989. View at Scopus
  68. K. C. Yang and Y. T. Li, “Treatment of recurrent ingrown great toenail associated with granulation tissue by partial nail avulsion followed by matricectomy with sharpulse carbon dioxide laser,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 419–421, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. F. Serour, “Recurrent ingrown big toenails are efficiently treated by CO2 laser,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 509–512, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. Orenstein, O. Goldan, O. Weissman et al., “A comparison between CO2 laser surgery with and without lateral fold vaporization for ingrowing toenails,” Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 97–100, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. U. Wollina, “Modified Emmet's operation for ingrown nails using the Er:YAG laser,” Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 38–40, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. T. Farley-Sakevich, J. F. Grady, E. Zager, and T. M. Axe, “Onychoplasty with carbon dioxide laser matrixectomy for treatment of ingrown toenails,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 175–179, 2005. View at Scopus
  73. C. T. Cooper, “Phenol-alcohol nail procedure: postoperative care. A comparative study,” Journal of the American Podiatry Association, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 661–663, 1965. View at Scopus
  74. J. F. Yale, “Phenol alcohol technique for correction of infected ingrown toenail,” Journal of the American Podiatry Association, vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 46–53, 1974. View at Scopus
  75. J. Gallocher, “The phenol/alcohol method of nail matrix sterilisation,” New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 86, no. 593, pp. 140–141, 1977. View at Scopus
  76. R. J. Siegle, J. Harkness, and N. A. Swanson, “Phenol alcohol technique for permanent matricectomy,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 348–350, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. J. L. Burzotta, R. M. Turri, and J. Tsouris, “Phenol and alcohol chemical matrixectomy,” Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 453–467, 1989. View at Scopus
  78. P. M. Felton and T. D. Weaver, “Phenol and alcohol chemical matrixectomy in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients: a retrospective study,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 89, no. 8, pp. 410–412, 1999. View at Scopus
  79. S. Tatlican, B. Yamangoktürk, C. Eren, F. Eskioglu, and S. Adiyaman, “Comparison of phenol applications of different durations for the cauterization of the germinal matrix: an efficacy and safety study,” Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 298–302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S. Islam, E. M. Lin, R. Drongowski et al., “The effect of phenol on ingrown toenail excision in children,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 290–292, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. Y. S. Lau and J. M. Yeung, “Surgical treatment of in-growing toenails performed by senior house officers: are they good enough?” Scottish Medical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 22–23, 2005. View at Scopus
  82. H. C. Altinyazar, C. B. Demirel, R. Koca, and M. Hosnuter, “Digital block with and without epinephrine during chemical matricectomy with phenol,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1568–1571, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. B. Aksakal, C. Atahan, P. Oztaş, and S. Oruk, “Minimizing postoperative drainage with 20% ferric chloride after chemical matricectomy with phenol,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 158–160, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. S. Vaccari, E. Dika, R. Balestri, G. Rech, B. M. Piraccini, and P. A. Fanti, “Partial excision of matrix and phenolic ablation for the treatment of ingrowing toenail: a 36-month follow-up of 197 treated patients,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1288–1293, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. B. de Bengoa Vallejo, M. E. Losa Iglesias, R. S. Sanchez Gomez, and K. T. Jules, “Gauze application of phenol for matrixectomy,” Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 418–421, 2008. View at Scopus
  86. M. E. Losa Iglesias, J. V. de Cabo, J. T. Traspaderne, J. A. Franco, M. B. Alonso, and R. B. de Bengoa Vallejo, “Safety of phenol vapor inhalation during performance of chemical matrixectomy to treat ingrown toenails,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1515–1519, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. F. C. Brown, “Chemocautery for ingrown toenails,” Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 331–333, 1981. View at Scopus
  88. E. Özdemir, S. Bostanci, P. Ekmekci, and E. Gürgey, “Chemical matricectomy with 10% sodium hydroxide for the treatment of Ingrowing toenails,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. A. Gem and P. A. Sykes, “Ingrowing toenails: studies of segmental chemical ablation,” British Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 562–563, 1990. View at Scopus
  90. S. Bostanci, P. Kocyigit, and E. Gürgey, “Comparison of phenol and sodium hydroxide chemical matricectomies for the treatment of ingrowing toenails,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 680–685, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. P. Kocyigit, S. Bostancı, E. Özdemir, and E. Gürgey, “Sodium hydroxide chemical matricectomy for the treatment of ingrown toenails: comparison of three different application periods,” American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 744–747, 2005.
  92. S. Tatlican, C. Eren, B. Yamangokturk, and F. Eskioglu, “Retrospective comparison of experiences with phenol and sodium hydroxide in the treatment of Ingrown nail,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 432–434, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. S. Tatlican, C. Eren, B. Yamangokturk, F. Eskioglu, and S. Bostanci, “Chemical matricectomy with 10% sodium hydroxide for the treatment of ingrown toenails in people with diabetes,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 219–222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. H. Kim, H. C. Ko, C. K. Oh, K. S. Kwon, and M. B. Kim, “Trichloroacetic acid matricectomy in the treatment of ingrowing toenails,” Dermatologic Surgery, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 973–979, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. C. Rounding and S. Bloomfield, “Surgical treatments for ingrowing toenails,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD001541, 2005. View at Scopus