Dermatology Research and Practice http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Metabolic Changes and Serum Ghrelin Level in Patients with Psoriasis Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/175693/ Background. Serum ghrelin levels may be related to metabolic and clinical changes in patients with psoriasis. Objective. This study was performed to determine the possible effects of serum ghrelin in patients with psoriasis. Methods. The study population consisted of 25 patients with plaque psoriasis. The patients were questioned with regard to age, gender, age of onset, duration of disease, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). In addition, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, cholesterol levels, insulin, and ghrelin levels were measured. Results. The mean serum ghrelin level was 45.41 ± 22.41 in the psoriasis group and 29.92 ± 14.65 in the healthy control group. Serum ghrelin level was significantly higher in the psoriasis group compared with the controls (). The mean ghrelin level in patients with a lower PASI score was significantly higher than in those with a higher PASI score (). Conclusion. The present study was performed to determine the effects of ghrelin in psoriasis patients. We found a negative correlation between severity of psoriasis and ghrelin level. Larger and especially experimental studies focusing on correlation of immune system-ghrelin levels and severity of psoriasis may be valuable to clarify the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Haydar Ucak, Betul Demir, Demet Cicek, Ilker Erden, Suleyman Aydin, Selma Bakar Dertlioglu, and Mustafa Arica Copyright © 2014 Haydar Ucak et al. All rights reserved. Expression of Maspin and Ezrin Proteins in Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma Mon, 15 Dec 2014 09:28:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/596564/ Background. The aim of this study was to investigate maspin and ezrin expression in different subtypes of periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Methods. Tissue samples from 43 patients with periocular BCC. Our cases were comprised of 10 morpheaform, 25 nodular, and 8 adenoid type BCCs. Immunohistochemical staining for maspin and ezrin was performed by Envision detection system. Results. There was no difference between different subtypes of BCC in maspin expression regarding positivity, intensity, and pattern of expression. Ezrin was expressed in all subtypes of BCC but the intensity was significantly higher in morpheaform BCC compared to nodular and adenoid types ( and , resp.); ninety percent of morpheaform samples showed strong ezrin intensity, while this strong intensity was only present in 25% and 12% of adenoid and nodular subtypes, respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, or tumor margin involvement and expression of neither maspin nor ezrin. There was no correlation between maspin and ezrin expression except in nodular type, in which an inverse correlation was found . Conclusion. Ezrin is expressed intensely in morpheaform BCC of periocular region. Further studies are needed to show the significance of this finding in prognosis of morpheaform BCC. Mansooreh Bagheri, Masoomeh Eghtedari, Mandana Bagheri, Bita Geramizadeh, and Mohammadreza Talebnejad Copyright © 2014 Mansooreh Bagheri et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence and Pattern of Superficial Fungal Infections among School Children in Ile-Ife, South-Western Nigeria Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/842917/ Fungal infections of the skin and nails are common global problems with attendant morbidity among affected individuals. Children are mostly affected due to predisposing factors such as overcrowding and low socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and the clinical patterns of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ile-Ife. A multistage sampling was conducted to select eight hundred pupils from ten primary schools in Ile-Ife. Data on epidemiological characteristics and clinical history was collected using a semistructured questionnaire and skin scrapings were done. The prevalence of superficial fungal infections among the 800 respondents was 35.0%. Male pupils constituted 51.0% of respondents while the females were 49.0%. The mean age for all the respondents was 9.42 ± 2.00. Tinea capitis was the commonest infection with a prevalence of 26.9% and tinea unguium, tinea corporis, and tinea faciei had a prevalence of 0.8%, 0.6%, and 0.5%, respectively. Tinea manuum had the least prevalence of 0.1%. Pityriasis versicolor had a prevalence of 4.4%. Microsporum audouinii was the leading organism isolated. The study shows that the prevalence of superficial fungal infection (SFI) among primary school children in Ile-Ife is high with tinea capitis as the commonest SFI. Olaide Olutoyin Oke, Olaniyi Onayemi, Olayinka Abimbola Olasode, Akinlolu Gabriel Omisore, and Olumayowa Abimbola Oninla Copyright © 2014 Olaide Olutoyin Oke et al. All rights reserved. High Frequency of Symptomatic Zinc Deficiency in Infants in Northern Ethiopia Sun, 07 Dec 2014 13:29:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/719701/ Background. Zinc deficiency occurs in infants when its demand exceeds its supply. It presents with cutaneous signs which, in severe cases, are associated with diarrhea, alopecia, and irritability. Genetic and acquired forms of zinc deficiency have been reported and often overlap clinical features. Malnutrition, prematurity, malabsorption syndromes, and burns may cause an increased demand for zinc. Methods. Cases of acquired transient infantile zinc deficiency (TIZD) observed during a period of 3 years at Ayder Referral Hospital of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, are reported here. Since no sophisticated tests were available at our center, the diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and prompt response to oral zinc supplementation. Results. We observed 18 cases of TIZD at our center. All patients were full-term and breastfeeding infants with no relevant associated diseases. Conclusions. In this region, a high incidence of this condition is observed. We could not rule out whether heterozygosity for the genetic mutation was present or that the disease was caused by a nutritional deficiency in the mothers or more probably because both the factors coexisted together. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the causes of the increased incidence of this disease in Northern Ethiopia. Federica Dassoni, Zerihun Abebe, Federica Ricceri, Aldo Morrone, Cristiana Albertin, and Bernard Naafs Copyright © 2014 Federica Dassoni et al. All rights reserved. Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease with Unusual Sites Not to Be Ignored Thu, 16 Oct 2014 09:16:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/639374/ Objective. The usual preferential site of BU is in the limbs. In our experience, we noticed atypical and often misleading sites which pose serious issues for the diagnosis and often for the treatment. Methods. This is a retrospective study conducted over a period of ten years of BU treatment at the Department of Dermatology of the University Teaching Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire). We included in this study all BU cases with atypical site diagnosed clinically and confirmed either by the histology, by smear, or by PCR. Results. Epidemiologically, the age of patients ranged from 3 to 72 years with a median age of 14.2 years. Children aged less than 15 years were affected in almost 80% of case. The clinical table was dominated by ulcerated forms in 82.1% of cases. The unusual topography mostly observed was that of the torso (thorax, back, and abdomen) in 76.8% of cases. Conclusion. BU is an endemic disease in Côte d’Ivoire where it constitutes a serious public health issue. Several years following its first cases, BU still is little known. This dermatosis may present atypical misleading clinical aspects which must be ignored. Sangaré Abdoulaye, Kourouma Sarah Hamdan, Kouassi Yao Isidore, Ecra Elidjé Joseph, Kaloga Mamadou, and Gbery Ildevert Patrice Copyright © 2014 Sangaré Abdoulaye et al. All rights reserved. Superpulsed CO2 Laser with Intraoperative Pathologic Assessment for Treatment of Periorbital Basal Cell Carcinoma Involving Eyelash Line Mon, 13 Oct 2014 06:44:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/931657/ Background. Periorbital basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is considered a high risk case because it is associated with high rate of recurrence and complication. Superpulsed CO2 laser with intraoperative pathologic assessment could be an alternative and appropriate treatment for periocular lesions where Mohs micrographic surgery is not available. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of superpulsed CO2 laser therapy with intraoperative pathologic assessment on periocular BCC involving eyelash line. Method. This follow-up study was performed on 20 patients with a total of 21 BCC lesions that were pathologically documented. Firstly, debulkation of tumoral mass was done by curettage. Then, irradiation and intraoperative pathologic evaluation were done by concurrent CO2 laser. The patients were followed up for a period of 36 months. Results. Out of 21 lesions, the nodular type accounted for 15 (71.4%) lesions, and 12 (57.1%) lesions were seen in the lower lid as the most common clinical type and site involvement. Twenty BCC lesions (95.2%) were treated after one session. Damage to eyelash was seen in 2 (10%) patients, but ectropion and other complications were not seen in any patient. Conclusion. Treatment with superpulsed CO2 laser and intraoperative pathologic evaluation for periorbital BCC lesions much close to conjunctiva could be an effective method with minimal complications without major danger of recurrence. This modality can be used with care in the inner canthus and high risk pathologic lesions. Ali Ebrahimi, Mansour Rezaei, Reza Kavoussi, Mojtaba Eidizadeh, Seyed Hamid Madani, and Hossein Kavoussi Copyright © 2014 Ali Ebrahimi et al. All rights reserved. Pyoderma Gangrenosum: A Review of Clinical Features and Outcomes of 23 Cases Requiring Inpatient Management Wed, 08 Oct 2014 14:08:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/461467/ Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare dermatological disorder characterised by the rapid progression of a painful, necrolytic ulcer. This study retrospectively identified patients who were admitted and treated for PG during a 10-year period (2003–2013). Twenty-three patients were included in this study, 16 women and seven men. The mean age at initial admission was 62.8 years (range 30 to 89 years). Lesions were localised to lower limb in 13 patients, peristomal region in four, breast in three, and upper limb in one, and two patients had PG at multiple sites. The variants of PG noted were ulcerative (18), bullous (2), vegetative (2), and pustular (1). Associated systemic diseases were observed in 11 patients (47.8%). Systemic therapies were initiated in 21 patients while two patients received topical treatments. The mean length of hospital stay was 47 days (range 5 to 243 days) and five patients died during their admissions. Seven patients required readmissions for exacerbations of their PG. Our study showed that patients admitted for treatment of PG had high morbidity and mortality. This study also highlights the importance of early and aggressive treatment of patients admitted with PG as well as treating associated systemic diseases and wound infections. Mingwei Joel Ye and Joshua Mingsheng Ye Copyright © 2014 Mingwei Joel Ye and Joshua Mingsheng Ye. All rights reserved. The Preliminary Study of Effects of Tolfenamic Acid on Cell Proliferation, Cell Apoptosis, and Intracellular Collagen Deposition in Keloid Fibroblasts In Vitro Mon, 22 Sep 2014 08:03:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/736957/ Keloid scarring is a fibroproliferative disorder due to the accumulation of collagen type I. Tolfenamic acid (TA), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been found to potentially affect the synthesis of collagen in rats. In this preliminary study, we aimed to test the effects of TA on cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and the deposition of intracellular collagen in keloid fibroblasts. Normal fibroblasts (NFs) and keloid fibroblasts (KFs) were obtained from human dermis tissue. Within the dose range 10−3–10−6 M and exposure times 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, we found that 0.55 × 10−3 M TA at 48 h exposure exhibited significantly decreased cell proliferation in both NFs and KFs. Under these experimental conditions, we demonstrated that (1) TA treatment induced a remarkable apoptotic rate in KFs compared to NFs; (2) TA treatment reduced collagen production in KFs versus NFs; (3) TA treatment decreased collagen type I expression in KFs comparing to that of NFs. In summary, our data suggest that TA decreases cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, and inhibits collagen accumulation in KFs. Dan Yi, Ji Bihl, Mackenzie S. Newman, Yanfang Chen, and Richard Simman Copyright © 2014 Dan Yi et al. All rights reserved. A Critical Review of Personal Statements Submitted by Dermatology Residency Applicants Sun, 14 Sep 2014 05:22:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/934874/ Background. A strong personal statement is deemed favorable in the overall application review process. However, research on the role of personal statements in the application process is lacking. Objective. To determine if personal statements from matched applicants differ from unmatched applicants. Methods. All dermatology residency applications () submitted to UC Davis Dermatology in the year of 2012 were evaluated. Two investigators identified the characteristics and recurring themes of content present in the personal statements. Then, both investigators individually evaluated the content of these personal statements in order to determine if any of the defined themes was present. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and reliability tests were used. Results. The following themes were emphasized more often by the matched applicants than the unmatched applicants as their reasons for going into dermatology are to study the cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease (33.8% versus 22.8%), to contribute to the literature gap (8.3% versus 1.1%), and to study the pathophysiology of skin diseases (8.3% versus 2.2%; for all). Conclusion. The prevalence of certain themes in personal statements of dermatology applicants differs according to match status; nevertheless, whether certain themes impact match outcome needs to be further elucidated. Jeannette Olazagasti, Farzam Gorouhi, and Nasim Fazel Copyright © 2014 Jeannette Olazagasti et al. All rights reserved. Malignant and Noninvasive Skin Tumours in Renal Transplant Recipients Sun, 14 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/409058/ Background. Transplant recipients require immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection. This conveys an increased risk of malignancy, particularly skin tumours. There is a need for up-to-date data for the South of England. Method. Pathology records were reviewed for 709 kidney transplant recipients on immunosuppression at our hospital from 1995 to 2008. Skin tumours were recorded/analysed. Results. Mean age at transplant was 46 years. Mean length of follow-up was 7.2 years and total follow-up was 4926 person-years. 53 (7.5%) patients (39/458 (8.5%) males and 14/251 (5.6%) females) developed ≥1 skin malignancy. Cumulative incidences of 4.0%, 7.5%, and 12.2% were observed for those with <5, <10, and ≥10 years follow-up, respectively. The rate was 45 tumours per 1000 person-years at risk. Additionally, 21 patients (3.0%) only had noninvasive tumours. 221 malignant skin tumours were found: 50.2% were SCCs, 47.1% BCCs, and 2.7% malignant melanomas. Mean years to first tumour were 5.8. Mean number of tumours per patient was 4, with mean interval of 12 months. Conclusions. Despite changes in transplantation practice during the time since the last data were published in this region, these findings are similar to previous studies. This adds to the evidence allowing clinicians to inform patients in this region of their risk. Christopher D. Roche, Joelle S. Dobson, Sion K. Williams, Mara Quante, Joyce Popoola, and Jade W. M. Chow Copyright © 2014 Christopher D. Roche et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Fraction Evaluation of Dermal Collagen and Elastic Fibres in the Skin Samples Obtained in Two Orientations from the Trunk Region Tue, 09 Sep 2014 09:13:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/251254/ Background. Histomorphic evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres was analysed by image analysis technique. The quantification of dermal elements was performed in skin tissues, collected in horizontal and vertical directions from trunk region and discussed under the perspective of consequences of scar related complications. Materials and Method. Total number of 200 skin samples collected from 5 areas of trunk region were processed histologically and subjected to tissue-quant image analysis. Statistical analysis involving mean with SEM and paired test by SPSS were employed to the percentage values obtained from image analysis. Result. Among the chosen 5 areas of trunk region, abdomen showed the statistically significant difference for both collagen and elastic content between horizontal and vertical orientations (), whereas upper back, presternal, and lateral chest areas showed significant difference () only for collagen and groin only for elastic content. Conclusion. The differences in the distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in 2 directions of the samples from the same areas might be attributed to final outcome of wound healing process by influencing the appearance and behaviour of scar related complications in the region of trunk. Naveen Kumar, Pramod Kumar, Satheesha Nayak Badagabettu, Keerthana Prasad, Ranjini Kudva, and Coimbatore Vasudevarao Raghuveer Copyright © 2014 Naveen Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics Tue, 09 Sep 2014 05:34:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/695387/ Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. Pramod Kumar and Rekha Paulose Copyright © 2014 Pramod Kumar and Rekha Paulose. All rights reserved. Effect of Oral PUVAsol on the Quality of Life in Indian Patients Having Chronic Plaque Psoriasis Thu, 04 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/291586/ Background. Psoriasis is associated with a high impact on health-related QoL (quality of life). PUVAsol has been successfully used for treating psoriasis instead of standard PUVA therapy in developing countries. However, data for PUVAsol therapy and its effect on QoL in psoriatic patients is meagre. Objective. To investigate the effect of PUVAsol on the quality of life in patients having chronic plaque psoriasis. Materials and Methods. An observational prospective study done in patients having chronic plaque psoriasis. PASI and DLQI were calculated before initiating treatment with oral PUVAsol. These were compared with the respective scores after 12 weeks of regular treatment with PUVAsol. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20.0. Results. Both PASI and DLQI showed statistically significant reduction after 12 weeks of regular treatment. 90% of patients responded favourably to PUVAsol therapy in the study and all the domains of DLQI showed significant reduction except domain of “work and school.” Conclusion. Our results show that regular PUVAsol treatment improves the physical appearance of disease as evident by decrease in PASI scores. It also improves the QoL of the patients. This study will add upon the growing evidence of efficacy of PUVAsol. Pratik Gahalaut, Nitin Mishra, Puneet S. Soodan, and Madhur K. Rastogi Copyright © 2014 Pratik Gahalaut et al. All rights reserved. Methylisothiazolinone: An Emergent Allergen in Common Pediatric Skin Care Products Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:22:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/132564/ Recalcitrant dermatitis, such as that of the hands, face, or genitals, may be due to allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from ingredients in seemingly innocuous personal care products. Rising rates of allergy have been noted due to the preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI). This preservative is commonly found in skin and hair care products, especially wipes. This study evaluated the use of MI in products specifically marketed for babies and children and examined the associated marketing terms of such products. Ingredients of skin care products specifically marketed for babies and children were surveyed at two major retailers. Of 152 products surveyed, 30 products contained MI. Categories of products surveyed included facial or body wipes, antibacterial hand wipes, hair products, soaps, bubble baths, moisturizers, and sunscreens. Facial or body wipes and hair products were the categories with the greatest number of MI-containing products. MI-containing products were manufactured by a number of popular brands. Of note, products marketed as “gentle,” “sensitive,” “organic,” or “hypoallergenic” often contained MI, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer scrutiny of product choices. These findings reinforce the importance of educating parents and providing consumer decision-making advice regarding common skin care products, in order to help prevent ACD in children. Megan J. Schlichte and Rajani Katta Copyright © 2014 Megan J. Schlichte and Rajani Katta. All rights reserved. Comparison of Zn, Cu, and Fe Content in Hair and Serum in Alopecia Areata Patients with Normal Group Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/784863/ Background. Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune condition, in which hair is lost from some areas of the body. Though its etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, there are claims that imbalance of trace elements may trigger the onset of AA, by distorting immune functions. In this study, we tried to investigate the relationship between AA and iron, zinc, and copper levels of serum and hair. Materials and Methods. Sixteen female patients with AA (14–40 years old) and 27 healthy female controls were enrolled in this study. Serum and hair level of iron, zinc, and copper were measured by flame emission spectroscopy. The resulting data was analyzed with SPSS15. Results. We did not detect a significant difference in the serum and hair level of iron, zinc, and copper between patients and controls. There was a significant correlation between serum and hair level of iron (,  ), zinc (,  ), and copper (, ) in patients and controls. Discussion and Conclusion. According to this study, there was no statistically significant difference between trace elements among AA patients and controls. So the trace elements level in hair and serum may not be relevant to the immunologic dysfunction that exists in AA patients. Ladan Dastgheib, Zohreh Mostafavi-pour, Ahmad Adnan Abdorazagh, Zahra Khoshdel, Maryam Sadat Sadati, Iman Ahrari, Sajjad Ahrari, and Mahsa Ghavipisheh Copyright © 2014 Ladan Dastgheib et al. All rights reserved. Narrow-Band Ultraviolet B versus Oral Minocycline in Treatment of Unstable Vitiligo: A Prospective Comparative Trial Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:22:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/240856/ Background. We have compared NB-UVB and oral minocycline in stabilizing vitiligo for the first time. Subjects and Methods. 42 patients were divided equally into two groups: the NB-UVB and minocycline groups. Phototherapy was administered twice a week on nonconsecutive days. In the minocycline group, patients were advised to take minocycline 100 mg once daily. The treatment period was 3 months. Vitiligo disease activity (VIDA) score was noted every 4 weeks for 12 months. Digital photographs were taken at baseline and monthly intervals. Results. Before the therapy, disease activity was present in 100% of the patients, which was reduced to 23.8% and 66.1% by the end of therapy in the NB-UVB and minocycline groups retrospectively (). 16 of the 21 (76/1%) patients with unstable disease in the NB-UVB group achieved stability, whereas this was the case for only 7 of the 21 (33.3%) in the minocycline group (). The diameter changes were statistically significant at the end of treatment in the NB-UVB group compared to the minocycline group (). Side effects in both groups were mild. Conclusion. NB-UVB was statistically more advantageous than oral minocycline in unstable vitiligo in terms of efficacy and the resulting stability. Amir Hossein Siadat, Naser Zeinali, Fariba Iraji, Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Kioumars Jamshidi, and Parastoo Khosravani Copyright © 2014 Amir Hossein Siadat et al. All rights reserved. IL-1RN VNTR Polymorphism in Adult Dermatomyositis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Tue, 19 Aug 2014 13:14:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/953597/ Polymorphisms in the cytokine genes and their natural antagonists are thought to influence the predisposition to dermatomyositis (DM) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of 86 bp in intron 2 of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) gene leads to the existence of five different alleles which cause differences in the production of both IL-1RA (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) and IL-1β. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate the association between the IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism and the susceptibility to DM and SLE in Bulgarian patients. Altogether 91 patients, 55 with SLE and 36 with DM, as well as 112 unrelated healthy controls, were included in this study. Only three alleles were identified in both patients and controls ((1) four repeats, (2) two repeats, and (3) five repeats). The IL-2 allele (, OR 2.5, and 95% CI 1.2–5.4) and the 1/2+2/2 genotypes were found prevalent among the SLE patients (, OR 2.6, and 95% CI 1–6.3). No association was found between this polymorphism and the ACR criteria for SLE as well as with the susceptibility to DM. Our results indicate that the IL-1RN VNTR polymorphism might play a role in the susceptibility of SLE but not DM. Zornitsa Kamenarska, Gyulnas Dzhebir, Maria Hristova, Alexey Savov, Anton Vinkov, Radka Kaneva, Vanio Mitev, and Lyubomir Dourmishev Copyright © 2014 Zornitsa Kamenarska et al. All rights reserved. Allergic Contact Dermatitis Is Associated with Significant Oxidative Stress Mon, 11 Aug 2014 12:09:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/415638/ Background. Research has confirmed the involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in allergic contact dermatitis whilst other inflammation-related biomarkers have been less studied. Objective. To evaluate systemic levels of selected inflammatory markers, OxS indices and adipokines as well as their associations in allergic contact dermatitis. Methods. In 40 patients, interleukin- (IL-) 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), and IL-10 levels were measured in sera with the Evidence Investigator Cytokine & Growth factors High-Sensitivity Array, total peroxide concentration (TPX) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by means of spectrophotometry, and the plasma concentrations of adiponectin and leptin by the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique. Results. TNF-α level (P < 0.01) and TPX (P < 0.0001) were increased whilst IL-10 (P < 0.05) and TAC (P < 0.0001) were decreased in the patients as compared to controls. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis identified both, TPX and TAC (inversely), as possible independent markers for evaluating allergic contact dermatitis. Adiponectin level in patients was increased (P < 0.0001), but neither adiponectin nor leptin correlated significantly with the biomarkers of inflammation or OxS. Conclusion. OxS parameters, especially TPX and OSI, reflect the degree of systemic inflammation associated with allergic contact dermatitis in the best way. The relation between OxS and adiponectin level warrants further studies. S. Kaur, K. Zilmer, V. Leping, and M. Zilmer Copyright © 2014 S. Kaur et al. All rights reserved. The Incidence and Risk Factors for Lower Limb Skin Graft Failure Tue, 15 Jul 2014 13:07:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/582080/ Lower limb skin grafts are thought to have higher failure rates than skin grafts in other sites of the body. Currently, there is a paucity of literature on specific factors associated with lower limb skin graft failure. We present a series of 70 lower limb skin grafts in 50 patients with outcomes at 6 weeks. One-third of lower limb skin grafts went on to fail with increased BMI, peripheral vascular disease, and immunosuppressant medication use identified as significant risk factors. Sumeet Reddy, Falah El-Haddawi, Michael Fancourt, Glenn Farrant, William Gilkison, Nigel Henderson, Stephen Kyle, and Damien Mosquera Copyright © 2014 Sumeet Reddy et al. All rights reserved. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:58:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/316219/ Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient’s own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. Neel Prabha, Vikram K. Mahajan, Karaninder S. Mehta, Pushpinder S. Chauhan, and Mrinal Gupta Copyright © 2014 Neel Prabha et al. All rights reserved. Pathogenesis of Chronic Urticaria: An Overview Thu, 10 Jul 2014 08:36:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/674709/ The pathogenesis of chronic urticaria is not well delineated and the treatment is palliative as it is not tied to the pathomechanism. The centrality of mast cells and their inappropriate activation and degranulation as the key pathophysiological event are well established. The triggering stimuli and the complexity of effector mechanisms remain speculative. Autoimmune origin of chronic urticaria, albeit controversial, is well documented. Numerical and behavioral alterations in basophils accompanied by changes in signaling molecule expression and function as well as aberrant activation of extrinsic pathway of coagulation are other alternative hypotheses. It is also probable that mast cells are involved in the pathogenesis through mechanisms that extend beyond high affinity IgE receptor stimulation. An increasing recognition of chronic urticaria as an immune mediated inflammatory disorder related to altered cytokine-chemokine network consequent to immune dysregulation resulting from disturbed innate immunity is emerging as yet another pathogenic explanation. It is likely that these different pathomechanisms are interlinked rather than independent cascades, acting either synergistically or sequentially to produce clinical expression of chronic urticaria. Insights into the complexities of pathogenesis may provide an impetus to develop safer, efficacious, and targeted immunomodulators and biological treatment for severe, refractory chronic urticaria. Sanjiv Jain Copyright © 2014 Sanjiv Jain. All rights reserved. Zinc Therapy in Dermatology: A Review Thu, 10 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/709152/ Zinc, both in elemental or in its salt forms, has been used as a therapeutic modality for centuries. Topical preparations like zinc oxide, calamine, or zinc pyrithione have been in use as photoprotecting, soothing agents or as active ingredient of antidandruff shampoos. Its use has expanded manifold over the years for a number of dermatological conditions including infections (leishmaniasis, warts), inflammatory dermatoses (acne vulgaris, rosacea), pigmentary disorders (melasma), and neoplasias (basal cell carcinoma). Although the role of oral zinc is well-established in human zinc deficiency syndromes including acrodermatitis enteropathica, it is only in recent years that importance of zinc as a micronutrient essential for infant growth and development has been recognized. The paper reviews various dermatological uses of zinc. Mrinal Gupta, Vikram K. Mahajan, Karaninder S. Mehta, and Pushpinder S. Chauhan Copyright © 2014 Mrinal Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effect of Elastic Stockings to Maintain Volume Losses after Mechanical Lymphatic Therapy Thu, 19 Jun 2014 05:27:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/430636/ The objective of the current study was to assess whether Venosan elastic stockings have a synergistic effect on the maintenance of results after Mechanical Lymphatic Therapy. Eleven patients with grade II lymphedema of the legs, regardless of cause, were evaluated in the Clinica Godoy between September and November 2012. The participants’ ages ranged from 53 to 83 years old with a mean of 65.1 years. Two groups were formed with Group I using Venosan elastic stockings and Group II not using any type of compression therapy. Evaluations of the lymphedematous legs were performed before and after each drainage session using bioimpedance. Patients who wore elastic stockings had a greater volume reduction than those who did not wear stockings (unpaired -test: value < 0.001). José Maria Pereira de Godoy, Renata Lopes Pinto, Ana Carolina Pereira de Godoy, and Maria de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy Copyright © 2014 José Maria Pereira de Godoy et al. All rights reserved. Different Trichoscopic Features of Tinea Capitis and Alopecia Areata in Pediatric Patients Mon, 16 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/848763/ Background. Diagnosis of patchy hair loss in pediatric patients is often a matter of considerable debate among dermatologists. Trichoscopy is a rapid and noninvasive tool to detect more details of patchy hair loss. Like clinical dermatology, trichoscopy works parallel to the skin surface and perpendicular to the histological plane; like the histopathology, it thus allows the viewing of structures not discovered by the naked eye. Objective. Aiming to compare the different trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. Patients and Methods. This study included 40 patients, 20 patients with tinea capitis and 20 patients with alopecia areata. They were exposed toclinical examination, laboratory investigations (10% KOH and fungal culture), and trichoscope examination. Results. Our obtained results reported that, in tinea capitis patients, comma shaped hairs, corkscrew hairs, and zigzag shaped hairs are the diagnostic trichoscopic features of tinea capitis. While in alopecia areata patients, the most trichoscopic specific features were yellow dots, exclamation mark, and short vellus hairs. Conclusion. Trichoscopy can be used as a noninvasive tool for rapid diagnosis of tinea capitis and alopecia areata in pediatric patients. Abd-Elaziz El-Taweel, Fatma El-Esawy, and Osama Abdel-Salam Copyright © 2014 Abd-Elaziz El-Taweel et al. All rights reserved. Retrospective Analysis of Corticosteroid Treatment in Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and/or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis over a Period of 10 Years in Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University, Bangkok Sun, 15 Jun 2014 12:41:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/237821/ Background. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and/or toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are uncommon and life-threatening drug reaction associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Objective. We studied SJS and/or TEN by conducting a retrospective analysis of 87 patients treated during a 10-year period. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of the records of all patients with a diagnosis of SJS and/or TEN based on clinical features and histological confirmation of SJS and/or TEN was not available at the Department of Medicine, Vajira hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The data were collected from two groups from 2003 to 2007 and 2008 to 2012. Results. A total of 87 cases of SJS and/or TEN were found, comprising 44 males and 43 females whose mean age was 46.5 years. The average length of stay was 17 days. Antibiotics, anticonvulsants, and allopurinol were the major culprit drugs in both groups. The mean SCORTEN on admission was 2.1 in first the group while 1.7 in second the group. From 2008 to 2012, thirty-nine patients (76.5%) were treated with corticosteroids while only eight patients (22.2%) were treated between 2003 and 2007. The mortality rate declined from 25% from the first group to 13.7% in the second group. Complications between first and second groups had no significant differences. Conclusions. Short-term corticosteroids may contribute to a reduced mortality rate in SJS and/or TEN without increasing secondary infection. Further well-designed studies are required to compare the effect of corticosteroids treatment for SJS and/or TEN. Wanjarus Roongpisuthipong, Sirikarn Prompongsa, and Theerawut Klangjareonchai Copyright © 2014 Wanjarus Roongpisuthipong et al. All rights reserved. Propranolol in Treatment of Huge and Complicated Infantile Hemangiomas in Egyptian Children Thu, 08 May 2014 16:20:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/541810/ Background. Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign tumours of infancy. Propranolol has recently been reported to be a highly effective treatment for IHs. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of propranolol for treatment of complicated cases of IHs. Patients and Methods. This prospective clinical study included 30 children with huge or complicated IHs; their ages ranged from 2 months to 1 year. They were treated by oral propranolol. Treatment outcomes were clinically evaluated. Results. Superficial cutaneous hemangiomas began to respond to propranolol therapy within one to two weeks after the onset of treatment. The mean treatment period that was needed for the occurrence of complete resolution was 9.4 months. Treatment with propranolol was well tolerated and had few side effects. No rebound growth of the tumors was noted when propranolol dosing stopped except in one case. Conclusion. Propranolol is a promising treatment for IHs without obvious side effects. However, further studies with longer follow-up periods are needed. Basheir A. Hassan and Khalid S. Shreef Copyright © 2014 Basheir A. Hassan and Khalid S. Shreef. All rights reserved. Dermatology Residency Selection Criteria with an Emphasis on Program Characteristics: A National Program Director Survey Mon, 17 Mar 2014 07:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/692760/ Background. Dermatology residency programs are relatively diverse in their resident selection process. The authors investigated the importance of 25 dermatology residency selection criteria focusing on differences in program directors’ (PDs’) perception based on specific program demographics. Methods. This cross-sectional nationwide observational survey utilized a 41-item questionnaire that was developed by literature search, brainstorming sessions, and online expert reviews. The data were analyzed utilizing the reliability test, two-step clustering, and -means methods as well as other methods. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in PDs’ perception regarding the importance of the selection criteria based on program demographics. Results. Ninety-five out of 114 PDs (83.3%) responded to the survey. The top five criteria for dermatology residency selection were interview, letters of recommendation, United States Medical Licensing Examination Step I scores, medical school transcripts, and clinical rotations. The following criteria were preferentially ranked based on different program characteristics: “advanced degrees,” “interest in academics,” “reputation of undergraduate and medical school,” “prior unsuccessful attempts to match,” and “number of publications.” Conclusions. Our survey provides up-to-date factual data on dermatology PDs’ perception in this regard. Dermatology residency programs may find the reported data useful in further optimizing their residency selection process. Farzam Gorouhi, Ali Alikhan, Arash Rezaei, and Nasim Fazel Copyright © 2014 Farzam Gorouhi et al. All rights reserved. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: A Review of Cutaneous Adverse Events and Management Sun, 02 Mar 2014 11:19:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/734249/ Epidermal growth factor inhibitors (EGFRI), the first targeted cancer therapy, are currently an essential treatment for many advance-stage epithelial cancers. These agents have the superior ability to target cancers cells and better safety profile compared to conventional chemotherapies. However, cutaneous adverse events are common due to the interference of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in the skin. Cutaneous toxicities lead to poor compliance, drug cessation, and psychosocial discomfort. This paper summarizes the current knowledge concerning the presentation and management of skin toxicity from EGFRI. The common dermatologic adverse events are papulopustules and xerosis. Less common findings are paronychia, regulatory abnormalities of hair growth, maculopapular rash, mucositis, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Radiation enhances EGFRI rash due to synergistic toxicity. There is a positive correlation between the occurrence and severity of cutaneous adverse effects and tumor response. To date, prophylactic systemic tetracycline and tetracycline class antibiotics have proven to be the most effective treatment regime. K. Chanprapaph, V. Vachiramon, and P. Rattanakaemakorn Copyright © 2014 K. Chanprapaph et al. All rights reserved. Comparison the Efficacy of Fluconazole and Terbinafine in Patients with Moderate to Severe Seborrheic Dermatitis Tue, 18 Feb 2014 07:12:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/705402/ Background. Topical agents can be unpleasant due to long-term therapies in patients with moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis. Systemic antifungal therapy is another alternative in treatment. Aim. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of oral fluconazole and terbinafine in the treatment of moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis. Methods. 64 patients with moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis (SD) were enrolled in a randomized, parallel-group study. One study group took terbinafine 250 mg daily () and the other one fluconazole 300 mg () weekly for four weeks. Seborrheic dermatitis area severity index (SDASI) and the intensity of itching were calculated before, at the end of treatment, and two weeks after treatment. Results. Both drugs significantly reduced the severity of seborrheic dermatitis (). Multivariate linear regression revealed that efficacy of terbinafine is more than fluconazole (, 95% CI (0.63–4.7)). Moreover, each index of SD severity reduced 0.9 times after treatment. (, 95% CI (0.8–1.02)). The itching rate significantly diminished (); however, there was no difference between these two drugs statistically. Conclusions. Both systemic antifungal therapies may reduce the severity index of SD. However, terbinafine showed more reduction in the intensity of the disease. In other words, the more the primary intensity of the disease is, the more its reduction will be. This trial is resgistered with 201102205871N1. Narges Alizadeh, Hamed Monadi Nori, Javad Golchi, Shahriar S. Eshkevari, Ehsan Kazemnejad, and Abbas Darjani Copyright © 2014 Narges Alizadeh et al. All rights reserved. Skin Biopsy in the Context of Dermatological Diagnosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study Thu, 30 Jan 2014 09:24:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/drp/2014/734906/ Background. Skin biopsy is an established method for allying the dermatologist in overcoming the diagnostic dilemmas which occur during consultations. However neither do all skin biopsies produce a conclusive diagnosis nor the dermatologists routinely perform this procedure to every patient they consult. The aim of this study was to investigate the favourable clinical diagnoses set by dermatologists when performing skin biopsy, the diagnoses reached by the dermatopathologists after microscopic examination, and the relationship between them and finally to comment on the instances that skin biopsy fails to fulfill the diagnostic task. Methods. Six thousand eight hundred and sixteen biopsy specimens were reviewed and descriptive statistics were performed. Results. The mean age of the patients was years, the most common site of biopsy was the head and neck (38.3%), the most frequently proposed clinical diagnoses included malignancies (19.28%), and the most prevalent pathological diagnosis was epitheliomas (21.9%). After microscopic examination, a specific histological diagnosis was proposed in 83.29% of the cases and a consensus between clinical and histological diagnoses was observed in 68% of them. Conclusions. Although there are cases that skin biopsy exhibits diagnostic inefficiency, it remains a valuable aid for the dermatology clinical practice. Chrysovalantis Korfitis, Stamatis Gregoriou, Christina Antoniou, Andreas D. Katsambas, and Dimitris Rigopoulos Copyright © 2014 Chrysovalantis Korfitis et al. All rights reserved.