Table 2: Studies on the treatment of depression in Malaysia.

StudyDisorder or problemEthnicity Gender DesignInterventionDuration of treatmentOutcome measureTreatment result (+ve/−ve)

(8) Woon and Teoh [24]Depression with hysterical personality disorderChinese Female Case studyPsychodynamic therapy and amitriptyline1 year and 5 monthsNAPositive

(9) Ong and Lee [25]Depressive neurosis and manic depressiveMalay Chinese Indian Male Female RCTNomifensine and amitriptyline9 weeksHDRS; Global clinical parameterPositive with few adverse effects

(10) Indran [26]Depression (12) Dysthymia (3) Anxiety (3) Bipolar (1) Schizophrenia (1) (Outpatient)Malays Indian Chinese Others Male Female RCTMoclobemide6 weeksHDRS; CGI; PGIPositive with few adverse effects

(11) Azhar and Varma [27]DepressionMalays NARCTReligious supportive therapy15–20 sessionsHDRSPositive

(12) Razali [28]DepressionMalay Male Female Case studyDothiepin and maprotiline3 month and 1 monthNAPositive

(13) Razali et al. [29]Depression and anxiety Malays NARCTReligious supportive therapy + benzodiazepines or antidepressants26 weeksHARS; HDRSPositive

(14) Razali and Hasanah [30]Depression (Outpatient)Malay NARCTAmitriptyline, imipramine, dothiepin and maprotiline8 weeksHDRSPositive

(15) Razali [31]Masked Depression (Outpatient)Malay Female Case StudyDothiepin6 weeksNAPositive

(16) Ng and Stevens [32]DepressionMalaysian Chinese ; others Male Female RCTSertraline (SSRI)6 weeksHDRS; CGI; LUNSERS; Plasma measurementPositive with few adverse effects

(17) Azhar et al.Depression (Outpatient) NARCTCBT + ESCCBT + STRCBT + FXT12 weeksHADS; BDI; WHO-QOLPositive; CBT + ESC show better

(18) Mukhtar et al. [33]Depression (Outpatient)Malays Male Female RCTGCBT + TAUTAU8 sessions; 1 monthATQ; DASPositive and maintained at 3 and 6 month followups

Note: KEY to intervention (alphabetical order): Group Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (GCBT); Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI); Escitalopram (ESC); Sertraline (STR); Fluoxetine (FXT); Treatment-as-Usual (TAU)Note: KEY to measures (alphabetical order): Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ); Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); Clinical Global Impression (CGI); Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS); Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS); Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS); Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side-effect Rating Scale (LUNSERS); Patients Global Improvement (PGI).