About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 363964, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/363964
Research Article

Postpartum Depression: Screening, Diagnosis, and Management Programs 2000 through 2010

1Department of Research, Olmsted Medical Center, Rochester, MN 55904, USA
2Departments of Pediatrics and Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03755, USA
3National Research Network, American Academy of Family Physicians, Leawood, KS 66211, USA
4Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH 03735, USA

Received 30 March 2012; Revised 7 June 2012; Accepted 21 June 2012

Academic Editor: Mark Williams

Copyright © 2012 Barbara P. Yawn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, “Depression in Parents, Parenting, and Children: Opportunities to Improve Identification, Treatment, and Prevention,” Committee on Depression, Parenting Practices, and the Healthy Development of Children. Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC, USA, The National Academies Press, 2009.
  2. C. E. Hewitt and S. M. Gilbody, “Is it clinically and cost effective to screen for postnatal depression: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials and economic evidence,” An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 116, no. 8, pp. 1019–1027, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. C. E. Hewitt, S. M. Gilbody, S. Brealey, et al., “Methods to identify postnatal depression in primary care: an integrated evidence synthesis and value of information analysis,” Health Technology Assessment, vol. 13, no. 36, pp. 1–145, 2009. View at Scopus
  4. B. N. Gaynes, N. Gavin, S. Meltzer-Brody et al., “Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes,” Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, no. 119, 2005, AHRQ Publications No. 05-E006-2. View at Scopus
  5. N. I. Gavin, B. N. Gaynes, K. N. Lohr, S. Meltzer-Brody, G. Gartlehner, and T. Swinson, “Perinatal depression: a systematic review of prevalence and incidence,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 106, no. 5, part 1, pp. 1071–1083, 2005. View at Scopus
  6. M. W. O'Hara, “Postpartum depression: what we know,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1258–1269, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. T. L. Bryan, A. M. Georgiopoulos, R. W. Harms, J. E. Huxsahl, D. R. Larson, and B. P. Yawn, “Incidence of postpartum depression in Olmsted County, Minnesota: a population-based, retrospective study,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 351–358, 1999. View at Scopus
  8. I. H. Bernstein, A. J. Rush, K. Yonkers et al., “Symptom features of postpartum depression: are they distinct?” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 20–26, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Field, “Prenatal depression effects on early development: a review,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Feldman, A. Granat, C. Pariente, H. Kanety, J. Kuint, and E. Gilboa-Schechtman, “Maternal depression and anxiety across the postpartum year and infant social engagement, fear regulation, and stress reactivity,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 919–927, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Avan, L. M. Richter, P. G. Ramchandani, S. A. Norris, and A. Stein, “Maternal postnatal depression and children's growth and behaviour during the early years of life: exploring the interaction between physical and mental health,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. 690–695, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. Murray, A. Arteche, P. Fearon, S. Halligan, T. Croudace, and P. Cooper, “The effects of maternal postnatal depression and child sex on academic performance at age 16 years: a developmental approach,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1150–1159, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), “Recommendations of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The Guide to Clinical Preventive Services,” Pub No. 07-05100, September 2007, http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstf/uspstopics.htm.
  14. H. Mishina and J. I. Takayama, “Screening for maternal depression in primary care pediatrics,” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 789–793, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. NICE, http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG90.
  16. Bright Futures, http://www.brightfutures.org/.
  17. J. Sheeder, K. Kabir, and B. Stafford, “Screening for postpartum depression at well-child visits: is once enough during the first 6 months of life?” Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. e982–e988, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Paulden, S. Palmer, C. Hewitt, and S. Gilbody, “Screening for postnatal depression in primary care: cost effectiveness analysis,” British Medical Journal, vol. 339, Article ID b5203, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Committee Opinion No. 453, “Screening for depression during and after pregnancy,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 115, no. 2, part 1, pp. 394–395, 2010.
  20. A. L. Olson, A. J. Dietrich, G. Prazar, and J. Hurley, “Brief maternal depression screening at well-child visits,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 207–216, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. Gjerdingen, W. Katon, and D. E. Rich, “Stepped care treatment of postpartum depression. A primary care based management model,” Women's Health Issues, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 44–52, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. A. Yonkers, M. V. Smith, H. Lin, H. B. Howell, L. Shao, and R. A. Rosenheck, “Depression screening of perinatal women: an evaluation of the healthy start depression initiative,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 322–328, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. M. Georgiopoulos, T. L. Bryan, P. Wollan, and B. P. Yawn, “Routine screening for postpartum depression,” Journal of Family Practice, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 117–122, 2001. View at Scopus
  24. A. M. Georgiopoulos, T. L. Bryan, B. P. Yawn, M. S. Houston, T. A. Rummans, and T. M. Therneau, “Population-based screening for postpartum depression,” Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 653–657, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Gilbody, T. Sheldon, and A. House, “Screening and case-finding instruments for depression: a meta-analysis,” Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 178, no. 8, pp. 997–1003, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. S. S. L. Leung, C. Leung, T. H. Lam et al., “Outcome of a postnatal depression screening programme using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Public Health, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 292–301, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. P. Yawn, W. Pace, S. Bertram, P. Wollan, D. Graham, and A. Dietrich, “Translating PPD screening and management into primary care practice: An RCT,” The Annals of Family Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 320–329, 2012.
  28. S. Armstrong and R. Small, “Screening for postnatal depression: not a simple task,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. B. Kozhimannil, A. S. Adams, S. B. Soumerai, A. B. Busch, and H. A. Huskamp, “New Jersey's efforts to improve postpartum depression care did not change treatment patterns for women on medicaid,” Health Affairs, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 293–301, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. P. Austin, N. Reilly, J. Milgrom, and B. Barnett, “A national approach to perinatal mental health in Australia: exercising caution in the roll-out of a public health initiative,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 192, no. 2, p. 111, 2010. View at Scopus
  31. A. Buist, J. Condon, J. Brooks et al., “Acceptability of routine screening for perinatal depression,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 233–237, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Buist, D. Ellwood, J. Brooks et al., “National program for depression associated with childbirth: the Australian experience,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 193–206, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. L. Cox, J. M. Holden, and R. Sagovsky, “Detection of postnatal depression: development of the 10-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 150, pp. 782–786, 1987. View at Scopus
  34. R. L. Spitzer, K. Kroenke, and J. B. W. Williams, “Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 18, pp. 1737–1744, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Gjerdincjen, S. Crow, P. McGovern, M. Miner, and B. Center, “Postpartum depression screening at well-child visits: validity of a 2-question screen and the PHQ-9,” Annals of Family Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63–70, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Löwe, K. Kroenke, W. Herzog, and K. Gräfe, “Measuring depression outcome with a brief self-report instrument: sensitivity to change of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9),” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. M. Bennett, A. Coco, J. C. Coyne et al., “Efficiency of a two-item pre-screen to reduce the burden of depression screening in pregnancy and postpartum: an IMPLICIT network study,” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 317–325, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Kroenke, R. L. Spitzer, and J. B. W. Williams, “The patient health questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener,” Medical Care, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1284–1292, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Lee, A. Yip, H. Chieu, and T. Chung, “Screening for postnatal depression using the double-test strategy,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 258–263, 2000. View at Scopus
  40. D. Gjerdingen, P. McGovern, and B. Center, “Problems with a diagnostic depression interview in a postpartum depression trial,” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 187–193, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. V. Smith, L. Shao, H. Howell, H. Wang, K. Poschman, and K. A. Yonkers, “Success of mental health referral among pregnant and postpartum women with psychiatric distress,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. B. Yawn, A. Dietrich, P. Wollan, et al., “The IAP: a simple tool to guide assessment and immediate action for suicidal ideation,” Family Practice Management, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 17–20, 2009.
  43. D. Sit, C. Flint, D. Svidergol et al., “Best practices: an emerging best practice model for perinatal depression care,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1429–1431, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. W. J. Katon, E. H. B. Lin, M. Von Korff et al., “Collaborative care for patients with depression and chronic illnesses,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 27, pp. 2611–2620, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. J. Dietrich, T. E. Oxman, J. W. Williams et al., “Re-engineering systems for the treatment of depression in primary care: cluster randomised controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 329, no. 7466, pp. 602–605, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. A. Horowitz, C. A. Murphy, K. E. Gregory, and J. Wojcik, “Best practices: community-based postpartum depression screening: results from the CARE study,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1432–1434, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Wiedmann and C. Garfield, “Perinatal Maternal Depression and Child Development Strategies for Primary Care Providers,” 2007, http://www.iafp.com/pdfs/MaternalDepression.pdf.
  48. D. Castle, I. Schweitzer, and J. Tiller, “STAR*D: has it taught us anything about the management of depression?” Australasian Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 360–364, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. L. Margolis, L. I. Solberg, A. L. Crain et al., “Prevalence of practice system tools for improving depression care among primary care clinics: the DIAMOND initiative,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 999–1004, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. I. Krantz, B. O. Eriksson, C. Lundquist-Persson, B. M. Ahlberg, and T. Nilstun, “Screening for postpartum depression with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): an ethical analysis,” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 211–216, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. A. L. Olson, A. J. Dietrich, G. Prazar et al., “Two approaches to maternal depression screening during well child visits,” Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 169–176, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. “CMWF website,” http://www.commonwealthfund.org/Publications/Fund-Manuals/2007/Apr/Parental-Depression-Screening-for-Pediatric-Clinicians–An-Implementation-Manual.aspx.
  53. M. F. Earls and The Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health, “Clincal report-incorporating recognition and management of perinaltaland postpartum depression into pediatric practice,” Pediatrics, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 1032–1039, 2010.
  54. L. I. Solberg, “Improving medical practice: a conceptual framework,” Annals of Family Medicine, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 251–256, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. “Mental health professional shortages,” http://bhpr.hrsa.gov/shortage/.
  56. D. K. Gjerdingen and B. P. Yawn, “Postpartum depression screening: importance, methods, barriers, and recommendations for practice,” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 280–288, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. H. A. Flynn, E. Henshaw, H. O'Mahen, and J. Forman, “Patient perspectives on improving the depression referral processes in obstetrics settings: a qualitative study,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. “A new direction in depression treatment in Minnesota: DIAMOND program, Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, Bloomington, Minnesota,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 61, no. 10, pp. 1042–1044, 2010.
  59. “IOM quality chasm,” http://www.iom.edu/Reports/2001/Crossing-the-Quality-Chasm-A-New-Health-System-for-the-21st-Century.aspx.