About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 820735, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/820735
Research Article

Evidence Map of Prevention and Treatment Interventions for Depression in Young People

1Orygen Youth Health Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Locked Bag 10, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
2Headspace Centre of Excellence, The National Youth Mental Health Foundation, P.O. Box 473, North Melbourne, Victoria 3051, Australia

Received 31 August 2011; Revised 22 December 2011; Accepted 30 December 2011

Academic Editor: John R. Seeley

Copyright © 2012 Patrick Callahan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. J. Costello, A. Erkanli, and A. Angold, “Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression?” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 1263–1271, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  2. B. Birmaher, N. D. Ryan, D. E. Williamson et al., “Childhood and adolescent depression: a review of the past 10 years. Part I,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 11, pp. 1427–1439, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. M. Lewinsohn, P. Rohde, and J. R. Seeley, “Major depressive disorder in older adolescents: prevalence, risk factors, and clinical implications,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 765–794, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. S. Gould, R. King, S. Greenwald et al., “Psychopathology associated with suicidal ideation and attempts among children and adolescents,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 915–923, 1998. View at Scopus
  5. M. M. Weissman, S. Wolk, R. B. Goldstein et al., “Depressed adolescents grown up,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 281, no. 18, pp. 1707–1713, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Murray and A. Lopez, The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected to 2020, Harvard School of Public Health on behalf of the World Health Organisation and the World Bank, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1996.
  7. R. C. Kessler, P. Berglund, O. Demler, R. Jin, K. R. Merikangas, and E. E. Walters, “Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 593–602, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. R. Harrington, H. Fudge, M. Rutter, A. Pickles, and J. Hill, “Adult outcomes of childhood and adolescent depression. I. Psychiatric status,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 465–473, 1990. View at Scopus
  9. E. B. Weller and R. A. Weller, “Depression in adolescents growing pains or true morbidity?” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 61, supplement 1, pp. S9–S13, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. Kovacs, T. L. Feinberg, and M. A. Crouse-Novak, “Depressive disorders in childhood. I. A Longitudinal prospective study of characteristics and recovery,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 229–237, 1984. View at Scopus
  11. L. L. Judd, M. P. Paulus, K. B. Wells, and M. H. Rapaport, “Socioeconomic burden of subsyndromal depressive symptoms and major depression in a sample of the general population,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 153, no. 11, pp. 1411–1417, 1996. View at Scopus
  12. I. H. Gotlib, P. M. Lewinsohn, and J. R. Seeley, “Symptoms versus a diagnosis of depression: differences in psychosocial functioning,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 90–100, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. A. Brent and B. Birmaher, “Adolescent depression,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 9, pp. 667–671, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. S. J. Blumenthal, “Youth suicide: risk factors, assessment, and treatment of adolescent and young adult suicidal patients,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 511–556, 1990. View at Scopus
  15. S. J. Blumenthal and D. J. Kupfer, “Overview of early detection and treatment strategies for suicidal behavior in young people,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 1988. View at Scopus
  16. U. Rao, M. M. Weissman, J. A. Martin, and R. W. Hammond, “Childhood depression and risk of suicide: a preliminary report of a longitudinal study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 1993. View at Scopus
  17. R. Harrington and A. Clark, “Prevention and early intervention for depression in adolescence and early adult life,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 248, no. 1, pp. 32–45, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. D. McGorry, I. B. Hickie, A. R. Yung, C. Pantelis, and H. J. Jackson, “Clinical staging of psychiatric disorders: a heuristic framework for choosing earlier, safer and more effective interventions,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 616–622, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. C. D. Bilsbury and A. Richman, “A staging approach to measuring patient-centred subjective outcomes,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement, vol. 106, no. 414, pp. 5–40, 2002. View at Scopus
  20. G. A. Fava, S. Grandi, R. Canestrari, and G. Molnar, “Prodromal symptoms in primary major depressive disorder,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 149–152, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. A. Fava and R. Kellner, “Staging: a neglected dimension in psychiatric classification,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 225–230, 1993. View at Scopus
  22. G. A. Fava and E. Tossani, “Prodromal stage of major depression,” Early Intervention in Psychiatry, vol. 1, pp. 9–18, 2007.
  23. L. L. Judd, H. S. Akiskal, and M. P. Paulus, “The role and clinical significance of subsyndromal depressive symptoms (SSD) in unipolar major depressive disorder,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 5–18, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. A. Kopas, SSRI Prescription Rates for Young People in Australia, S. Hetrick, Ed., Pharmaceutical Benefits Division, Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, Australia, 2010.
  25. A. N. Page, S. Swannell, G. Martin, S. Hollingworth, I. B. Hickie, and W. D. Hall, “Sociodemographic correlates of antidepressant utilisation in Australia,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 190, no. 9, pp. 479–483, 2009. View at Scopus
  26. H. Arksey and L. O'Malley, “Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework,” International Journal of Social Research Methodology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 19–32, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. Jones and D. Evans, “Conducting a systematic review,” Australian Critical Care, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 66–71, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. E. Hetrick, A. G. Parker, P. Callahan, and R. Purcell, “Evidence mapping: illustrating an emerging methodology to improve evidence-based practice in youth mental health,” Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1025–1030, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  29. D. L. Katz, A. L. Williams, C. Girard et al., “The evidence base for complementary and alternative medicine: methods of evidence mapping with application to CAM,” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 22–30, 2003. View at Scopus
  30. P. J. Mrazek and R. J. Haggerty, Frontiers for Preventive Intervention Research, National Academy, Washington, DC, USA, 1994.
  31. M. Fava, “Diagnosis and definition of treatment-resistant depression,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 649–659, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. National Health and Medical Research Council, NHMRC Additional Levels of Evidence and Grades for Recommendations for Developers of Guidelines, 2009.
  33. P. Liu, A. G. Parker, S. E. Hetrick, P. Callahan, S. de Silva, and R. Purcell, “An evidence map of interventions across premorbid, ultra-high risk and first episode phases of psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 123, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  34. J. M. Glanville, C. Lefebvre, J. N. V. Miles, and J. Camosso-Stefinovic, “How to identify randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE: ten years on,” Journal of the Medical Library Association, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 130–136, 2006. View at Scopus
  35. J. S. March, “Fluoxetine, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and their combination for adolescents with depression: Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS) randomized controlled trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 7, pp. 807–820, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  36. J. E. Gillham, K. J. Reivich, D. R. Freres et al., “School-based prevention of depressive symptoms: a randomized controlled study of the effectiveness and specificity of the Penn Resiliency program,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 9–19, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. T. M. Chaplin, J. E. Gillham, K. Reivich et al., “Depression prevention for early adolescent girls: a pilot study of all girls versus co-ed groups,” Journal of Early Adolescence, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 110–126, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. L. Horowitz and J. Garber, “The prevention of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 401–415, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  39. E. Jané-Llopis, C. Hosman, R. Jenkins, and P. Anderson, “Predictors of efficacy in depression prevention programmes: meta-analysis,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 183, pp. 384–397, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. H. Spence and A. L. Shortt, “Research review: can we justify the widespread dissemination of universal, school-based interventions for the prevention of depression among children and adolescents?” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 526–542, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  41. S. Merry, H. McDowell, S. Hetrick, J. Bir, and N. Muller, “Psychological and/or educational interventions for the prevention of depression in children and adolescents,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD003380, 2004. View at Scopus
  42. E. V. Cardemil, K. J. Reivich, C. G. Beevers, M. E. P. Seligman, and J. James, “The prevention of depressive symptoms in low-income, minority children: two-year follow-up,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 313–327, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. C. Waddell, J. M. Hua, O. M. Garland, R. D. Peters, and K. McEwan, “Preventing mental disorders in children: a systematic review to inform policy-making,” Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 166–173, 2007. View at Scopus
  44. G. I. Spielmans, L. F. Pasek, and J. P. McFall, “What are the active ingredients in cognitive and behavioral psychotherapy for anxious and depressed children? A meta-analytic review,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 642–654, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  45. S. N. Compton, J. S. March, D. Brent, A. M. Albano, V. R. Weersing, and J. Curry, “Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for anxiety and depressive disorders in children and adolescents: an evidence-based medicine review,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 8, pp. 930–959, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. G. N. Clarke, W. Hawkins, M. Murphy, L. B. Sheeber, P. M. Lewinsohn, and J. R. Seeley, “Targeted prevention of unipolar depressive disorder in an at-risk sample of high school adolescents: a randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 312–321, 1995. View at Scopus
  47. G. N. Clarke, M. Hornbrook, F. Lynch et al., “A randomized trial of a group cognitive intervention for preventing depression in adolescent offspring of depressed parents,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 1127–1134, 2001. View at Scopus
  48. P. Hazell, D. O'Connell, D. Heathcote, and D. Henry, “Tricyclic drugs for depression in children and adolescents,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD002317, 2000. View at Scopus
  49. N. Maneeton and M. Srisurapanont, “Tricyclic antidepressants for depressive disorders in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 83, no. 11, pp. 1367–1374, 2000. View at Scopus
  50. K. Papanikolaou, C. Richardson, A. Pehlivanidis, and Z. Papadopoulou-Daifoti, “Efficacy of antidepressants in child and adolescent depression: a meta-analytic study,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 399–415, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  51. C. J. Whittington, T. Kendall, P. Fonagy, D. Cottrell, A. Cotgrove, and E. Boddington, “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression: systematic review of published versus unpublished data,” The Lancet, vol. 363, no. 9418, pp. 1341–1345, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. A. E. Wallace, J. Neily, W. B. Weeks, and M. J. Friedman, “A cumulative meta-analysis of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pediatric depression: did unpublished studies influence the efficacy/safety debate?” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 37–58, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. T. Usala, A. Clavenna, A. Zuddas, and M. Bonati, “Randomised controlled trials of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating depression in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 62–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  54. S. Hetrick, S. Merry, J. McKenzie, P. Sindahl, and M. Proctor, “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for depressive disorders in children and adolescents,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD004851, 2007. View at Scopus
  55. I. M. Goodyer, P. Wilkinson, B. Dubicka, and R. Kelvin, “Forum: the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depressed children and adolescents: commentary on the meta-analysis by Hetrick et al,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 58–61, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. S. E. Hetrick, J. E. McKenzie, and S. N. Merry, “The use of SSRIs in children and adolescents,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 53–57, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  57. D. B. Courtney, “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and venlafaxine use in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder: a systematic review of published randomized controlled trials,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 557–563, 2004. View at Scopus
  58. N. Watanabe, V. Hunot, I. M. Omori, R. Churchill, and T. A. Furukawa, “Psychotherapy for depression among children and adolescents: a systematic review,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 84–95, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. G. N. Clarke, M. Hornbrook, F. Lynch et al., “Group cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescent offspring of depressed parents in a health maintenance organization,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 305–313, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. P. M. Lewinsohn, G. N. Clarke, H. Hops, and J. Andrews, “Cognitive-behavioral treatment for depressed adolescents,” Behavior Therapy, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 385–401, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. P. Rohde, G. N. Clarke, D. E. Mace, J. S. Jorgensen, and J. R. Seeley, “An efficacy/effectiveness study of cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescents with comorbid major depression and conduct disorder,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 660–668, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. B. Birmaher, G. S. Waterman, N. D. Ryan et al., “Randomized, controlled trial of amitriptyline versus placebo for adolescents with “treatment-resistant“ major depression,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 527–535, 1998. View at Scopus
  63. J. R. Asaknow, G. Emslie, G. Clarke et al., “Treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-resistant depression in adolescents: predictors and moderators of treatment response,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 330–339, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  64. D. M. Clark, R. Layard, R. Smithies, D. A. Richards, R. Suckling, and B. Wright, “Improving access to psychological therapy: initial evaluation of two UK demonstration sites,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 910–920, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  65. W. R. Beardslee, T. R. Gladstone, E. J. Wright, and A. B. Cooper, “A family-based approach to the prevention of depressive symptoms in children at risk: evidence of parental and child change,” Pediatrics, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. e119–131, 2003. View at Scopus
  66. M. Eskin, K. Ertekin, and H. Demir, “Efficacy of a problem-solving therapy for depression and suicide potential in adolescents and young adults,” Cognitive Therapy and Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 227–245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. E. Hetrick, A. G. Parker, I. B. Hickie, R. Purcell, A. R. Yung, and P. D. McGorry, “Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: towards a clinical staging model,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 263–270, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. D. Coyle, G. Doherty, M. Matthews, and J. Sharry, “Computers in talk-based mental health interventions,” Interacting with Computers, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 545–562, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. O'Kearney, K. Kang, H. Christensen, and K. Griffiths, “A controlled trial of a school-based internet program for reducing depressive symptoms in adolescent girls,” Depression and Anxiety, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 65–72, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  70. J. S. March, B. J. Klee, and C. M. E. Kremer, “Treatment benefit and the risk of suicidality in multicenter, randomized, controlled trials of sertraline in children and adolescents,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, vol. 16, no. 1-2, pp. 91–102, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  71. I. Goodyer, B. Dubicka, P. Wilkinson et al., “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and routine specialist care with and without cognitive behaviour therapy in adolescents with major depression: randomised controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 335, no. 7611, pp. 142–146, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  72. National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence, Depression in Children and Young People. Identification and Management in Primary, Community and Secondary Care, UK, 2005.
  73. A. F. Jorm, et al., A Guide to What Works for Depression, Beyondblue, Melbourne, Australia, 2009.
  74. A. A. Abbass, J. T. Hancock, J. Henderson, and S. Kisely, “Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD004687, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. F. Leichsenring, “Comparative effects of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in depression: a meta-analytic approach,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 401–419, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Gollan, B. Raffety, E. Gortner, and K. Dobson, “Course profiles of early- and adult-onset depression,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. J. K. Gollan and H. Pane, “High rates of recurrence of depression in children and adolescents,” Evidence-Based Mental Health, vol. 9, no. 4, p. 95, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. P. M. Lewinsohn, G. N. Clarke, J. R. Seeley, and P. Rohde, “Major depression in community adolescents: age at onset, episode duration, and time to recurrence,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 809–818, 1994. View at Scopus
  79. S. D. Hollon, R. J. DeRubeis, R. C. Shelton et al., “Prevention of relapse following cognitive therapy vs medications in moderate to severe depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 417–422, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  80. J. D. Teasdale, Z. V. Segal, J. M. G. Williams, V. A. Ridgewaya, J. M. Soulsby, and M. A. Lau, “Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 615–623, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. Killackey, H. J. Jackson, and P. D. McGorry, “Vocational intervention in first-episode psychosis: individual placement and support v. treatment as usual,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 193, no. 2, pp. 114–120, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  82. D. H. Avery, K. Claypoole, L. Robinson et al., “Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of medication-resistant depression: preliminary data,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 187, no. 2, pp. 114–117, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A. Pascual-Leone, B. Rubio, F. Pallardó, and M. D. Catalá, “Rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in drug-resistant depression,” The Lancet, vol. 348, no. 9022, pp. 233–237, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. P. B. Fitzgerald, J. Benitez, A. De Castella, Z. J. Daskalakis, T. L. Brown, and J. Kulkarni, “A randomized, controlled trial of sequential bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment-resistant depression,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 88–94, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. L. J. Phillips, A. R. Yung, H. P. Yuen, C. Pantelis, and P. D. McGorry, “Prediction and prevention of transition to psychosis in young people at incipient risk for schizophrenia,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 114, no. 8, pp. 929–937, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  86. A. R. Yung, L. J. Phillips, H. P. Yuen et al., “Psychosis prediction: 12-Month follow up of a high-risk ("prodromal") group,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 21–32, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. P. D. McGorry, A. R. Yung, L. J. Phillips et al., “Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 921–928, 2002. View at Scopus
  88. Australian Government, “Health reform: facts and figures,” http://www.yourhealth.gov.au/internet/yourhealth/publishing.nsf/Content/Facts and figures.