- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Depression Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 407602, 8 pages
Cognitive Vulnerabilities and Depression in Young Adults: An ROC Curves Analysis
1DISPUTer, Dipartimento di Scienze Psicologiche, Umanistiche e del Territorio, “G. d’Annunzio” University, 66100 Chieti, Italy
2Università Europea di Roma, 00163 Rome, Italy
3Division of Psychiatry, Department of Neurosciences, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy
4Istituto Skinner, 00184 Rome, Italy
Received 27 April 2013; Accepted 21 July 2013
Academic Editor: H. Grunze
Copyright © 2013 Michela Balsamo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- C. Blanco, M. Okuda, J. C. Markowitz, S.-M. Liu, B. F. Grant, and D. S. Hasin, “The epidemiology of chronic major depressive disorder and dysthymic disorder: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 12, pp. 1645–1656, 2010.
- D. S. Hasin, R. D. Goodwin, F. S. Stinson, and B. F. Grant, “Epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcoholism and Related Conditions,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1097–1106, 2005.
- V. Lehtinen and M. Joukamaa, “Epidemiology of depression: prevalence, risk factors and treatment situation,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement, vol. 89, no. 377, pp. 7–10, 1994.
- M. M. Ohayon, “Epidemiology of depression and its treatment in the general population,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 41, no. 3-4, pp. 207–213, 2007.
- C. Haslam, S. Atkinson, S. S. Brown, and R. A. Haslam, “Anxiety and depression in the workplace: effects on the individual and organisation (a focus group investigation),” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 88, no. 2, pp. 209–215, 2005.
- N. D. Shippee, N. D. Shah, M. D. Williams, J. P. Moriarty, M. A. Frye, and J. Y. Ziegenfuss, “Differences in demographic composition and in work, social, and functional limitations among the populations with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder: results from a nationally representative sample,” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 9, article 90, 2011.
- P. S. Wang, A. L. Beck, P. Berglund et al., “Effects of major depression on moment-in-time work performance,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 10, pp. 1885–1891, 2004.
- S. W. Whitton and M. A. Whisman, “Relationship satisfaction instability and depression,” Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 791–794, 2010.
- J.-M. Woo, W. Kim, T.-Y. Hwang et al., “Impact of depression on work productivity and its improvement after outpatient treatment with antidepressants,” Value in Health, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 475–482, 2011.
- T. B. Ustun, J. L. Ayuso-Mateos, S. Chatterji, C. Mathers, and C. J. L. Murray, “Global burden of depressive disorders in the year 2000,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 184, pp. 386–392, 2004.
- World Health Organisation, “Depression. What is depression?” 2011, http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/en/.
- R. C. Kessler, P. Berglund, O. Demler et al., “The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R),” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 289, no. 23, pp. 3095–3105, 2003.
- G. de Girolamo, G. Polidori, P. Morosini et al., “La prevalenza dei disturbi mentali in italia. Il progetto ESEMED-WMH. Una sintesi,” Centro Nazionale di Epidemiologia, Sorveglianza e Promozione della Salute, Roma, Italia, 2005.
- I. H. Gotlib and C. L. Hammen, Handbook of Depressioned, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2010.
- L. B. Alloy, L. Y. Abramson, W. G. Whitehouse et al., “Depressogenic cognitive styles: predictive validity, information processing and personality characteristics, and developmental origins,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 503–531, 1999.
- E. R. Watkins, “Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 163–206, 2008.
- M. Balsamo, “Anger and depression: evidence of a possible mediating role for rumination,” Psychological Reports, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 3–12, 2010.
- E. H. W. Koster, E. De Lissnyder, N. Derakshan, and R. De Raedt, “Understanding depressive rumination from a cognitive science perspective: the impaired disengagement hypothesis,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 138–145, 2011.
- M. Zhong, X. Wang, J. Xiao et al., “Amygdala hyperactivation and prefrontal hypoactivation in subjects with cognitive vulnerability to depression,” Biological Psychology, vol. 88, no. 2-3, pp. 233–242, 2011.
- R. H. Jacobs, M. A. Reinecke, J. K. Gollan, and P. Kane, “Empirical evidence of cognitive vulnerability for depression among children and adolescents: a cognitive science and developmental perspective,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 759–782, 2008.
- L. Y. Abramson, G. I. Metalsky, and L. B. Alloy, “Hopelessness depression: a theory-based subtype of depression,” Psychological Review, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 358–372, 1989.
- A. T. Beck, Depression: Clinical, Experimental, and Theoretical Aspects, Harper & Row, New York, NY, USA, 1967.
- A. T. Beck, “Cognitive models of depression,” Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 1, pp. 5–37, 1987.
- A. T. Beck, A. Weissman, D. Lester, and L. Trexler, “The measurement of pessimism: the hopelessness scale,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 861–865, 1974.
- C. S. Carver and R. J. Ganellen, “Depression and components of self-punitiveness: high standards, self-criticism, and overgeneralization,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 330–337, 1983.
- E. E. Beckham, W. R. Leber, J. T. Watkins, J. L. Boyer, and J. B. Cook, “Development of an instrument to measure Beck's cognitive triad: the Cognitive Triad Inventory,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 566–567, 1986.
- L. Y. Abramson, L. B. Alloy, B. L. Hankin, G. J. Haeffel, D. G. MacCoon, and B. E. Gibb, “Cognitive vulnerability-stress models of depression in a self-regulatory and psychobiological context,” in Handbook of Depression, I. H. Gotlib and C. L. Hammen, Eds., pp. 268–294, The Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2002.
- J. Evans, J. Heron, G. Lewis, R. Araya, and D. Wolke, “Negative self-schemas and the onset of depression in women: longitudinal study,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 186, pp. 302–307, 2005.
- L. B. Alloy, L. Y. Abramson, W. G. Whitehouse, M. E. Hogan, C. Panzarella, and D. T. Rose, “Prospective incidence of first onsets and recurrences of depression in individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 145–156, 2006.
- J. R. Z. Abela, C. Aydin, and R. P. Auerbach, “Operationalizing the “vulnerability” and “stress” components of the hopelessness theory of depression: a multi-wave longitudinal study,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1565–1583, 2006.
- A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, M. Kovacs, and B. Garrison, “Hopelessness and eventual suicide: a 10-year prospective study of patients hospitalized with suicidal ideation,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 559–563, 1985.
- A. T. Beck, G. Brown, R. J. Berchick, B. L. Stewart, and R. A. Steer, “Relationship between hopelessness and ultimate suicide: a replication with psychiatric outpatients,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 190–195, 1990.
- M. Pompili, M. Innamorati, X. Gonda et al., “Affective temperaments and hopelessness as predictors of health and social general functioning in mood disorders patients: a prospective follow-up study,” Journal of Affective Disorders, 2013.
- G. I. Metalsky and T. E. Joiner Jr., “Vulnerability to depressive symptomatology: a prospective test of the diathesis-stress and causal mediation components of the hopelessness theory of depression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 667–675, 1992.
- P. Pössel and S. D. Thomas, “Cognitive triad as mediator in the hopelessness model? a three-wave longitudinal study,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 224–240, 2011.
- M. F. Scheier, C. S. Carver, and M. W. Bridges, “Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1063–1078, 1994.
- C. S. Carver, L. La Voie, J. Kuhl, and R. J. Ganellen, “Cognitive concomitants of depression: a further examination of the roles of generalization, high standards, and self-criticism,” Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, vol. 7, pp. 350–365, 1988.
- A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, and G. K. Brown, Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Psychological Corporation, San Antonio, Tex, USA, 1996.
- American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
- P. A. Arbisi, “Review of the Beck depression inventory-II,” in The Fourteenth Mental Measurements Yearbook, B. S. Plake and J. C. Impara, Eds., Buros Institute of Mental Measurements, Lincoln, Neb, USA, 2001.
- M. Balsamo and A. Saggino, “Test per l’assessment della depressione nel contesto italiano: un’analisi critica,” Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale, vol. 13, pp. 167–199, 2007.
- A. T. Beck, R. A. Steer, J. S. Beck, and C. F. Newman, “Hopelessness, depression, suicidal ideation, and clinical diagnosis of depression,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 139–145, 1993.
- E. D. Klonsky, R. Kotov, S. Bakst, J. Rabinowitz, and E. J. Bromet, “Hopelessness as a predictor of attempted suicide among first admission patients with psychosis: a 10-year cohort study,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2012.
- M. Innamorati, M. Pompili, X. Gonda et al., “Psychometric properties of the Gotland Scale for Depression in Italian psychiatric inpatients and its utility in the prediction of suicide risk,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 132, no. 1-2, pp. 99–103, 2011.
- M. Pompili, P. Iliceto, D. Lester, et al., BHS Beck Hopelessness Scale, O.S. Organizzazioni Speciali, Florence, Italy, 2009.
- M. Pompili, R. Tatarelli, J. R. Rogers, and D. Lester, “The hopelessness scale: a factor analysis,” Psychological Reports, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 375–378, 2007.
- C. S. Carver, “Generalization, adverse events, and development of depressive symptoms,” Journal of Personality, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 606–619, 1998.
- L. R. Eisner, S. L. Johnson, and C. S. Carver, “Cognitive responses to failure and success relate uniquely to bipolar depression versus mania,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 154–163, 2008.
- M. Innamorati, S. Tamburello, A. Contardi et al., “Psychometric properties of the attitudes toward self-revised in Italian young adults,” Depression Research and Treatment, vol. 2013, Article ID 209216, 6 pages, 2013.
- R. B. Cattell, “The scree test for the number of factors,” Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol. 1, pp. 245–276, 1966.
- W. F. Velicer, “Determining the number of components from the matrix of partial correlations,” Psychometrika, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 321–327, 1976.
- P. Kline, A Handbook of Test Construction: Introduction to Psychometric Design, Methuen, London, UK, 1986.
- H. Gleitman, Psychologyed, W.W. Norton, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1986.
- L. B. Alloy and A. H. Ahrens, “Depression and pessimism for the future: biased use of statistically relevant information in predictions for self versus others,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 366–378, 1987.
- A. Lavender and E. Watkins, “Rumination and future thinking in depression,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 129–142, 2004.
- D. R. Strunk, H. Lopez, and R. J. DeRubeis, “Depressive symptoms are associated with unrealistic negative predictions of future life events,” Behaviour research and therapy, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 861–882, 2006.
- A. T. Beck, J. H. Riskind, G. Brown, and R. A. Steer, “Levels of hopelessness in DSM-III disorders: a partial test of content specificity in depression,” Cognitive Therapy and Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 459–469, 1988.
- D. R. Strunk and A. D. Adler, “Cognitive biases in three prediction tasks: a test of the cognitive model of depression,” Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2009.
- B. A. Alford, J. M. Lester, R. J. Patel, J. P. Buchanan, and L. C. Giunta, “Hopelessness predicts future depressive symptoms: a prospective analysis of cognitive vulnerability and cognitive content specificity,” Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 331–339, 1995.
- M. F. Scheier and C. S. Carver, “Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies,” Health Psychology, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 219–247, 1985.
- M. Balsamo, R. Romanelli, M. Innamorati, G. Ciccarese, L. Carlucci, and A. Saggino, “The state-trait anxiety inventory: shadows and lights on its construct validity,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 2013.
- L. J. Cronbach, “Response sets and test validity,” Educational and Psychological Measurement, vol. 6, pp. 475–494, 1946.
- J. Millham and R. W. Kellogg, “Need for social approval: impression management or self-deception?” Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 445–457, 1980.
- G. N. Marshall, C. B. Wortman, J. W. Kusulas, L. K. Hervig, and R. R. Vickers Jr., “Distinguishing optimism from pessimism: relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 1067–1074, 1992.
- D. K. Mroczek, A. Spiro III, C. M. Aldwin, D. J. Ozer, and R. Bossé, “Construct validation of optimism and pessimism in older men: findings from the normative aging study,” Health Psychology, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 406–409, 1993.
- J. C. Lai, “Differential predictive power of the positively versus the negatively worded items of the Life Orientation Test,” Psychological Reports, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 1507–1515, 1994.
- S. Robinson-Whelen, C. Kim, R. C. MacCallum, and J. K. Kiecolt-Glaser, “Distinguishing optimism from pessimism in older adults: is it more important to be optimistic or not to be pessimistic?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1345–1353, 1997.
- P. Y. Herzberg, H. Glaesmer, and J. Hoyer, “Separating optimism and pessimism: a robust psychometric analysis of the revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R),” Psychological Assessment, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 433–438, 2006.
- M. Kivimäki, M. Elovainio, A. Singh-Manoux, J. Vahtera, H. Helenius, and J. Pentti, “Optimism and pessimism as predictors of change in health after death or onset of severe illness in family,” Health Psychology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 413–421, 2005.
- K. Räikkönen, K. A. Matthews, J. D. Flory, J. F. Owens, and B. B. Gump, “Effects of optimism, pessimism, and trait anxiety on ambulatory blood pressure and mood during everyday life,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 104–113, 1999.
- M. Innamorati, D. Lester, M. Balsamo et al., “Factor validity of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in Italian medical patients,” Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment. In press.
- A. T. Beck, “Beyond belief: a theory of modes, personality, and psychopathology,” in Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy, P. M. Salkovskis, Ed., Guildford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
- A. T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy of Depression, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
- D. T. Campbell and D. W. Fiske, “Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 81–105, 1959.
- H. J. Arnold and D. C. Feldman, “Social desirability response bias in self-report choice situations,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 24, pp. 377–385, 1981.
- E. E. Maccoby and N. A. Maccoby, “The interview: a tool of social science,” in Handbook of Social Psychology, G. Lindzey, Ed., pp. 449–487, Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1954.