Table 1: Outcomes.

VariablesEstimated differences
(M ± SE)
<Effect size
(partial eta squared)

Men—%14.3
Women—%85.7
Age—M ± SD40.00 ± 12.57
Therapy duration—months7.21 ± 2.03
Baseline BHS—M ± SD10.53 ± 4.90−0.92 ± 1.550.570.03
Follow-up BHS—M ± SD9.03 ± 5.17
Baseline GMDS—M ± SD23.57 ± 6.06−9.08 ± 2.740.010.50
Follow-up GMDS—M ± SD15.54 ± 8.89

Multivariate test of within subject effect: Wilks' ; = 5.11; ; .
GMDS ≤ 13: no depression; GMDS between 13 and 26: moderate depression; GMDS > 26: severe depression. BHS ≤ 3: no hopelessness; BHS between 4 and 8: mild hopelessness; BHS ≥ 9 moderate- to- severe hopelessness.