Table 1: Cases in which i-scan imaging highlighted mucosal abnormalities not as clearly seen with white light endoscopy and subsequently affected management.

Case no.Diagnosisi-scan modeMucosal imageImpact on management

Esophagus
BE with HGD1, 3Nodule of HGDTargeted EMR
BE with LGD1, 2Nodule of LGDTargeted EMR
BE with HGD1, 2, 3Nodularity with HGDTargeted EMR
BE with HGD1, 2Nodularity with HGDTargeted EMR
BE with HGD1, 2, 3Nodularity with HGDTargeted EMR
Esophageal cancer1, 2, 3Accentuated abnormal tissueTargeted EMR
HSV esophagitis1, 2, 3Deep ulcerationsTargeted biopsy

Stomach
Gastric MALT lymphoma1, 3Gastric folds mucosal abnormalityTargeted EMR
CAG with intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia1, 2, 3Highlighted gastric thickening and nodularitySubtotal gastrectomy

Small intestine
Periampullary follicular lymphoma1, 2Identified extent of involvementPrevented unnecessary ampullectomy
Duodenal adenoma with dysplasia1, 2, 3Highlighted flat polyp marginsComplete EMR
Grade 1-2 submucosal follicular lymphoma1, 2Highlighted lymphoid appearanceTargeted EMR and prevention of surgical excision
Low-grade follicular lymphoma1, 2Highlighted nodular areaTargeted biopsy

Colon and rectum
Serrated adenoma1, 2Margins of polypPolyp detection and polypectomy
Serrated adenoma2Accentuated borders of right-sided polypComplete polypectomy
Tubular adenoma1, 2Detailed border of polyp
on fold
R hemicolectomy
Anal SCCa T1N01, 2Identified mucosal abnormality in anal canalTargeted Bx
Rectal adenocarcinoma T1N01, 2, 3Identified borders of flat “depressed” rectal polypTargeted complete polypectomy
Radiation proctitis1Identified extent of involvementAllowed for more diffuse APC
Solitary rectal ulcer1, 2Accentuated subtle ulcerTargeted Bx

Abbreviations: BE: Barrett’s esophagus, LGD: low-grade dysplasia, HGD: high-grade dysplasia, EMR: endoscopic mucosal resection, HSV: herpes simplex virus, MALT: mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, CAG: chronic active gastritis, SCCa: squamous cell carcinoma, and APC:  argon plasma coagulation.