Table 2: Subgroup analyses.

SubgroupEnrolled studies (ID numbers)SMD95% CI 𝐼 2

Overall1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 19, 21, 24, 25, 28, 29, 31, 32, 330.270.23–0.3194.4%
Jadad score
 High4, 5, 16, 17, 25, 29, 320.460.37; 0.5593.3%
 Intermediate7, 12, 19, 24, 280.23 0.15; 0.3094.3%
 Low1, 2, 11, 14, 21, 31, 330.240.18; 0.2996.0%
Control group*
 Waiting list 1, 4, 5, 7, 12, 14, 25, 28, 310.220.18; 0.2795.8%
 Other controls2, 11, 19, 21, 24, 29, 32, 330.470.38; 0.5593.7%
Condition
 Cancer1, 4, 7, 12, 14, 19, 25, 28, 29, 310.200.15; 0.2494.3%
 Noncancer2, 5, 11, 16, 17, 21, 24, 32, 330.460.24; 0.6776.6%

*Excluded from analysis since more than 1 control (Oken et al. [27], Oken et al. [49]).