Table 3: Components of Yoga.

West [USA, Europe, Australia, Brazil, and Turkey]
Back painOther painCVDCancerTotalPercentage

Postures9 (Galantino 04, Jacobs 04, Williams 05, Sherman 05, Williams 09, Saper 09, Cox 10, Tilbrook 11, and Sherman 11)6 (Carson 2011 (fibromyalgia),
da Silva 2007 (fibromyalgia),
Evans 2011 (IBS),
Evans 2011 (rheumatoid arthritis),
Garfinkel 1998 (carpal tunnel syndrome), and
Kuttner 2007 (IBS))
5 (Cade 2010, Cheema 2011, Pullen 2008, Pullen 2010, and van Montfrans 1990)7 (Banasik 2011, Carson 2009, Cohen 2004, Culos-Reed 2006, Galantino 2012, Moadal 2007, and Ulger 2010)2796%
Breathing6 (Galantino 04, Sherman 05, Saper 09, Cox 10, Tilbrook 11, and Sherman 11)3 (Carson 2011 (fibromyalgia), da Silva 2007 (fibromyalgia), and
Kuttner 2007 (IBS))
5 (Cade 2010, Cheema 2011,
Pullen 2008,
Pullen 2010, and van Montfrans 1990)
7 (Carson 2009, Cohen 2004,
Culos-Reed 2006, Galantino 2012,
Kovacic 2011,
Moadal 2007, and Ulger 2010)
2175%
Relaxation7 (Galantino 04, Jacobs 04, Sherman 05, Saper 09, Cox 10, Tilbrook 11, and Sherman 11)2 (da Silva 2007 (fibromyalgia), Garfinkel 1998 (carpal tunnel syndrome))4 (Cade 2010, Pullen 2008, Pullen 2010, and van Montfrans 1990)4 (Culos-Reed 2006,
Galantino 2012,
Kovacic 2011, and Ulger 2010)
1761%
Meditation1 (Galantino 04)1 (Carson 2011 (fibromyalgia))4 (Cheema 2011, Pullen 2008, Pullen 2010, van Montfrans 1990)3 (Carson 2009, Moadal 2007,
Ulger 2010)
932%
Mental focus1 (Tilbrook 11)1 (Cade 2010)1 (Kovacic 2011)311%
Visualization1 (Cohen 2004)14%
Philosophy/
lifestyle
1 (Tilbrook 11)2 (Carson 2011 (fibromyalgia), da Silva 2007 (fibromyalgia)) 311%
Yoga Nidra1 (Kovacic 2011)14%

Asia [India, Thailand]

Postures1 (Tekur 2008)2 (John 2007 (migraine), Telles 2009 (musculoskeletal hand discomfort))6 (Agte 2011, McCaffrey 2005, Murthy 2011, Pal 2011, Selvamurthy 1998, Yogendra 2004)4 (Banerjee 2007,
Raghavendra 2007, Rao 2008, Vadiraja 2009)
1387%
Breathing1 (Tekur 2008)2 (John 2007 (migraine), Telles 2009 (musculoskeletal hand discomfort))5 (Agte 2011, McCaffrey 2005, Murthy 2011, Pal 2011, Patel 1976)4 (Banerjee 2007, Raghavendra 2007, Rao 2008, Vadiraja 2009)1280%
Relaxation1 (Tekur 2008)2 (John 2007 (migraine), Telles 2009 (musculoskeletal hand discomfort))6 (Datey 1969, McCaffrey 2005, Murthy 2011, Pal 2011, Patel 1976, Yogendra 2004)3 (Raghavendra 2007,
Rao 2008, Vadiraja 2009)
1280%
Meditation1 (Tekur 2008)1 (John 2007 (migraine))2 (Agte 2011, Patel 1976)4 (Banerjee 2007,
Raghavendra 2007, Rao
2008, Vadiraja 2009)
853%
Chanting1 (Tekur 2008)1 (Pal 2011)3 (Banerjee 2007,
Raghavendra 2007, and
Vadiraja 2009)
427%
Mental Focus2 (Datey 1969, Patel 1976)213%
Visualization1 (Telles 2009 (musculoskeletal hand discomfort))3 (Banerjee 2007,
Raghavendra 2007, and Rao 2008)
427%
Philosophy/
lifestyle
1 (Tekur 2008)2 (Agte 2011, Yogendra 2004)320%
Yoga Nidra1 (Banerjee 2007)17%