About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 265023, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/265023
Research Article

Ginseng and Its Active Components Ginsenosides Inhibit Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells by Regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9

1Department of Life Sciences, Mokwon University, Daejeon 302-729, Republic of Korea
2Genome Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon 305-806, Republic of Korea
3Department of Formula Sciences, College of Oriental Medicine, Dong-Eui University, Busan 614-052, Republic of Korea

Received 29 July 2012; Revised 27 September 2012; Accepted 4 October 2012

Academic Editor: Chong-Zhi Wang

Copyright © 2012 Jaeho Oh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Couillard, P. Mauriège, P. Imbeault et al., “Hyperleptinemia is more closely associated with adipose cell hypertrophy than with adipose tissue hyperplasia,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 782–788, 2000. View at Scopus
  2. D. L. Crandall, G. J. Hausman, and J. G. Kral, “A review of the microcirculation of adipose tissue: anatomic, metabolic, and angiogenic perspectives,” Microcirculation, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 211–232, 1997. View at Scopus
  3. R. Visse and H. Nagase, “Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: structure, function, and biochemistry,” Circulation Research, vol. 92, no. 8, pp. 827–839, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. R. Lijnen, E. Maquoi, L. B. Hansen, B. Van Hoef, L. Frederix, and D. Collen, “Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition impairs adipose tissue development in mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 374–379, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. E. Galardy, D. Grobelny, H. G. Foellmer, and L. A. Fernandez, “Inhibition of angiogenesis by the matrix metalloprotease inhibitor N-[2R- 2-(hydroxamidocarbonymethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl)]-L-tryptophan methylamide,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 17, pp. 4715–4718, 1994. View at Scopus
  6. A. Bouloumié, C. Sengenès, G. Portolan, J. Galitzky, and M. Lafontan, “Adipocyte produces matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9: involvement in adipose differentiation,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2080–2086, 2001. View at Scopus
  7. N. Kawaguchi, K. Toriyama, E. Nicodemou-Lena, K. Inou, S. Torii, and Y. Kitagawa, “De novo adipogenesis in mice at the site of injection of basement membrane and basic fibroblast growth factor,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 1062–1066, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. V. Christiaens and H. R. Lijnen, “Role of the fibrinolytic and matrix metalloproteinase systems in development of adipose tissue,” Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 112, no. 4-5, pp. 254–259, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Chavey, B. Mari, M. N. Monthouel et al., “Matrix metalloproteinases are differentially expressed in adipose tissue during obesity and modulate adipocyte differentiation,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 278, no. 14, pp. 11888–11896, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Maquoi, C. Munaut, A. Colige, D. Collen, and H. R. Lijnen, “Modulation of adipose tissue expression of murine matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors with obesity,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1093–1101, 2002. View at Scopus
  11. G. Croissandeau, M. Chrétien, and M. Mbikay, “Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in the adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 364, no. 4, pp. 739–746, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. N. Gillis, “Panax ginseng pharmacology: a nitric oxide link?” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. S. Attele, J. A. Wu, and C. S. Yuan, “Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1685–1693, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. M. Lü, Q. Yao, and C. Chen, “Ginseng compounds: an update on their molecular mechanisms and medical applications,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 293–302, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. Y. K. Yue, D. Y. L. Wong, P. K. Wu et al., “The angiosuppressive effects of 20(R)- ginsenoside Rg3,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 437–445, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. M. Xu, M. H. Cui, Y. Xin et al., “Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rg3 on ovarian cancer metastasis,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 121, no. 15, pp. 1394–1397, 2008. View at Scopus
  17. J. Fujimoto, H. Sakaguchi, I. Aoki, H. Toyoki, S. Khatun, and T. Tamaya, “Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside-Rb2 on invasiveness of uterine endometrial cancer cells to the basement membrane,” European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 339–341, 2001. View at Scopus
  18. J. H. Yoon, Y. J. Choi, S. W. Cha, and S. G. Lee, “Anti-metastatic effects of ginsenoside Rd via inactivation of MAPK signaling and induction of focal adhesion formation,” Phytomedicine, vol. 19, no. 3-4, pp. 284–292, 2012.
  19. Y. L. Ho, K. C. Li, W. Chao, Y. S. Chang, and G. J. Huang, “Korean red ginseng suppresses metastasis of human hepatoma SK-Hep1 cells by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 965846, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Yoon, H. Lee, S. Jeong et al., “Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism by ginseng,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 138, no. 7, pp. 1295–1302, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. E. D. Rosen and B. M. Spiegelman, “Molecular regulation of adipogenesis,” Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology, vol. 16, pp. 145–171, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. C. Huang, The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1999.
  23. S. Odashima, T. Ohta, H. Kohno, et al., “Control of phenotypic expression of cultured B16 melanoma cells by plant glycosides,” Cancer Research, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 2781–2784, 1985. View at Scopus
  24. D. Tsang, H. W. Yeung, W. W. Tso, and H. Peck, “Ginseng saponins: influence on neurotransmitter uptake in rat brain synaptosomes,” Planta Medica, vol. 3, pp. 221–224, 1985. View at Scopus
  25. L. P. Christensen, “Ginsenosides chemistry, biosynthesis, analysis, and potential health effects,” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research, vol. 55, pp. 1–99, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. M. Gregoire, C. M. Smas, and H. S. Sul, “Understanding adipocyte differentiation,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 783–809, 1998. View at Scopus
  27. E. D. Rosen, “The transcriptional basis of adipocyte development,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 31–34, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. Sadowski, S. Dietrich, F. Koschinsky, and R. Sedlacek, “Matrix metalloproteinase 19 regulates insulin-like growth factor-mediated proliferation, migration, and adhesion in human keratinocytes through proteolysis of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 4569–4580, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. E. Gomez, D. F. Alonso, H. Yoshiji, and U. P. Thorgeirsson, “Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: structure, regulation and biological functions,” European Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 111–122, 1997. View at Scopus
  30. Y. T. Lo, Y. H. Tsai, S. J. Wu, J. R. Chen, and J. C. Chao, “Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits cell activation and liver fibrosis in rat hepatic stellate cells,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1135–1143, 2011.
  31. S. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, S. J. Han, J. W. Hyun, and H. S. Kim, “Repression of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression by ginsenoside Rh2 in human astroglioma cells,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 74, no. 11, pp. 1642–1651, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. M. Alexander, S. Selvarajan, J. Mudgett, and Z. Werbc, “Stromelysin-1 regulates adipogenesis during mammary gland involution,” The Journal of Cell Biology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp. 693–703, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Van Hul, D. Bauters, U. Himmelreich, et al., “Effect of gelatinase inhibition on adipogenesis and adipose tissue development,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2012.
  34. H. Qin, Y. Sun, and E. N. Benveniste, “The transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-2 are required for constitutive matrix metalloproteinase-2 gene expression in astroglioma cells,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 274, no. 41, pp. 29130–29137, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Yao, S. Xiong, K. Klos et al., “Multiple signaling pathways involved in activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by heregulin-β1 in human breast cancer cells,” Oncogene, vol. 20, no. 56, pp. 8066–8074, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. S. Attele, Y. P. Zhou, J. T. Xie et al., “Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1851–1858, 2002. View at Scopus
  37. D. Washida and S. Kitanaka, “Determination of polyacetylenes and ginsenosides in Panax species using high performance liquid chromatography,” Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 1314–1317, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Lim, K. W. Mudge, and F. Vermeylen, “Effects of population, age, and cultivation methods on ginsenoside content of wild American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 22, pp. 8498–8505, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. W. Shang, Y. Yang, B. Jiang et al., “Ginsenoside Rb1 promotes adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells by enhancing PPARγ2 and C/EBPα gene expression,” Life Sciences, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 618–625, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus