About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 293650, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/293650
Research Article

Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

1Gene Regulation Laboratory, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
2Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 007, India

Received 18 August 2012; Revised 4 November 2012; Accepted 4 November 2012

Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo

Copyright © 2012 Shailesh Kumar Choudhary et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Wild, G. Roglic, A. Green, R. Sicree, and H. King, “Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030,” Diabetes Care, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1047–1053, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Matthaei, M. Stumvoll, M. Kellerer, and H. U. Häring, “Pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of insulin resistance,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 585–618, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. A. Ryan, M. E. Pick, and C. Marceau, “Use of alternative medicines in diabetes mellitus,” Diabetic Medicine, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 242–245, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. K. Grover and S. P. Yadav, “Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 123–132, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. A. Lans, “Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, article 45, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. Leung, R. Birtwhistle, J. Kotecha, S. Hannah, and S. Cuthbertson, “Anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon): a mini review,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 102, no. 12, pp. 1703–1708, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Sarkar, M. Pranava, and R. A. Marita, “Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes,” Pharmacological Research, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. Kar, B. K. Choudhary, and N. G. Bandyopadhyay, “Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 105–108, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. P. Fernandes, C. V. Lagishetty, V. S. Panda, and S. R. Naik, “An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 7, article 29, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Singh, M. Gupta, P. Sirohi, and Varsha, “Effects of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia (Linn.) whole fruit powder on the pancreatic islets of alloxan diabetic albino rats,” Journal of Environmental Biology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 101–106, 2008. View at Scopus
  11. C. Day, T. Cartwright, J. Provost, and C. J. Bailey, “Hypoglycaemic effect of Momordica charantia extracts,” Planta Medica, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 426–429, 1990. View at Scopus
  12. T. Uebanso, H. Arai, Y. Taketani et al., “Extracts of Momordica charantia suppress postprandial hyperglycemia in rats,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 482–488, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Lee-Huang, P. L. Huang, H. C. Chen et al., “Anti-HIV and anti-tumor activities of recombinant MAP30 from bitter melon,” Gene, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 151–156, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. Jiratchariyakul, C. Wiwat, M. Vongsakul et al., “HIV inhibitor from Thai bitter gourd,” Planta Medica, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 350–353, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. Gürbüz, Ç. Akyüz, E. Yeşilada, and B. Şener, “Anti-ulcerogenic effect of Momordica charantia L. fruits on various ulcer models in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 71, no. 1-2, pp. 77–82, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. Ahmed, M. S. Lakhani, M. Gillett, A. John, and H. Raza, “Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 155–161, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. S. Sirohi, “Improvement in Cucurbit vegetable,” Indian Horticulture, vol. 42, pp. 64–67, 1997.
  18. R. Soundararajan, P. Prabha, U. Rai, and A. Dixit, “Anti-leukemic potential of Momordica charantia seed extracts on human myeloid leukemic HL60 cells,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 732404, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. D. Braham and P. Tinder, “An improved color reagent for the determination of blood glucose by the oxidase system,” Analyst, vol. 97, pp. 142–145, 1972.
  20. I. M. Penttila, H. A. Jokela, and A. J. Viitala, “Activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase in sera of healthy subjects,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 275–284, 1975. View at Scopus
  21. A. Zlatkis, B. Zak, and A. J. Boyle, “A new method for the direct determination of serum cholesterol,” The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 486–492, 1953. View at Scopus
  22. C. Sharma, R. Manjeshwar, and S. Weinhouse, “Effect of diet and insulin on Glucose-adenosine triphosphate phosphotransferase of rat liver,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 238, pp. 3840–3845, 1963. View at Scopus
  23. T. Bucher and G. Pfleinderer, “Pyruvate kinase from muscle,” in Method in Enzymology, S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 435–436, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1955.
  24. H. U. Bergmeyer and E. Bernt, “UV-assay with pyruvate and NADPH,” in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, H. U. Bergmeyer, Ed., pp. 574–579, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1974.
  25. G. E. Glock and P. McLean, “Levels of enzymes of the direct oxidative pathway of carbohydrate metabolism in mammalian tissues and tumours,” The Biochemical Journal, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 171–175, 1954. View at Scopus
  26. R. Y. Hsu and H. A. Lardy, “Malic enzyme,” in Method in Enzymology, S. P. Colowick and N. O. Kaplan, Eds., pp. 230–235, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1969.
  27. S. Seifter, S. Dayton, B. Novic, and E. Muntwyler, “The estimation of glycogen with the anthrone reagent,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 25, pp. 191–200, 1950.
  28. P. Khanna, S. C. Jain, A. Panagariya, and V. P. Dixit, “Hypoglycemic activity of polypeptide-p from a plant source,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 648–655, 1981. View at Scopus
  29. T. B. Ng, W. Y. Chan, and H. W. Yeung, “Proteins with abortifacient, ribosome inactivating, immunomodulatory, antitumor and anti-AIDS activities from Cucurbitaceae plants,” General Pharmacology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 575–590, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. M. Iwu, C. O. Okunji, G. O. Ohiaeri, P. Akah, D. Corley, and M. S. Tempesta, “Hypoglycaemic activity of dioscoretine from tubers of Dioscorea dumetorum in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits,” Planta Medica, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 264–267, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. Nag, S. Madicherla, and S. D. Sharma, “Orally active fraction of Momordica charantia, active peptides thereof, and their use in the treatment of diabetes,” U.S. Patent No: 6, 391, 854, 2002.
  32. P. Khanna, “Protein/polypeptide-k obtained from Momordica charantia and a process for the extraction thereof,” U.S. Patent No: 6, 831,162, 2004.
  33. Q. Sheng, H. Yao, H. Xu, X. Ling, and T. He, “Isolation of plant insulin from Momordica charantia seeds by gel filtration and RP-HPLC,” Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 414–416, 2004. View at Scopus
  34. M. M. Lolitkar and M. R. R. Rao, “Pharmacology of a hypoglycemic principle isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia Linn,” Indian Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 28, pp. 129–133, 1966.
  35. R. Rasch, “Control of blood glucose levels in the streptozotocin diabetic rat using a long-acting heat-treated insulin,” Diabetologia, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 185–190, 1979. View at Scopus
  36. M. Rajalakshmi, J. Eliza, C. E. Priya, A. Nirmala, and P. Daisy, “Anti-diabetic properties of Tinospora cordifolia stem extracts on streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats,” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 171–180, 2009. View at Scopus
  37. W. Sun, X. Gao, X. Zhao, D. Cui, and Q. Xia, “Beneficial effects of C-peptide on renal morphology in diabetic rats,” Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 893–899, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. N. Kesari, R. K. Gupta, S. K. Singh, S. Diwakar, and G. Watal, “Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 374–379, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. S. Fatima, M. D. Rajasekhar, K. V. Kumar, M. T. S. Kumar, K. R. Babu, and C. A. Rao, “Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of ethyl acetate:Isopropanol (1:1) fraction of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 495–501, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. De, K. Chatterjee, K. M. Ali, T. K. Bera, and D. Ghosh, “Antidiabetic potentiality of the aqueous-methanolic extract of seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: a correlative and evidence-based approach with antioxidative and antihyperlipidemic activities,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 892807, 11 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. H. Hikino, M. Kobayashi, Y. Suzuki, and C. Konno, “Mechanisms of hypoglycemic activity of aconitan A, a glycan from aconitum carmichaeli roots,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 295–304, 1989. View at Scopus
  42. U. C. S. Yadav, K. Moorthy, and N. Z. Baquer, “Combined treatment of sodium orthovanadate and Momordica charantia fruit extract prevents alterations in lipid profile and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 268, no. 1-2, pp. 111–120, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. V. Vats, S. P. Yadav, and J. K. Grover, “Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves partially attenuates streptozotocin-induced alterations in glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolism in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 155–160, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Sharma, C. Balomajumder, and P. Roy, “Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoid rich extract from Eugenia jambolana seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 2376–2383, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. T. Musabayane, N. Mahlalela, F. O. Shode, and J. A. O. Ojewole, “Effects of Syzygium cordatum (Hochst.) [Myrtaceae] leaf extract on plasma glucose and hepatic glycogen in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 485–490, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. C. Navarro, M. P. Montilla, A. Martin, J. Jimenez, and M. P. Utrilla, “Free radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Rosmarinus tomentosus,” Planta Medica, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 312–314, 1993. View at Scopus
  47. O. C. Ohaeri, “Effect of garlic oil on the levels of various enzymes in the serum and tissue of streptozotocin diabetic rats,” Bioscience Reports, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus