- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 305454, 10 pages
The Protective Effect of Apamin on LPS/Fat-Induced Atherosclerotic Mice
1Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, 3056-6 Daemyung 4-Dong, Nam-Gu, Daegu 705-718, Republic of Korea
2School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW 2795, Australia
3Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Suwon 441-100, Republic of Korea
Received 10 October 2011; Revised 30 January 2012; Accepted 5 February 2012
Academic Editor: Myeong Soo Lee
Copyright © 2012 Soo-Jung Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. J. Lusis, “Atherosclerosis,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6801, pp. 233–241, 2000.
- R. Ross, “The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s,” Nature, vol. 362, no. 6423, pp. 801–809, 1993.
- R. Ross, “Atherosclerosis—an inflammatory disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 2, pp. 115–126, 1999.
- J. Yao, N. Mackman, T. S. Edgington, and S. T. Fan, “Lipopolysaccharide induction of the tumor necrosis factor-α promoter in human monocytic cells: regulation by Egr-1, c-Jun, and NF-κB transcription factors,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 28, pp. 17795–17801, 1997.
- B. Diaz and G. Lopez-Berestein, “A distinct element involved in lipopolysaccharide activation of the tumor necrosis factor-α promoter in monocytes,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 741–748, 2000.
- F. Chen, V. Castranova, X. Shi, and L. M. Demers, “New insights into the role of nuclear factor-κB, a ubiquitous transcription factor in the initiation of diseases,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 1999.
- M. P. J. De Winther, E. Kanters, G. Kraal, and M. H. Hofker, “Nuclear factor κB signaling in atherogenesis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 904–914, 2005.
- A. Mullen, C. E. Loscher, and H. M. Roche, “Anti-inflammatory effects of EPA and DHA are dependent upon time and dose-response elements associated with LPS stimulation in THP-1-derived macrophages,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 444–450, 2010.
- C. S. Chang, H. L. Sun, C. K. Lii, H. W. Chen, P. Y. Chen, and K. L. Liu, “Gamma-linolenic acid inhibits inflammatory responses by regulating nf-κB and AP-1 activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages,” Inflammation, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 46–57, 2010.
- P. P. Liu, J. Le, and M. Nian, “Nuclear factor-κB decoy: infiltrating the heart of the matter in inflammatory heart disease,” Circulation Research, vol. 89, no. 10, pp. 850–852, 2001.
- P. P. Tak, D. M. Gerlag, K. R. Aupperle et al., “Inhibitor of nuclear factor κB kinase β is a key regulator of synovial inflammation,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1897–1907, 2001.
- P. Kapahi, T. Takahashi, G. Natoli et al., “Inhibition of NF-κB activation by arsenite through reaction with a critical cysteine in the activation loop of IκB kinase,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 46, pp. 36062–36066, 2000.
- D. J. Son, J. W. Lee, Y. H. Lee, H. S. Song, C. K. Lee, and J. T. Hong, “Therapeutic application of anti-arthritis, pain-releasing, and anti-cancer effects of bee venom and its constituent compounds,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 246–270, 2007.
- W. R. Lariviere and R. Melzack, “The bee venom test: a new tonic-pain test,” Pain, vol. 66, no. 2-3, pp. 271–277, 1996.
- B. E. C. Banks, C. Brown, and G. M. Burgess, “Apamin blocks certain neurotransmitter-induced increases in potassium permeability,” Nature, vol. 282, no. 5737, pp. 415–417, 1979.
- G. B. J. Mancini, “Antiatherosclerotic effects of calcium channel blockers,” Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 2002.
- G. S. Getz, “Thematic review series: the immune system and atherogenesis. Immune function in atherogenesis.,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2005.
- K. W. Nam, K. H. Je, H. L. Jang et al., “Inhibition of COX-2 activity and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) production by water-soluble sub-fractionated parts from bee (Apis mellifera) venom,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 383–388, 2003.
- S. Han, K. Lee, J. Yeo et al., “Effect of venom from the Asian honeybee (Apis cerana Fab.) on LPS-induced nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production in RAW 264.7 cell line,” Journal of Apicultural Research, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 131–136, 2006.
- W. R. Lee, S. J. Kim, J. H. Park et al., “Bee venom reduces atherosclerotic lesion formation via anti-inflammatory mechanism,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1077–1092, 2010.
- H. W. Kim, Y. B. Kwon, T. W. Ham et al., “General pharmacological profiles of bee venom and its water soluble fractions in rodent models,” Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 309–318, 2004.
- R. Ovcharov, S. Shkenderov, and S. Mihailova, “Anti inflammatory effects of apamin,” Toxicon, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 441–447, 1976.
- H. Sumikura, O. K. Andersen, A. M. Drewes, and L. Arendt-Nielsen, “A comparison of hyperalgesia and neurogenic inflammation induced by melittin and capsaicin in humans,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 337, no. 3, pp. 147–150, 2003.
- P. M. Ridker, N. Rifai, M. Pfeffer, F. Sacks, S. Lepage, and E. Braunwald, “Elevation of tumor necrosis factor-α and increased risk of recurrent coronary events after myocardial infarction,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 18, pp. 2149–2153, 2000.
- A. S. Baldwin, “NF kappa B: biology and pathology,” IDrugs, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 215–216, 2004.
- T. Collins and M. I. Cybulsky, “NF-κB: pivotal mediator or innocent bystander in atherogenesis?” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 255–264, 2001.
- P. P. Tak and G. S. Firestein, “NF-κB: a key role in inflammatory diseases,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 2001.
- S. J. Kim, J. H. Park, K. H. Kim et al., “Effect of NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide on LPS/high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in an animal model,” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 925–930, 2010.
- Y. Ning, Q. Bai, H. Lu et al., “Overexpression of mitochondrial cholesterol delivery protein, StAR, decreases intracellular lipids and inflammatory factors secretion in macrophages,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 204, no. 1, pp. 114–120, 2009.
- C. Popa, M. G. Netea, P. L. C. M. Van Riel, J. W. M. Van Der Meer, and A. F. H. Stalenhoef, “The role of TNF-α in chronic inflammatory conditions, intermediary metabolism, and cardiovascular risk,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 751–752, 2007.
- C. Pollaud-Chérion, J. Vandaele, F. Quartulli, M. H. Séguélas, J. Decerprit, and B. Pipy, “Involvement of calcium and arachidonate metabolism in acetylated-low-density-lipoprotein-stimulated tumor-necrosis-factor-α production by rat peritoneal macrophages,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 253, no. 1, pp. 345–353, 1998.
- H. J. Jeong, S. H. Hong, D. J. Lee, J. H. Park, K. S. Kim, and H. M. Kim, “Role of Ca2+ on TNF-α and IL-6 secretion from RBL-2H3 mast cells,” Cellular Signalling, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 633–639, 2002.
- Y. Nakashima, E. W. Raines, A. S. Plump, J. L. Breslow, and R. Ross, “Upregulation of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 at atherosclerosis-prone sites on the endothelium in the apoE-deficient mouse,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 842–851, 1998.
- K. Iiyama, L. Hajra, M. Iiyama et al., “Patterns of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in rabbit and mouse atherosclerotic lesions and at sites predisposed to lesion formation,” Circulation Research, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 199–207, 1999.
- S. Xu, A. C. Liu, and A. I. Gotlieb, “Common pathogenic features of atherosclerosis and calcific aortic stenosis: role of transforming growth factor-β,” Cardiovascular Pathology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 236–247, 2010.
- R. E. Feaver, B. D. Gelfand, C. Wang, M. A. Schwartz, and B. R. Blackman, “Atheroprone hemodynamics regulate fibronectin deposition to create positive feedback that sustains endothelial inflammation,” Circulation Research, vol. 106, no. 11, pp. 1703–1711, 2010.
- J. Roman, J. D. Ritzenthaler, M. J. Fenton, S. Roser, and W. Schuyler, “Transcriptional regulation of the human interleukin 1β gene by fibronectin: role of protein kinase C and activator protein 1 (AP-1),” Cytokine, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 1581–1596, 2000.
- L. Brånén, L. Hovgaard, M. Nitulescu, E. Bengtsson, J. Nilsson, and S. Jovinge, “Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2137–2142, 2004.
- Y. V. Bobryshev, “Monocyte recruitment and foam cell formation in atherosclerosis,” Micron, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 208–222, 2006.