About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 308018, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/308018
Research Article

Pharmacokinetics and Relative Bioavailability of Flavonoids between Two Dosage Forms of Gegen-Qinlian-Tang in Rats

1School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

Received 9 May 2012; Accepted 25 September 2012

Academic Editor: Chun Guang Li

Copyright © 2012 Chung-Ping Yu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Wang, Y. Yao, R. An, L. You, and X. Wang, “Simultaneous determination of puerarin, daidzein, baicalin, wogonoside and liquiritin of GegenQinlian decoction in rat plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 877, no. 20-21, pp. 1820–1826, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. H. Huang, A. R. Lee, and C. H. Yang, “Antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of polyhydroxyflavonoids of Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 2371–2380, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. X. Xu, S. Zhang, L. Zhang, W. Yan, and X. Zheng, “The neuroprotection of puerarin against cerebral ischemia is associated with the prevention of apoptosis in rats,” Planta Medica, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 585–591, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Ye, S. Fu, R. Pi, and F. He, “Neuropharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of berberine: a review of recent research,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 831–837, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Li-Weber, “New therapeutic aspects of flavones: the anticancer properties of Scutellaria and its main active constituents Wogonin, Baicalein and Baicalin,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 57–68, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Tang, Y. Feng, S. Tsao, N. Wang, R. Curtain, and Y. Wang, “Berberine and Coptidis Rhizoma as novel antineoplastic agents: a review of traditional use and biomedical investigations,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Hawthorne and S. Gallagher, “Effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and liquorice extract on cell proliferation and prostate-specific antigen secretion in LNCaP prostate cancer cells,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 661–666, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. H. M. Chiang, Y. R. Yeh, P. D. L. Chao et al., “Metabolic pharmacokinetics of isoflavones in the roots of Pueraria lobata in rats,” Mid-Taiwan Journal of Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 57–64, 2005. View at Scopus
  9. M. Y. Lai, S. L. Hsiu, C. C. Chen, Y. C. Hou, and P. D. L. Chao, “Urinary pharmacokinetics of baicalein, wogonin and their glycosides after oral administration of Scutellariae Radix in humans,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 79–83, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. T. Liu, H. P. Hao, H. G. Xie et al., “Extensive intestinal first-pass elimination and predominant hepatic distribution of berberine explain its low plasma levels in rats,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1779–1784, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. X. Y. Chu, S. E. W. Huskey, M. P. Braun, B. Sarkadi, D. C. Evans, and R. Evers, “Transport of ethinylestradiol glucuronide and ethinylestradiol sulfate by the multidrug resistance proteins MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 309, no. 1, pp. 156–164, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. D. Klaassen and L. M. Aleksunes, “Xenobiotic, bile acid, and cholesterol transporters: function and regulation,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 1–96, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. G. You, “Structure, function, and regulation of renal organic anion transporters,” Medicinal Research Reviews, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 602–616, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. P. Lin, S. Y. Tsai, Y. C. Hou, and P. D. L. Chao, “Glycyrrhizin and licorice significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate in rats,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1854–1859, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. Y. C. Hou, S. P. Lin, S. Y. Tsai, M. H. Ko, Y. C. Chang, and P. D. L. Chao, “Flavonoid pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution after repeated dosing of the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis in rats,” Planta Medica, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 455–460, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Manach and J. L. Donovan, “Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of dietary flavonoids in humans,” Free Radical Research, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 771–785, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. T. Walle, “Absorption and metabolism of flavonoids,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 829–837, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. D. Lee Chao, S. L. Hsiu, and Y. C. Hou, “Flavonoids in herbs: biological fates and potential interactions with xenobiotics,” Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 219–228, 2002. View at Scopus
  19. P. C. H. Hollman, “Absorption, bioavailability, and metabolism of flavonoids,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 42, pp. 74–83, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. T. Lin, S. L. Hsiu, Y. C. Hou, H. Y. Chen, and P. D. L. Chao, “Degradation of flavonoid aglycones by rabbit, rat and human fecal flora,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 747–751, 2003. View at Scopus
  21. A. P. Wilkinson, J. M. Gee, M. S. Dupont et al., “Hydrolysis by lactase phlorizin hydrolase is the first step in the uptake of daidzein glucosides by rat small intestine in vitro,” Xenobiotica, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 255–264, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. L. Simons, M. Renouf, S. Hendrich, and P. A. Murphy, “Human gut microbial degradation of flavonoids: structure-function relationships,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 4258–4263, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. Ploeger, T. Mensinga, A. Sips, J. Meulenbelt, and J. DeJongh, “A human physiologically-based model for glycyrrhzic acid, a compound subject to presystemic metabolism and enterohepatic cycling,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1516–1525, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. R. Doerge, H. G. Chang, M. I. Churchwell, and C. L. Holder, “Analysis of soy isoflavone conjugation in vitro and in human blood using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 298–307, 2000. View at Scopus
  25. L. Gu, S. E. House, R. L. Prior et al., “Metabolic phenotype of isoflavones differ among female rats, pigs, monkeys, and women,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. 1215–1221, 2006. View at Scopus
  26. Y. J. Lin, Y. C. Hou, C. H. Lin et al., “Puerariae radix isoflavones and their metabolites inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 378, no. 4, pp. 683–688, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Wang, L. J. Tang, G. Q. Zhu et al., “Apoptosis induced by baicalin involving up-regulation of P53 and bax in MCF-7 cells,” Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, vol. 10, no. 11-12, pp. 1129–1135, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. S. Ikemoto, K. Sugimura, N. Yoshida et al., “Antitumor effects of Scutellariae radix and its components baicalein, baicalin, and wogonin on bladder cancer cell lines,” Urology, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 951–955, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. T. Lu, J. Song, F. Huang et al., “Comparative pharmacokinetics of baicalin after oral administration of pure baicalin, Radix scutellariae extract and Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang to rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 412–418, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. R. Shi, H. Zhou, Z. Liu et al., “Influence of Coptis chinensis on pharmacokinetics of flavonoids after oral administration of radix Scutellariae in rats,” Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 398–410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar