Table 1: Exclusive and frequent functional food and nutraceuticals in the market of Bolivian immigrants in Liniers, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Families/speciesLocal nameParts/productsUsesSituationSamples

APIACEAE
Coriandrum sativum L.CilantroFresh leavesFood and condiment, as a substitute of parsley. Nutraceutical: diuretic, aperitive, digestive, and antispasmodicFrequentFB 430 (LEBA)

ASTERACEAE
Baccharis articulata
(Lam) Pers.
CarquejaFresh aerial parts (in bunches)Beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: tonic, digestive, hepatic, diuretic, febrifuge, and cordial; in external application, vulneraryExclusiveFB 416 (LP)
Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC.Carquejilla/ CarquejaFresh aerial parts (in bunches)Same as aboveExclusiveFB 424 (LEBA)
Cynara cardunculus L.
(= C. scolymus L.)
AlcachofaLeaves in bags and pillsFor infusions. Nutraceutical: hepatic, cholagogue, choleretic, and depurativeExclusiveJH H093, H094 (LEBA)
Matricaria recutita L.ManzanillaFresh aerial parts (in bunches)Beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: sedative, slimming, digestive, antispasmodic, emmenagogue, pectoral, emollient, and vermifugeExclusiveFB 427 (LP)
Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.QuirquiñaFresh aerial parts (in bunches)Food and condiment, for soups, stews and sauces. Nutraceutical: diaphoretic, antispasmodic; in external application, vulneraryExclusiveFB 413 (LP)
Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. & Endl.) H.Rob. YacónFresh roots and jamsFood, as fruit or in salads (raw), for juices, syrups, jams, and teas. Functional food or Nutraceutical: antidiabeticExclusiveJH 6891 (LP), L006 (LEBA)
Stevia rebaudiana L.Yerba dulceFresh aerial parts or whole plantSweetener, for infusions and confectionary. Nutraceutical: antidiabetic and “antiageing” (antioxidant)ExclusiveFB 415 (LP)
Tagetes minuta L.HuacatayFresh aerial parts (in bunches)Condiment for soups, stews and sauces. Nutraceutical: diuretic, digestive, and antispasmodic. InsecticideExclusiveFB 403 (LEBA)

BASELLACEAE
Ullucus tuberosus CaldasPapa lisa/
Ulluco
Fresh tubers (sold loose or packed)Food, for soups, stews, locro, and purees. Functional food: “healthy” food (antioxidant)FrequentFB 439 (LEBA)

BORAGINACEAE
Borago officinalis L.BorrajaFresh aerial partsFood, eaten as a vegetable or in patty fillings; condiment in sauces, soups, and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: expectorant, cordialFrequentFB 414 (LP)

BRASSICACEAE
Lepidium meyenii Walp.
(= L peruvianum G. Chacón)
MacaRoots in powder or as flour (sold loose or packed)Nutraceutical: tonic of the nervous system, to stimulate memory, to improve sexuality and fertility, against fatigue and stress, “antiageing” (antioxidant). It is added to food and drinksFrequentJH H091, H160 (LEBA)
CACTACEAE
Opuntia ficus-indica
(L.) Mill.
TunaArrope (syrup) (in bottles)Food. Functional food o nutraceutical: diuretic, antispasmodic, emollient, and vermifugeExclusiveJH L002 (LEBA)

CHENOPODIACEAE
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants (= Chenopodium ambrosioides L.)PaicoFresh aerial parts (in bunches)Condiment in soups, stews, and other foods. Beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: tonic, aperitive, febrifuge, digestive, antispasmodic, carminative, hypotensive, emmenagogue, and vermifuge; in external application, antihemorroidalExclusiveFB 419 (LP)

CUCURBITACEAE
Cyclanthera pedata (L.) SchraderCaiwa/ AchojchaFresh fruits.Food, used as pumpkin, in stews and soups. Functional food or nutraceutical: antidiabetic, analgesic, and hypotensiveExclusiveFB 417 (LEBA)
Cucurbita ficifolia BouchéCayote/ AlcayoteFresh fruitsFood, as a fruit; also in soups and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: antidiabeticExclusiveJH 565 (LP)
Sechium edule
(Jacq.) Sw.
Chayote/ Papa del aireFresh fruitsFood, in stews, soups, fried, pies, and jams. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, antidiabetic, and hypotensiveExclusiveFB 418 (LEBA)

EUPHORBIACEAE
Plukenetia volubilis L.Sacha inchiSeeds in snacks, liquid, ointment and in powderFood. Nutraceutical: depurative, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant; in ointment, for bone pain, and inflammationFrequentJH L029 (LEBA)

LAMIACEAE
Melissa officinalis L.Toronjil/ MelisaFresh aerial partsCondiment for sauces and various dishes. Nutraceutical: digestive, carminative, antispasmodic, cordial, and emmenagogueExclusiveFB 422 (LEBA)
Mentha x piperita L.MentaFresh aerial partsCondiment for various dishes. Beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: aperitive, stimulant, digestive, antidiarrheal, carminative, and vermifugeExclusiveFB 428 (LEBA)
Mentha spicata L.Yerba buenaFresh aerial partsCondiment for various dishes. Beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: stimulant, digestive, hepatic, cholagogue, and pectoralExclusiveFB 423 (LEBA)
Rosmarinus officinalis L.RomeroFresh aerial partsCondiment for various dishes. Nutraceutical: antispasmodic, digestive, hepatic, depurative, and emmenagogueExclusiveFB 457 (LEBA)

LEGUMINOSAE
Arachis hypogaea L.Maní bolivianoDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for soups and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: laxative, emollient, and pectoralExclusiveJH L007 (LEBA)
Cicer arietinum L.GarbanzoDry seeds and flour (sold loose)Food, for soups, stews, and side dishes. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, hypocholesterolemicFrequentJH L027 (LEBA)
Geoffroea decorticans (Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.) BurkartChañarArrope (syrup) (in bottles)Food. Nutraceutical: antitussive, expectorant, anticatarrhal, balsamic, emollient, and antiasthmaticFrequentJH L005 (LEBA)
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.RegalizDry chopped rootsSweetener. Nutraceutical: anti-inflammatory, digestive, antispasmodic, hepatic, diuretic, emollient, laxative, expectorant, and antiasthmaticFrequentJH H084 (LEBA)
Glycine max (L) Merr.SojaDry seeds and flour (sold loose)Food, for stews, soups, and salads. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, hypocholesterolemic, digestive, and laxativeFrequentJH L019 (LEBA)
Lablab purpureus
(L.) Sweet
Poroto japonésFresh beansFood (cooked). Functional food or nutraceutical: astringent, antidiarrheal, digestive, and febrifugeExclusiveFB 404 (LEBA)
Lens culinaris Medik.Lenteja comúnDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for soups and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: antianemic, digestive, and laxativeFrequentJH L018 (LEBA)
LentejónSame as aboveFrequentJH L017 (LEBA)
Lenteja turca Same as aboveFrequentFB H05 (LEBA)
Lenteja canadiense Same as aboveFrequentJH L013 (LEBA)
Lupinus albus L.LupínDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for soups and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, vermifuge, emmenagogueFrequentJH L014 (LEBA)
Lupinus mutabilis SweetTauri/TarwiDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for soups, stews, purees, tamales, humita, and tortillas. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, emollient, and vermifugeExclusiveFB H14 (LEBA)
Pachyrhizus ahipa
(Wedd.) Parodi
AjipaFresh rootsFood, as fruit (raw) or vegetable (cooked). Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, expectorant, and antitussiveExclusiveFB 374 (LEBA)
Phaseolus lunatus L.Poroto pallarDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for salads, soups, and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: astringent, febrifuge, and emollientFrequentFB H13 (LEBA)
Poroto de mantecaSame as aboveFrequentJH L024 (LEBA)
Phaseolus vulgaris L.Poroto/ ChauchaDry seeds and fresh legumes (sold loose)Food, for salads, soups, stews, and locro. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, and resolutiveFrequentJH L028 (LEBA)
Poroto alubia Same as aboveFrequentJH L023 (LEBA)
Poroto negro Same as aboveFrequentJH L021 (LEBA)
Poroto colorado Same as aboveFrequentJH L022 (LEBA)
Poroto regina Same as aboveFrequentJH L008 (LEBA)
Poroto cranberry Same as aboveFrequentJH L010 (LEBA)
Poroto San Francisco Same as aboveFrequentFB H11 (LEBA)
Poroto pitai Same as aboveFrequentFB H12 (LEBA)
Poroto paraguayo Same as aboveFrequentJH L020 (LEBA)
Poroto canario Same as aboveFrequentFB H10 (LEBA)
Poroto panamito Same as aboveExclusiveFB 443 (LEBA)
Pisum sativum L.ArvejaDry seeds and flour (sold loose)Food, for salads, soups, and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: digestive, febrifuge, against dermatosis, and contraceptiveFrequentJH L026 (LEBA)
Prosopis alba Griseb.Algarrobo blancoArrope (syrup) (in bottles) and flour (sold loose).Food. Nutraceutical: stomachic, laxative, diuretic, pectoral, and antiasthmaticFrequentJH L004 (LEBA)
Tamarindus indica L.TamarindoFruit pulp.Food and Condiment. Functional food or nutraceutical: digestive, refreshing, laxative, and purgativeFrequentJH L001 (LEBA)
Vicia faba L.HabaDry and toasted seeds (snacks) and fresh legumes (sold loose)Food, for salads, soups and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, emollient, resolutive, and against coldsFrequentJH L015,
L016 (LEBA)
Vigna angularis
(Willd.) Ohwi & H. Ohashi
Poroto adzukiDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for soups and stews, with cereals and rice, and confectionary. Functional food or nutraceutical: digestive, laxative, and hypoglycemicFrequentJH H101 (LEBA)
Vigna radiata
(L.) R. Wilczer
Poroto mungDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for soups and stews. Functional food or nutraceutical: digestive, antidiarrheal, febrifuge, and tonic.FrequentJH L011 (LEBA)
Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.Poroto tape/CaupíDry seeds (sold loose)Food, for soups, stews and purees. Functional food or nutraceutical: diuretic, digestive, laxative, tonic, and galactogeneFrequentJH L012 (LEBA)

MORACEAE
Ficus carica L.HigoArrope (syrup) (in bottles)Food. Functional food or nutraceutical: anti-inflammatory, emollient, vermifuge, and antioxidantExclusiveFB 453 (LEBA)

MYRTACEAE
Eucalyptus cinérea F. Muell. ex Benth.EucaliptoBranches with fresh leaves (in bunches)Beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: expectorant, against colds, anticatarrhal, antitussive, antiasthmatic, and antirheumaticExclusiveFB 425 (LEBA)

OXALIDACEAE
Oxalis tuberosa MolinaOcaFresh tubers (sold loose or packed)Food, for soups, stews, purees (cooked). Functional food: “healthy” food (antioxidant)FrequentFB 438 (LEBA)

POACEAE
Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) StapfPasto limón/ CitronelaFresh tillers (in bunches)Condiment for food and beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: sedative, stomachic, carminative, and antidiarrhealFrequentFB 407 (LEBA)
Zea mays L.Maíz morado (kulli)Whole dry spikes or in powder (sold loose)To make chicha morada (refreshing drink). Nutraceutical: depurative, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidantExclusiveFB 431 (LEBA)
Maíz chuspillo Dry grains (sold loose or packed)For toasted corn. Functional foodExclusiveFB 448 (LEBA)
Maíz huillcaparu To make chicha (alcoholic beverage). Functional foodExclusiveFB 447 (LEBA)
Maíz colorado For soups, stews and other dishes. Functional foodExclusiveFB 450 (LEBA)
Maíz blanco Same as aboveExclusiveFB 449 (LEBA)
Maíz mote o pelado Dry or cooked grains (sold packed)For stews and other dishes, boiled in water. Functional foodExclusiveFB 451 (LEBA)
Barba de chocloDry styles (sold loose) Diuretic, hepatic, and antinephritic.FrequentJH H163 (LEBA)

RUBIACEAE
Coffea arabica L.SultanaSeeds (seed coat) (sold loose or packed)Beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: antidiabetic, stimulant, antinephritic, and febrifugeExclusiveJH C095 (LEBA)
Morinda citrifolia L.NoniPulp made flour or powder (loose or packed) and capsulesTo make beverages or to add to infusions. Nutraceutical: stimulant of immune system, antidepressant, sleep regulator, “antiageing” (antioxidant), anti-inflammatory, and cordialFrequentJH H092, H161-H162 (LEBA)

SOLANACEAE
Capsicum annuum L.Ají picante Fresh and dry fruits (sold loose or packed)Food and condiment, for sauces, soups, stews, side dishes, and patty fillings. Functional food or nutraceutical: tonic, analgesic, and stimulant of the digestive systemExclusiveJH C096 (LEBA)
Ají escabeche ExclusiveFB 433 (LEBA)
Ají amarillo ExclusiveFB 435 (LEBA)
Ají campanita ExclusiveFB 421 (LEBA)
Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav.Locoto/ RocotoFresh fruits (sold loose) and in powder (packed)Condiment for soups, sauces, stews, patty fillings, and various dishes. Functional food or nutraceutical: tonic, analgesic, and stimulant of the digestive systemExclusiveJH C094 (LEBA)
Solanum tuberosum L.Papa blanca, papa negraDried tubers (chuño) (sold loose or packed)Food, for various dishes. Functional food and nutraceutical: cordial, hypotensive, and antispasmodicExclusiveFB 441-442 (LEBA)
PapinesFresh tubers (sold loose or packed)Same as aboveFrequentFB 440 (LEBA)

VERBENACEAE
Aloysia citriodora PalauCedrónFresh aerial parts or whole plantFood, condiment and beverage flavouring. Nutraceutical: against gastrointestinal disorders, sedative, and hypotensiveExclusiveFB 455 (LEBA)
Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) MoldenkeBurrito/ BurroFresh aerial parts or whole plantBeverage flavouring, fresh leaves are added to mate or used for make medicinal teas. Nutraceutical: sedative, digestive, antispasmodic, hepatic, carminative, and antiemeticExclusiveFB 456 (LEBA)

VITACEAE
Vitis vinífera L.UvaArrope (syrup) (in bottles)Food. Nutraceutical: refreshing, diuretic, astringent, and antidiarrhealExclusiveFB 454 (LEBA)