- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 359282, 10 pages
Effect of Keishibukuryogan on Endothelial Function in Patients with at Least One Component of the Diagnostic Criteria for Metabolic Syndrome: A Controlled Clinical Trial with Crossover Design
1Department of Japanese Oriental Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
2Division of Kampo Diagnostics, Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
Received 11 October 2011; Revised 31 January 2012; Accepted 8 February 2012
Academic Editor: Ka Kit Hui
Copyright © 2012 Yutaka Nagata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- N. Yoshiike, F. Seino, S. Tajima et al., “Twenty-year changes in the prevalence of overweight in Japanese adults: the National Nutrition Survey 1976–95,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 183–190, 2002.
- M. Kubo, Y. Kiyohara, I. Kato et al., “Trends in the incidence, mortality, and survival rate of cardiovascular disease in a Japanese community: the Hisayama study,” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2349–2354, 2003.
- J. E. Deanfield, J. P. Halcox, and T. J. Rabelink, “Endothelial function and dysfunction: testing and clinical relevance,” Circulation, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 1285–1295, 2007.
- N. M. Hamburg, M. J. Keyes, M. G. Larson et al., “Cross-sectional relations of digital vascular function to cardiovascular risk factors in the Framingham heart study,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 19, pp. 2467–2474, 2008.
- P. O. Bonetti, L. O. Lerman, and A. Lerman, “Endothelial dysfunction: a marker of atherosclerotic risk,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 168–175, 2003.
- D. S. Celermajer, K. E. Sorensen, V. M. Gooch et al., “Non-invasive detection of endothelial dysfunction in children and adults at risk of atherosclerosis,” The Lancet, vol. 340, no. 8828, pp. 1111–1115, 1992.
- P. O. Bonetti, G. M. Pumper, S. T. Higano, D. R. Holmes, J. T. Kuvin, and A. Lerman, “Noninvasive identification of patients with early coronary atherosclerosis by assessment of digital reactive hyperemia,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2137–2141, 2004.
- P. O. Bonetti, G. W. Barsness, P. C. Keelan et al., “Enhanced external counterpulsation improves endothelial function in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1761–1768, 2003.
- N. Sekiya, H. Goto, K. Tazawa, S. Oida, Y. Shimada, and K. Terasawa, “Keishi-bukuryo-gan preserves the endothelium dependent relaxation of thoracic aorta in cholesterol-fed rabbit by limiting superoxide generation,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 524–528, 2002.
- H. Goto, Y. Shimada, N. Sekiya et al., “Effects of Keishi-bukuryo-gan on vascular function and hemorheological factors in spontaneously diabetic (WBN/kob) rats,” Phytomedicine, vol. 11, no. 2-3, pp. 188–195, 2004.
- N. Sekiya, N. Tanaka, T. Itoh, Y. Shimada, H. Goto, and K. Terasawa, “Keishi-bukuryo-gan prevents the progression of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbit,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 192–196, 1999.
- N. Sekiya, M. Kainuma, H. Hikiami et al., “Oren-gedoku-to and Keishi-bukuryo-gan-ryo inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 294–298, 2005.
- The Examination Committee for Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, “Definition and criteria of metabolic syndrome,” The Journal of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine, vol. 94, no. 4, pp. 794–809, 2005.
- M. E. Widlansky, J. A. Vita, M. J. Keyes et al., “Relation of season and temperature to endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation in subjects without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease (from the Framingham Heart Study),” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 518–523, 2007.
- Y. Matsuzawa, S. Sugiyama, K. Sugamura et al., “Digital Assessment of Endothelial Function and Ischemic Heart Disease in Women,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 55, no. 16, pp. 1688–1696, 2010.
- R. Rubinshtein, J. T. Kuvin, M. Soffler et al., “Assessment of endothelial function by non-invasive peripheral arterial tonometry predicts late cardiovascular adverse events,” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1142–1148, 2010.
- D. R. Matthews, J. P. Hosker, A. S. Rudenski, B. A. Naylor, D. F. Treacher, and R. C. Turner, “Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man,” Diabetologia, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 412–419, 1985.
- A. A. Lteif, K. Han, and K. J. Mather, “Obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome: determinants of endothelial dysfunction in whites and blacks,” Circulation, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 32–38, 2005.
- T. Suzuki, K. Hirata, M. S. V. Elkind et al., “Metabolic syndrome, endothelial dysfunction, and risk of cardiovascular events: the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS),” American Heart Journal, vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 405–410, 2008.
- D. Yinon, L. Lowenstein, S. Suraya et al., “Pre-eclampsia is associated with sleep-disordered breathing and endothelial dysfunction,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 328–333, 2006.
- M. Yamaoka-Tojo, T. Tojo, R. Kosugi et al., “Effects of ezetimibe add-on therapy for high-risk patients with dyslipidemia,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 8, p. 41, 2009.
- T. A. Barringer, L. Hatcher, and H. C. Sasser, “Potential benefits on impairment of endothelial function after a high-fat meal of 4 weeks of flavonoid supplementation,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 796958, 6 pages, 2011.
- T. Itoh, K. Terasawa, K. Kohta, N. Shibahara, H. Tosa, and Y. Hiyama, “Effects of Keishi-bukuryo-gan and trapidil on the microcirculation in patients with cerebro-spinal vascular disease,” Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Society for WAKAN-YAKU, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 1992.
- H. Hikiami, H. Goto, N. Sekiya et al., “Comparative efficacy of Keishi-bukuryo-gan and pentoxifylline on RBC deformability in patients with "oketsu" syndrome,” Phytomedicine, vol. 10, no. 6-7, pp. 459–466, 2003.
- K. Tanikawa, H. Goto, N. Nakamura, et al., “Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of tannin extract from Cinnamonomi Cortex on isolated rat aorta,” Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Society for WAKAN-YAKU, vol. 16, pp. 45–50, 1999.
- H. Goto, Y. Shimada, Y. Akechi, K. Kohta, M. Hattori, and K. Terasawa, “Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effect of extract prepared from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora on isolated rat aorta,” Planta Medica, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 436–439, 1996.
- A. Yanaga, H. Goto, T. Nakagawa, H. Hikiami, N. Shibahara, and Y. Shimada, “Cinnamaldehyde induces endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxant action on isolated rat aorta,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2415–2418, 2006.
- Y. L. Xue, H. X. Shi, F. Murad, and K. Bian, “Vasodilatory effects of cinnamaldehyde and its mechanism of action in the rat aorta,” Vascular Health and Risk Management, vol. 7, pp. 273–280, 2011.
- H. O. Steinberg, M. Tarshoby, R. Monestel et al., “Elevated circulating free fatty acid levels impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 1230–1239, 1997.
- M. Fujimoto, K. Tsuneyama, M. Kainuma et al., “Evidence-based efficacy of kampo formulas in a model of non alcoholic fatty liver,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 233, no. 3, pp. 328–337, 2008.
- S. Grunfeld, C. A. Hamilton, S. Mesaros et al., “Role of superoxide in the depressed nitric oxide production by the endothelium of genetically hypertensive rats,” Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 854–857, 1995.
- Y. Ohara, T. E. Peterson, and D. G. Harrison, “Hypercholesterolemia increases endothelial superoxide anion production,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 2546–2551, 1993.
- I. Grattagliano, V. O. Palmieri, P. Portincasa, A. Moschetta, and G. Palasciano, “Oxidative stress-induced risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome: a unifying hypothesis,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 491–504, 2008.
- K. Nozaki, H. Hikiami, H. Goto, T. Nakagawa, N. Shibahara, and Y. Shimada, “Keishibukuryogan (Gui-Zhi-Fu-Ling-Wan), a Kampo formula, decreases disease activity and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 359–364, 2006.
- L. Osborn, C. Hession, R. Tizard et al., “Direct expression cloning of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, a cytokine-induced endothelial protein that binds to lymphocytes,” Cell, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 1203–1211, 1989.
- M. J. Davies, J. L. Gordon, A. J. H. Gearing et al., “The expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM, and E-selectin in human atherosclerosis,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 223–229, 1993.
- K. D. O'Brien, M. D. Allen, T. O. McDonald et al., “Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 is expressed in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques: implications for the mode of progression of advanced coronary atherosclerosis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 945–951, 1993.