Table 1: Antiosteoporotic medicinal plants.

Family Scientific name Plant parts used Reported relevant ethnomedical uses Pharmacological study/chemical constituents Reference

Amaranthaceae Achyranthes bidentata Blume RootBone related diseasesDecrease bone loss in OVX rats by inhibiting osteoclast formation/oleanolic acid glycosides, ecdysone and allantoin[123, 124]
AmaryllidaceaeCurculigo orchioides Gaertn.RhizomeImpotence, tinnitusDecrease bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption/phenolic glycosides[106, 125]
ApiaceaeCnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss.FruitImpotence, lumbar painReverse prednisone-induced bone mass loss, inhibit the high bone turnover; enhance osteoblastic proliferation and differentiation, inhibit formation and maturation of osteoclast/coumarins[87, 126, 127]
ApiaceaeCuminum cyminum L. FruitToothache, diarrhea, epilepsyPrevent ovariectomy—induced bone loss/β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, luteolin and apigenin[128]
ApiaceaeFerula hermonis BoissRootFrigidity, impotencePrevent bone loss caused by severe estrogen deficiency by regulating calcium mobilization and mitochondrial permeability/daucane sesquiterpenes, ferutinin[129]
Apiaceae Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels RootHematopoietic, abnormal or painful menstruation, other women’s diseasesIncrease ALP activity and synthesis of collagenase type I of osteoblast/ligustilide, butylidene phihalide, ferulic acid[130]
AraliaceaePanax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. ChenRootTrauma, injury of muscles, bone fracturePrevent bone loss and deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, stimulate proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast/triterpene saponins[131, 132]
Araliaceae Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms StemHypertension, rheumatism, ischemic heart disease, diabetesDecrease bone loss in postmenopausal women/acanthosides, eleutherosides, senticoside, triterpen saponin, flavones[133]
BerberidaceaeEpimedium brevicornu MaximLeafImpotence, prospermia, hyperdiuresis, osteoporosis, menopause syndrome, rheumatic arthritis, hypertension and chronic tracheitis[1626]
BerberidaceaeEpimedium koreanum NakaiLeafSee section 3.1.1
BerberidaceaeEpimedium pubescens MaximLeaf
BerberidaceaeEpimedium sagittatum (Sieb. et Zucc.)Leaf
Berberidaceae Berberis aristata DCStem barkMenopausal disorders, osteoporosisDecrease bone loss/berberine chloride, palmatine chloride, magnoflavine, canadine, berberastine, obaberine, columbavine and talifendine[134, 135]
BrassicaceaeLepidium meyenii Walp.RootHot flushes, tender breast, vaginal dryness, osteoporosisImprove the bone mass in OVX rats/macaridine, macaene, macamides, and maca alkaloids [136, 137]
Campanulaceae Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC.RootCough, chronic diseasesStimulate osteoblast differentiation through p38 MAPK and ERK signaling pathways/saponin[138]
Caprifoliaceae Sambucus williamsii Hance Stem and ramulusInflammation, bone fractures, joint diseasesSuppress the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, inhibit bone resorption, stimulate bone formation/lignans[139]
CompositaeCarthamus tinctorius L.Seed Ankyloenteron, rheumatism, and chronic nephritisPrevent bone loss through modulation ALP and IGF-1/lignans, flavones, serotonins[140, 141]
CompositaeSilybum marianun (L.) GaertnSeedLiver diseasePrevent bone loss in rats induced by OVX with mild proliferative effects in uterus/silibinin, isosilibinin, silydianin and silychristin[142, 143]
CompositaeWedelia calendulacea Less.FlowerLiver disorders, jaundice, uterine hemorrhage, menorrhagiaPromote bone formation, decrease bone loss/isoflavones and wedelolactone[144]
Compositae Artemisia iwayomogi KitamuraAerial partsDiabetes and hepatitisStimulate bone formation/phenolic compounds[145]
Convolvulaceae Cuscuta chinensis Lam. SeedSexual dysfunction, osteoporosis, senescenceEnhance osteoblast differentiation and mineralization/quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, hyperoside and astragalin[146, 147]
DavalliaceaeDavallia formosana HayataRhizomeBone disease, osteoporosisPrevent bone loss, enhance bone strength, inhibit the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture via inhibition of bone resorption/(−)-epicatechin 3-O-β-D-allopyranoside[148]
Dicksoniaceae Cibotium barometz (L.) J. Sm.RhizomeLumbago, rheumatism, polyuria, leucorrhoeaPrevent bone loss induced by ovariectomy, inhibit osteoclast formation [149]
DioscoreaceaeDioscorea alata L.RhizomeDyspnea, spermatorrhea, leucorrhagia, diabetesIncrease bone formation by inducing mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into osteoblasts[150]
DioscoreaceaeDioscorea spongiosa J. Q. Xi et al.RhizomeRheumatoid arthritis, bone disorderInhibit the decrease in bone mineral density, stimulate proliferation and mineralization of osteoblast, inhibit formation and bone resorption of osteoclast/seroidal saponins[151, 152]
Dipsacaceae Dipsacus asperoides C. Y. Cheng et T. M. AiRootTraumatic ecchymoma, injury of muscles, bone fracturesInhibit bone loss induced by ovariectomy, enhance osteoblast maturation and differentiation by increasing BMP-2 synthesis and activating p38 and ERK1/2/asperosaponin VI[108, 153]
EricaceaeVaccinium angustifolium Aiton FruitCardiovascular diseasePrevent bone loss in ovarian hormone deficiency, stimulate osteoblast differentiation and reduce mesenchymal stromal cell senescence/phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and ellagic acids), flavonoids (anthocyanins, catechin, epichatechin, quercetin, kaempferol and myrecetin)[154]
Eucommiaceae Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.Bark Hypertension, renal injuryPrevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss, increase osteoblast proliferation and inhibit differentiation of osteoclast/lignans, iridoids, flavonoids and terpenoids[155157]
EuphorbiaceaeEmblica officinalis Gaertn.FruitDyslipidemia, atherosclerosisInduce osteoclast apoptosis through downregulating the expression of IL-6 and NF-κB[158]
FabaceaeErythrina variegata LinnStem barkStomachache, rheumatism, eye ailments, swellings Suppress the bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and maturation/genistein derivatives[159, 160]
FabaceaeGlycine max (Linn.) Merr. SeedCardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, renal function See section 3.1.2[2733]
FabaceaeOnobrychis ebenoides Boiss. et Spruner Whole plantEstrogenic activityDecrease bone loss without affecting body and uterine weight/isoflavones (ebenosin, afrormosin, formononetin and daidzein), benzofurans and benzoypyrans (ebenfuran I, ebenfuran II and ebenfuran III )[161163]
FabaceaePsoralea corylifolia L. FruitBone fracture, osteomalacia and osteoporosisSee section 3.1.3[3437]
FabaceaePueraria lobate (Willd.) OhwiRootInfluenza, hypertension, angina pectoris See section 3.1.4[3841]
FabaceaePueraria mirifica Airy Shaw et SuvatabandhuRootReproductive organs, cardiovascular diseases, climacteric related symptomsSee section 3.1.4[42, 43]
FabaceaeRhynchosia volubilis Lour.SeedToothache, rheumatic arthritis, snake biteFacilitate osteoblastic MG-63 cell proliferation/genistein and daidzein[164]
FabaceaeSophora japonica L.FruitHematochezia, bleeding hemorrhoids Suppress formation and differentiation of osteoclast/isoflavonoids[165, 166]
Fabaceae Butea monosperma (L.) Kuntze Stem barkBone fracturePrevent OVX-induced bone loss by stimulating bone formation/methoxyisoflavones (cajanin, isoformononetin, cladrin and medicarpin)[167]
Fabaceae Phaseolus vulgaris L SeedEstrogenic activityPrevent estrogen deficiency-induced osteopenia without affecting the uterine mass[168]
Fabaceae Trifolium pratense L. Aerial partsMenopause symptoms, cardiovascular disease See section 3.1.5[4447]
GinkgoaceaeGinkgo biloba Linn.LeafCardiovascular diseaseReverse bone loss in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and mandibular osteoporosis/kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalides)[169, 170]
Juglandaceae Juglans regia L. FuitHeart disease, prostate cancer, hyperlipidemicInduce nodule formation of osteoblast/ellagic acid, α-tocopherol, fatty acids, flavonoids and phenolic acids[171]
LabiataeAjuga decumbens Thunb.Whole plantHypertension, hemoptysis, carbuncles and joint painDownregulate the differentiation of osteoclast, upregulate mineralization of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells[172]
LabiataeSalvia miltiorrhiza BgeRootCardiovascular diseasesSee section 3.1.6[4852]
LauraceaeCinnamomum cassia (L.) C. PreslBarkDyspepsia, gastritis, blood circulation disturbances, inflammatory diseasesStimulate bone formation in vitro and may contribute to the prevention of osteoporosis and inflammatory bone diseases/cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, cinnamic acid, and coumarin[173]
LiliaceaeAllium cepa L.BulbInsomnia, hyperglycemic,
Hyperlipidemic
Decrease the ovariectomy-induced bone resorption via attenuation of RANKL—induced ERK, p38, and NF- B activation[174]
LiliaceaeAllium sativum L.BulbInfluenza, dysentery, tuberculosisPrevent bone loss, reverse the low BMD and low tensile strength caused by ovariectomy/allicin, allylmethyltrisulphide, diallyldisulphide, ajoene, monoterpenes (citral, geraniol and linalool), and flavonoids (quercetin and rutin)[175]
LiliaceaeAnemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. RhizomeLung disease, fever, diabetes and constipationPrevent OVX-induced bone loss in rats through the promotion of bone formation but not the inhibition of bone resorption/steroidal saponins[176]
Liliaceae Polygonatum sibiricum Red.RhizomeHypotension,
Hyperglycemic,
Hyperlipidemic
Prevent bone loss/polysaccharide[177]
LinaceaeLinum usitatissimum L.SeedPostmenopausal osteoporosisSee section 3.1.7[5356]
LythraceaeHeimia myrtifolia Cham.LeafOsteoporosisStimulate formation and mineralization of osteoblastic cell lines HOS58 and saos-2/vertine (cryogenine), lythrine, lythridine, polyphenols[178]
MalvaceaeAbelmoschus manihot (L.) Medik. LeafChronic glomerulonephritisReduce bone loss in conditions of estrogen deficiency/calcium [179]
MenispermaceaeTinospora cordifolia
(Willd.) Miers
StemDyspepsia, fever, urinary diseasesEstrogenic activity, prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats/alkaloids, terpenoids, glycosides, sterols, lactones and fatty acids[180]
MyrsinaceaeLabisia pumila var. alata (Scheff.) Mez.RootMenstrual irregularities, painful menstruationPrevent the changes in bone biochemical markers but failed to prevent the bone calcium loss induced by ovariectomy/C15 monoene resorcinols, phenolic compounds, flavonoids [181]
OleaceaeLigustrum lucidum Ait. FruitMenopausal problems, tinnitus, rheumatic pains, palpitations, insomnia symptomsImprove bone properties in aged rats via increasing osteoblast formation and mineralization/oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, acetyloleanolic acid[182, 183]
OrchidaceaeAnoectochilus formosanus HayataWhole plantsLung disease, pleurodynia, abdominal pain, fever, hypertension and snake bitesSuppress the bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency through suppression of RANKL expression required for osteoclast formation.[184]
OrobanchaceaeCistanche deserticola Y. C. MaStemForgetfulness, loss of hearing, chronic constipation.Enhanced bone mineral density and bone mineral content/harmine[101]
OrobanchaceaeCistanche salsa (C. A. Mey.) G. BeckStemKidney deficiency, neurastheniaSuppress bone loss in ovariectomized mice/(2E, 6R)-8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2-octenoic acid[185]
PleurotaceaePleurotus eryngii (De Candolle: Fr.) Quel.Fruiting bodyLiver, kidney and gastrointestinal disorders Alleviate the decrease in the trabecular bond mineral density in ovariectomized rats, increase the ALP activity and secretion of osteoprotegerin, improve the osteocalcin mRNA and Runx2 gene expression in osteoblasts;
Decrease the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and resorption areas of osteoclast
[186]
PolypodiaceaeDrynaria fortunei (Kunze) J. Sm.RhizomeBone fractures and joint diseasesSee section 3.1.8[5761]
Punicaceae Punica granatum Linn. FruitParasitic infections, ulcers, diarrhea, dysentery, hemorrhage, respiratory pathologiesIncrease bone volume and trabecular number, and decrease trabecular separation in OVX rats/genistein, daidzein, ellagitannins and ellagic acid[187]
RanunculaceaeCimicifuga foetida L.RhizomeCooling and detoxification agentInhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, increase BMD in OVX mice/oxidized cycloartane-type triterpenoids and phenol type derivatives[188]
RanunculaceaeCimicifuga racemosa (L.) NuttallRhizomeDysmenorrhea, labor pains, menopausal symptomsSee section 3.1.9[6266]
Rosaceae Prunus mume Sieb et ZUCC.FruitChronic gastritisIncrease alkaline phosphatase activity, cell proliferation and mineralization, enhance the expression of BMP-2 of osteoblast/citric acid, malic acid, chlorogenic acid and 5-hydroxymethy-furfural[189, 190]
Rosaceae Rubus coreanus Miq. FruitImpotence, spermatorrhoea, and back painPrevent bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency by dual regulation of the enhancement of osteoblast function and induction of osteoclast apoptosis/ellagic acid, fupenzic acid, β-sitosterol[191, 192]
RubiaceaeMorinda officinalis HowRootRheumatismSee Section 3.1.10[6771]
RutaceaePoncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. FruitGastritis, dysentery, digestive tract ulcers, uterine contraction, and cardiovascular diseasesInhibit glucocorticoid-induced bone loss by decreasing expression of anxA6/flavone (poncirin, hesperidin, rhoifolin, naringin, neohesperidin)[193]
Rutaceae Citrus paradisi Macf.FruitDigestion system, lose weightImprove bone quality by enhancing bone mineral deposition in ORX rats/vitamin C, hesperidin and limonoids[194, 195]
Scrophulariaceae Rehmannia glutinosa LiboschRootHaemostatic, cardiotonic, and diuretic agentIncrease ALP activity and the expression of the OPG of osteoblast, decrease the number of TRAP-positive MNCs and the resorption areas of osteoclast, alleviate the decrease in the trabecular BMD, and increase the cortical bone thickness ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic rats/luteolin, mannitol, stigmasterol, campesterol, catalpol, rehmannin.[196]
SolanaceaeWithania somnifera Dunn. RootNerve diseases and anxietyInhibit bone loss in ovariectomized rats/withanolides[197]
Taxaceae Taxus yunnanensis cheng et L.K. Seed,
bark
CancerIncrease bone mineral content and bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats/isotaxiresinol, taxol, harringtonine [90]
Theaceae Stewartia koreana Nakai ex Rehd.LeafInflammatory diseasesInhibit osteoclast differentiation and prevent inflammatory bone loss/spinasterol glycoside[198]
UlmaceaeUlmus davidiana Planch. BarkOedema, mastitis, gastric cancer and inflammationPromote osteoblastic differentiation by increasing bone morphogenic protein-2 as well as ALP mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells, inhibit bone resorption/davidianones A, B, and C, mansonones E, F, H, and I[199]
Ulmaceae Ulmus wallichiana Planch.BarkBone fractureMitigate ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, stimulate osteoblast function and inhibit osteoclast differentiation/quercetin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranoside [200203]
Verbenaceae Vitex agnus-castus L. FruitPremenstrual symptoms, climacteric complaintsProtect bone in orchidectomized rats/apigenin, cascitin, and dopaminergic compounds[204]
VitaceaeCissus quadrangularis L. Aerial parts,
root
Hemorrhoids, menstrual disorders, scurvy, flatulence, bone fractures, bone diseasesPrevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats, stimulate osteoblastogenesis through up-regulation of MAPK-dependent alkaline phosphatase activity/β-sitosterol, δ-amyrin, δ-amyrone, favanoids (quercetin), 6′-O-trans-cinnamoyl-catalpol [205207]
Zingiberaceae Curcuma comosa Roxb.RhizomePostpartum, uterine bleeding, inflammationPrevent bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency/diarylheptanoids, curcumin[208, 209]