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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 371273, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/371273
Research Article

Balanophora spicata and Lupeol Acetate Possess Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities In Vivo and In Vitro

1Department of Pharmacology, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40427, Taiwan
3College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
4Chinese Medicine Research and Development Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung 40427, Taiwan
5Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
6School of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan

Received 3 May 2012; Revised 6 October 2012; Accepted 9 October 2012

Academic Editor: Ke Ren

Copyright © 2012 Yuh-Fung Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Aims of the present study were to investigate effects of Balanophora spicata (BS) on antinociception and anti-inflammation both in vivo and in vitro. Crude extract of BS inhibited vascular permeability induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and PGE2, but not by PAF. Furthermore, BS crude extract, different layers (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water layer), and lupeol acetate had significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing response, formalin-induced licking behavior, carrageenan-, and serotonin-induced paw edema. The n-hexane layer had the most effective potency among all layers (IC50: 67.33 mg/kg on writhing response; IC50s: 34.2 mg/kg and 21.29 mg/kg on the early phase and late phase of formalin test, resp.). Additionally, lupeol acetate which was isolated from the n-hexane layer of BS effectively inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response (IC50: 28.32 mg/kg), formalin-induced licking behavior (IC50: 20.95 mg/kg), NO production (IC50: 4.102  M), iNOS expression (IC50: 5.35  M), and COX2 expression (IC50: 5.13  M) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. In conclusion, BS has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects which may be partially due to the inhibition of changes in vascular permeability induced by histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and PGE2 and the attenuation of iNOS and COX-2 expression.