Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the subjects.

(%)

Age mean (standard deviation) (range)63.70 (14.00) (22–89)
Gender
Male24 (38)
Female40 (62)
Living status
Cohabitating/married55 (86)
Other (live alone)9 (14)
Marital status
Married/partnered49 (77)
Divorced/separated/other15 (23)
Education
Primary3 (5)
Secondary30 (47)
College and above31 (48)
Ethnicity
White58 (91)
Black5 (8)
Asian1 (1)
Medication use
Yes47 (63)
No17 (27)
Mean pain intensity score at baselineMean (standard deviation)
Worst pain7.62 (1.62)
Average pain6.63 (1.93)
Pain severity6.27 (1.84)
Pain interference4.88 (2.75)