Table 2: Between-group differences of treatment effects on perceived stress and psychological outcomes, mean (95% CI).

Yoga group 1 versus controlYoga group 2 versus controlYoga group 1 + 2 versus control
ChangeP valueChangeP valueChangeP value

CPSS−6.7 (−10.9; −2.5)0.002−4.7 (−9.2; −0.3)0.036−5.7 (−9.5; −2.0)0.003
CES-D−4.2 (−7.9; −0.5)0.028−4.6 (−8.5; −0.7)0.02−4.4 (−7.6; −1.2)0.008
S-STAI−5.2 (−10.6; 0.1)0.056−6.0 (−11.6; −0.4)0.037−5.6 (−10.4; −0.9)0.021
T-STAI−5.8 (−10.1; −1.6)0.007−5.3 (−9.5; −1.1)0.014−5.6 (−9.2; −1.9)0.003
GSI-score−7.5 (−12.9; −2.2)0.006−8.2 (−13.5; −3.0)0.002−7.9 (−12.5; −3.3)0.001
Bf-S−7.0 (−14.2; 0.2)0.057−6.2 (−13.3; 0.9)0.087−6.6 (−12.8; −0.4)0.036
POMS vigor0.8 (0.1; 1.4)0.0220.6 (0.0; 1.3)0.060.7 (0.1; 1.3)0.017
POMS fatigue−1.3 (−2.1; −0.6)0.001−1.0 (−1.8; −0.3)0.009−1.2 (−1.8; −0.5)0.001
POMS depression−0.4 (−1.0; 0.2)0.20−0.3 (−0.9; 0.2)0.239−0.4 (−0.9; 0.1)0.154
POMS anger −0.8 (−1.3; −0.2)0.007−0.5 (−1.1; 0.1)0.084−0.6 (−1.1; −0.1)0.012
QOL mental health 0.8 (0.3; 1.3)0.0020.6 (0.1; 1.1)0.0220.7 (0.2; 1.1)0.002
QOL physical sum score 0.1 (−0.3; 0.4)0.72−0.2 (−0.6; 0.2)0.269−0.1 (−0.4; 0.2)0.653
QOL mental sum score 0.6 (0.1; 1.2)0.0240.6 (0.0; 1.1)0.0440.6 (0.1; 1.1)0.012

CPSS: Cohen Perceived Stress Scale; CES-D: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; S-STAI: State Anxiety; T-STAI: Trait Anxiety; Bf-S: Zerssen well being scale; GSI: General Severity Index; POMS: Profile of Mood States; QOL: short form-36 Quality of Life.