Table 4: Group differences for group-independent effects of yoga according to frequency of visited yoga classes compared to controls, mean (95% CI).

7–12 versus 0 yoga classes13–24 versus 0 yoga classes*
ChangeP valueChangeP value

Back pain−2.3 (−3.7; −1.0)0.001−3.5 (−5.5; −1.5)0.001
GSI-Score−8.5 (−13.9; −3.0)0.003−10.2 (−15.9; −4.4)0.001
CES-D−4.5 (−8.3; −0.6)0.049−5.9 (−10.5; −1.3)0.011
S-STAI−6.5 (−12.0; −1.0)0.02−7.4 (−13.4; −1.4)0.015
T-STAI−6.1 (−10.5; −1.7)0.006−6.5 (−11.2; −1.8)0.007

GSI: General Severity Index; CES-D: Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale; S-STAI: state anxiety; T-STAI: Trait Anxiety.
*Group differences between 7–12 and 13–24 classes not significant.