Table 3: Study properties.

StudyDesignSample and characteristicsDiagnostic criteriaHerbal interventionControlOutcome measuresITT*1Drop out*2ADR*3

1Wan et al. [63], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration68 VaD patients, age: 58–82; duration: 4.37–15.85 yrDSM-3-R, HDS, HIS, “TCM dementia differential criteria”*aFucong 150 mL,
bid (37)
Piracetam
0.8 g, tid (31)
MMSE, HDS, BEAM, hemodynamic changesNNU
2Zhao et al. [74], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind; parallel design; 2 months duration46 VaD patients; age: 57–76; duration: 6 m –1 yrDSM-4, HIS, HDS, MMSE, “Protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bXianlong
2.7 g, bid (24)
Hydergine
3 mg, bid (22)
TCD, hemodynamic changesNNU
3Ji [59], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration68 VaD patients; age: 58–82; duration: 1.45-3.24  yrDSM-3-R, HDS, HIS, “TCM dementia differential criteria”* aDangguishaoy
ao bid (37)
Piracetam
0.8 g, tid (31)
MMSE, HDSNNU
4Lu et al. [90], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 60 days duration50 VaD patients; age: 56–82; duration: 2–6 yrDSM-3-R, MMSE, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”* cShentong 10 g,
tid (30)
Hydergine
1 mg, tid (20)
MMSE, BBSNNU
5Luo et al. [55], China Monotherapy MulticenterRandomized: method not mentioned; double blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 75 days duration68 VaD patients; age: 49–79; duration: 0.99–2.07 yrDSM-4, ICD 10, HIS, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”* cShenmayizhi
1 g, tid (35)
Hydergine
1 mg, tid (33)
MMSE, ADL, BEAM, Neurological deficitsNNU
6Zhang et al. [51], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration61 VaD patients; age: 60–77; duration: 6 m–2.5 yr;NINDS-AIREN, HIS, HDS, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bJiannaotongluo
1.6 g, tid (30)
Aniracetam
0.3 g, tid (31)
HDS, hemodynamic changesNNU
7Zhou and Yi [64], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration46 VaD patients; age: 60–80; duration: 8 m–3 yrDSM-3, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia,”*b “protocol for new herbal drugs study on stroke”* bYinaoling
40 mL, bid (23)
Piracetam
0.8 g tid (23)
HDS, FAQ, CCSENNU
8Cao et al. [82], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 60 days duration53 VaD patients; age: 58–75; duration: 3 m–12 mDSM-4Congsheng
tid (25)
Hydergine
tid (28)
MMSE, BBS, TCD, EKG, SELFNNN
9Hong et al. [54], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 60 days duration86 VaD patients; age: 45–76; duration: 5 m–3 yrDSM-4, MMSE, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia,”* c CORELATION, HISShouxing
tid (48)
Piracetam
tid (38)
MMSE, ADLNNU
10Huang et al. [91], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration58 VaD patients; age: 57–79; duration: 6 m–3 yrDSM-4, MMSE, ADL, HIS, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”* cNaohuandan
62 g/d (28)
Piracetam
tid (28)
MMSE, ADL, E2, T, hemodynamic changesNNU
11Liu et al. [65], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration64 VaD patients; age: 54–81; duration: 0.8–3 yrDSM-4, HIS, CT, MRITongqiaohuoxue-
buyanghuanwu
bid (36)
Duxil 1 tablet
bid (28)
MMSE, HDS, hemodynamic changesNNU
12Wang et al. [52] Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 30 days duration300 VaD patients; age: 52–83; duration: 7 m–7 yrDSM-3-R, DSM-4, MMSE, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia,”* c HIS, CT, MRIYizhitongluo
0.9–1.2 g TID (200)
Piracetam
0.8 g tid (100)
MMSE, HDS, GDS, ADL, hemodynamic changes, SELFNNU
13Yang et al. [80], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration90 VaD patients; age: 50–81; duration: 3 M–6.5 yrDSM-4-R, ICD10, CDR, MMSE, HDS-R, CORNELL, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bZhinao 1.5 g
tid (60)
Hydergine
2 mg tid (30)
MMSE, HDS, ADL, neurological deficits, hemodynamic changes, TCD, EEG, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”*cNNU
14Cai et al. [72], China Monotherapy Center unclearRandomized: computer generated sequence; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration63 VaD patients; age: 65–78; duration: 3 m–94 mDSM-4-R, MMSE, HIS, CT, MRIKangxing
0.9 g tid (33)
Hydergine
2 mg tid (30)
MMSE, ADL, hemodynamic changes, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on stroke” 中藥藥治療
癡呆的
床研究指導原則
NYN
15Guo et al. [53], China
Adjunct therapy
Center unclear
Randomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration53 VaD patients; age: 55–73; duration: 1 yr–5 yrDSM-4, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia,”* b “protocol for new herbal drugs study on stroke”* bBunaotongqiao
+ Duxil 1 tablet
bid (28)
Duxil 1 tablet
bid (25)
MMSE, HDS, hemodynamic changes,NNU
16Jia et al. [92], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 60 days duration162 VaD patients; age: 54–71; duration: 0.8–3 yrDSM-4, CDR, imaging, HDSLuoshukang
1.5–2.5 g
tid (108)
Duxil 1 tablet
bid (54)
MMSE, BBS, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bNNN
17Cheng et al. [93] Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration36 VaD patients; age: 62–83; duration: 0.5–9 yrDSM-4-R, HIS, CT, MMSE, FAQ, HDS-R, ADLNaozhitong 4
pcs tid (18)
Nimodipine
20 mg tid (18)
MMSE, FAQ, HDS-R, ADL, NONNU
18Liao et al. [73], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: computer-generated sequence; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration60 VaD patients; age: 71–74; duration: 3.2–5.6 hrDSM-4, CT, MRI, HIS, MMSE, HDS, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”*cShoulingjiannao
0.9 g tid (32)
Hydergine
1 mg tid (28)
MMSE, HDS, “protocol for the selection of anti-aging herbal medicine and the corresponding outcome measures”* dNNN
19Shen and Du [94], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration70 VaD patients; age: 65–77; duration: 6 m –3 yrDSM-4, NINDS-AIREN, CT, MRI, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bBushenjianpiy-angxuehuoxue
0.9 g tid (40)
Hydergine
2 mg tid (30)
MMSE, ADL, ET, NO, HCY, E2, TNNU
20Wang et al. [95], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blind: details given; crossover design; 7 months duration (3 m + 1 m wash out + 3 m)18 VaD patients; age: 54–83; duration: 1–7 yrDSM-4, CT, MRI, HDS, MMSE, ADL-R, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bShenlong
180 mL bid (18)
Placebo
180 mL bid (18)
HDS, MMSE-R, ADL-R, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia” *bNNY (2, mouth dryness, sore throat)
21Wang et al. [96], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration100 VaD patients; age: 50–78; duration: 0.7–1.8 hrDSM-4, HIS, ADL, MMSE, SDS, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”* c, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bHuitian 0.8 g
tid (50)
Piracetam
08. g tid (50)
MMSE, ADL, hemodynamic changes, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia” *bNNU
22Wu et al. [83], China Monotherapy Center unclearRandomized: method not mentioned; double blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 30 days duration46 VaD patients; age: 62–77; duration: 0.8–4.7 yrDSM-4, CCDVD, CDSVD-R, MMSE, HISExtract from Herba Cistanches 2 tablets tid (23)Hydergine 2
tablet tid (23)
MMSE, BBS, ADL, hemodynamic changesN2N
23Yu et al. [66], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 14 days duration123 VaD patients; age: 57–74; duration: 0.4–1.4 yrDSM-4, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia,”* c CTFucong 30 mL
od (72)
Piracetam 0.8 g tid + vitamin E 0.1 g tid (51)SOD, LPO, TG, TCH, HDL, EEGNNY (2, mouth dryness, sore throat)
24Zhao [97], China Monotherapy Center unclearRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; Parallel design; 2 months duration90 VaD patients; age: 49–81; duration: 0.5–3.5 yrDSM, CT, MRI, clinical presentationJiannaoqingxin
od (50)
Duxil 1 tablet bid (40)MMSE, MMSE-R, hemodynamic changes, HDSNNN
25Feng et al. [86], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 6 months duration50 VaD patients; age: 59–82; duration: 2–5 yrPortera-sancheyYizhi bid (30)Piracetam
1.6 g tid (20)
MMSE, BBS, ADLNNU
26Liu [71], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; no blinding is applied; parallel design; 2 months duration142 VaD patients; age: 64–68; duration: 1.9–4.2 yrDSM-R, CT, MRI, HISBushenyinao
3 g tid (98)
Cerebroprot-ein Hydrolysate iv. 30 mL/day (44)HDS, hemodynamic changesN46Y
27Liu et al. [60], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration92 VaD patients; age: 45–80; duration: 1–12 yrDSM, MMSE, ADL, CDR, HIS, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bHuatuozaizao
8 g tid (52)
Duxil 1 tablet
bid (40)
MMSE, ADL, TC, TG, HDL-C, ET, NO, SELF, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia” *bNNN
28Liu and Chen [74], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: computer generated sequence; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design, 8 weeks duration86 hospitalized VaD patients; age: 60–79; duration: 4 m–6.5 yrDSM-4, HDS, HISBuyanghuanwu
12 g bid (43)
Hydergine
1 mg bid (43)
HDS, FAQ, hemodynamic changes, MQ, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”*bNNU
29Tang et al. [75], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: computer generated sequence; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration80 VaD patients; age: 53–80; duration: 6 m–12 yrDSM-3-R, MMSE, CT, MRI, HIS, “TCM manual for neurological diseases”* eBushenhuoxie bid (40)Duxil 1 tablet bid, Nimodipine 30 mg tid (40)MMSE, ADL, WBHSV, WBLSV, PV, HCT, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”* cNNN
30Wang et al. [56], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blind: details given; crossover design; 7 months duration (3 m + 1 m wash out + 3 m)36 VaD patients; age: 52–83; duration: 1–7 yr.DSM-4, ADL-RShenlong
180 mL bid (36)
Placebo bid (36)MMSE-R, BBS, HDS, ADL-RNNY (4, sore throat, mouth dryness)
31Wang et al. [98], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration140 VaD patients; age: 50–78; duration: 0.9–1.8 yrDSM-4, HIS, ADL, MMSE, SDS, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia,”* b “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia” *cJiannaocongming
100 mL tid (100)
Piracetam
0.8 g tid (40)
MMSE, ADL, hemodynamic changesNNU
32Wang et al. [99], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 6 months duration80 hospitalized VaD patients; age: 46–78; duration: 6–122 mDSM-4, NINDS-AIREN, MMSE, HDS, FAQ, HIS, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”*bTongxinluo
3 pcs tid (40)
Huperzine A
0.1 mg bid (40)
MSME, HDS, FAQ, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”* cNNY (nausea, decrease in appetite, etc.)
33Wang [100], China, Adjunct therapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned, parallel design; 45 days duration66 VaD patients; age: 51–76; duration: 0.5–6 yrDSM-4-R, MMSE, HDS, CT, MRIBuyanghuanwu od + Piracetam 1.2 g bid,
Nimodipine 20 mg tid (33)
Piracetam
1.2 g bid, Nimodipine
20 mg tid (33)
HDS-RNNU
34Zhou et al. [101], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration62 VaD patients; age: 59–76; duration: 0.5–6 yrCCMD-2-R, DSM-4, MMSE, HDS, HISYiqifuzhi
46 g tid (30)
Piracetam
0.8 g tid (32)
Hemodynamic changes, SOD, MDA, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bNNU
35Gao [67], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration98 VaD patients; age: 54–75; duration: 0.2–1.8 yrDSM-4, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia”* c, ADL, MMSEShumaiyinao
1.2 g tid (58)
Piracetam
1.2 g tid (40)
MMSE, hemodynamic changes, Vmin, Qmin, RINNU
36Hao et al. [102], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 6 months duration100 VaD patients; age: 48–81; duration: 7–118 mICD10, CT, MMSE, IADL, HISTongxinluo
3 pcs tid (50)
Piracetam
0.8 g tid (50)
MMSE, NPI, IADL, HISNNY (16, GI discom-fort)
37Li et al. [61], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration60 VaD patients; age: 45–80; duration: 1–12 yrDSM-4, ADL, MMSE, HIS, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bTongmaiyizhi
8 g tid (30)
Duxil 1 tablet
bid (30)
MMSE, ADL, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bNNU
38Mou [68], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 60 days duration60 VaD patients; age: 57–89; duration: 2.5–4 yrDSM-4, HDSSelf-derived
CHM 16 g
100 mL bid (30)
Nimodipine
30 mg tid (30)
MMSENNU
39Shi and Wang [76], China
Adjunct therapy
Single center
Randomized: computer generated sequence; double blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration78 VaD patients; age: 50–80+; duration: 5 m–1.5 yrDSM-4, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia,”* c “Diagnostic manual for geriatrics”* fSelf-derived CHM 2 bid + nimodipine 40 mg tid, hydergine 2 mg tid (46)nimodipine
40 mg tid,
hydergine
2 mg tid (32)
ADL, MMSENNU
40Zhang and Lu [69], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentoned; parallel design; 3 months duration72 VaD patients; age: 57–71; duration: 0.3–5.6 yrDSM-4, ICD10, HIS, HDL, TCBushenjiannao
300 mL bid (39)
Piracetam
800 mg tid +
hydergine
2 tablet bid (34)
MMSE, HDS, hemodynamic changes, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”*bNNU
41Chen et al. [84], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration68 VaD patients; age: 60–86; duration: 1–7 yrDSM-4, HDS, MMSE, CT, MRIShenlong
600 mL/day (36)
Piracetam
1.6 g tid (32)
MMSE, BBS, HDS, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”*bNNU
42Cui et al. [77], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: computer generated sequence; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 3 months duration67 VaD patients; age: 56–83; duration: 2 m–31 mDSM-4, NINDS-AIREN, HIS, CDRShuangshencuzhi
8 g tid (51)
Duxil 1 tablet
bid (16)
MMSE, BBS, HCY, CT, MRIN5U
43He [57], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; single blind: method not mentioned; parallel design; 8 weeks duration90 VaD patients; age: 48–80; duration: 2 m–6.5 yrNINDS-AIREN, SDSVD, CDR, HIS, “criteria for the diagnosis, the differentiation of syndrome and the evaluation of efficacy of vascular dementia for research studies”* gKangnao
6 g tid (60)
Hydergine
2 mg tid (30)
MMSE, hemodynamic changes, SELFNNN
44Jin et al. [85], China Monotherapy Unclear centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blind: details given; crossover design (12 w + 4 w wash out + 12 w);72 VaD patients; age: 55–83; duration: 1–7 yrDSM-4-R, MMSE, ADL, HDS, CT, MRI, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bJiannaoyizhi
2 g tid (72)
Placebo tid (72)MMSE-R, HDS, ADL-R, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”*b, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on stroke”* bNNY (2, sore throat, mouth dryness)
45Yan [58], China Adjunct therapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 1 month duration79 VaD patients; age: 51–78; duration: 0.5–9 yr.DSM-4-R, HDS-R, MMSE, CT, MRIBuyanghuanwu + Cerebroprotein Hydrolysate 10 mL 20 d, Aniracetam 0.12 g tid; Nimodipine 20 mg tid (36)Cerebroprot-ein Hydrolysate 10 mL 20 d, Aniracetam 0.12 g tid; Nimodipine 20 mg tid (43)HDS-RNNU
46Chang et al. [70], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 12 weeks duration66 VaD patients; age: 60–78; duration: 1.3–3.6 yrDSM-4, HIS, “TCM diagnostic criteria, differentiation and outcome measures on senile dementia,”*c MMSE, CT, MRI, HDSQihong 300 mL
bid (33)
Piracetam 0.4 g bid (33)HDS, MMSENNU
47Li et al. [103], China Monotherapy Single centerRandomized: method not mentioned; double blinding not mentioned; parallel design; 2 months duration120 VaD patients; age: 59–75; duration: 0.6–6.2 yrDSM-4, MMSE-R, CDR, NINDS-AIREN, SDSVD, HIS, CSDD, “protocol for new herbal drugs study on dementia”* bShouwuyizhi
2.4 g tid (80)
Piracetam 0.8 g tid (40)MMSE, HDS, WMS, SDSVD, TCD, hemodynamic changes, SELFNNN

Key: *1: N: intention-to-treat analysis is not used; Y: intention-to-treat analysis is applied.
*2: N: no report of drop-out; Y: drop-out reported (with no. of dropouts in bracket).
*3: N: report as no adverse events; Y: adverse events reported (with no. and details in bracket); U= adverse events unknown.
: Quan et al. [104], : Guidance principle of clinical study on new drug of traditional Chinese medicine [105], : Fu [106], : Zhou [107], : Huang and Liu [108], : Wang et al. [109], : Tian et al. [88].
BEAM: brain electrical activity mapping