Table 2: Formal education system of traditional medicine in China (including the Taiwan region), Korea, and Japan.

CountryAre there schools teaching TM?Program durationCompositionDegreeSpecializationLicense

Mainland
China
Yes
5-year courseBasic medicine + clinical theory (3.5 years)
clinical training
(1.5 years)a
Bachelor’sTCM
IM
DCM
DIM
7-year course Basic medicine + clinical theory
(5 years)
clinical training (1.5 years)
thesis (0.5 years)
Bachelor’s
and master’s
TCM
IM
DCM
DIM

Taiwan
region
Yes
8-year course Basic medicine + clinical theory
(6 years)
clinical training (2 years)b
Bachelor’sTCM and CMDCM and MD
Postbaccalaureate program
(5 years)c
Basic medicine + clinical theory
(4 years)
clinical training (1 year)
Master’s
TCMDCM

Korea Yes
6-year courseBasic medicine + clinical theory
(5 years)
clinical training (1 year)
Bachelor’sTKMDKM
Postbaccalaureate program
(4 years)c
Basic medicine + clinical theory
(3 years)
clinical training (1 year)
Master’s
TKMDKM

JapanNo (for MD)Bachelor’sCMdMDd
Yes (for acupuncturists,
moxibustion therapists,
Anma-massage-Shiatsu
therapists, and Judo therapists)
University
(4 years)
Basic medicine + clinical theory
clinical training
(years not specifiable)
Bachelor’s Acupuncture, moxibustion,
and Judo therapy
(Anma-massage-Shiatsu
in one university)
Licensed acupuncturist, moxibustion therapist,
Anma-massage-Shiatsu therapist,
and/or Judo therapist
Professional school or school for the blind
(3 years)
Basic medicine + clinical theory
clinical training (years not specifiable)
Acupuncture, moxibustion,
Anma-massage-Shiatsu,
and Judo therapy
Licensed acupuncturist, moxibustion therapist,
Anma-massage-Shiatsu therapist, and/or Judo therapist

CM: conventional medicine; D: doctor of; IM: integrative medicine; MD: doctor of medicine; OM: oriental medicine; TCM: traditional Chinese medicine; TKM: traditional Korean medicine; TM: traditional medicine
aIn the 5-year course offered in China, students should complete an additional 1 year of clinical training to obtain a national license.
bClinical training in the 8-year course offered in the Taiwan region consists of 1 year of training in TCM and another year of training in CM.
cStudents in the Taiwan region and Korea can enter a postbaccalaureate program after finishing a 4-year Bachelor’s Degree program in another specialization and should write a Master’s thesis to earn a Master’s Degree.
dPartial education about Kampo is included in CM education.