Table 3: Medical insurance and herbal drug monitoring systems of traditional medicine in China (including the Taiwan region), Korea, and Japan.

CountryMainland ChinaTaiwan regionKoreaJapan

Medical insurance
 Insurance systemNHI and commercial insuranceNHI
NHI
8 kinds of health insurance
 TypePublic (NHI) and Private (commercial insurance) PublicPublicPublic
 Year TM implemented1951a199519871976 (for Kampo)
 Reimbursable items
  Acupuncture
  Moxibustion
  CuppingData not availableX
  Herbal medicines (Kampo in Japan)
  Manual therapiesbc
 Proportion (%, TM reimbursement/total reimbursement*100)Data not available5.59 (2009)4.04 (2009)Data not available

Herbal drug monitoring systems
 Administration structureMOH and SFDACCMP of DOHKFDAMHLW and PMDA
 Is the country a member of the WHO Programme?YesNoYesYes
 Are herbal and Western drugs monitored separately?NoYesNoNo
 No. of ADR reports for herbal drugs (%, TM reporting/total reporting*100)14~15Data not availabled2~3d2.23

ADR: adverse drug reaction; CCMP: Committee on Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy; DOH: Department of Health; KFDA: Korea Food and Drug Administration; MHLW: Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare; MOH: Ministry of Health; NHI: National Health Insurance; PMDA: Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency; SFDA: State Food and Drug Administration; TM: Traditional Medicine
: Completely covered, ▲: partially covered, X: not covered.
aMedical insurance coverage of TCM was implemented in all insurance systems from the beginning of new China in 1951. In 1999, the new NHI system was established, and TCM remained an important element.
bIn Korea, manual therapies (Chuna) are covered by car insurance in the event of an accident, not by NHI.
cIn Japan, massage therapy is covered when performed in hospital.
dIn total, 507 ADRs to herbal drugs were reported from August 2001 to November 2005, but the relevant data could not be obtained for the Taiwan region, and an estimated number was presented in Korea.