Table 4: Brain regions with common neuroimaging response to acupuncture stimulation and acupuncture-associated neurophysiological and psychological effectsa.

Brain regionsFunctional neuroimaging response to acupunctureAcupuncture-associated effects

Primary somatosensory cortexActivationPain and mechanoreceptor-activated signals
Prefrontal cortexActivationCognition and emotion
InsulaActivation/deactivationPain
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)DeactivationPain, attention, memory, and emotion
HypothalamusActivationAutonomic, neuroendocrine, visceral function, and stress-processed center
Amygdala/hippocampusActivationEncoding emotional signals and short-term memory
ThalamusActivationPivotal relay station processing sensory inputs
CerebellumActivationLocomotor coordination, higher-order cognitive and emotional function
Periaqueductal grey (PAG) and raphe nucleiActivationModulating opioidergic and serotonergic activity, involved in pain, sleep, and consciousness.

aSome contents were extracted from [112].