Table 1: Bioactive compounds that were extracted from the leaves, stems, and rhizomes of B. rotunda.

CompoundsIsolated by

5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (pinostrobin)
5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone (pinocembrin)
2′,6′-Dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (pinostrobin chalcone)
2′,4′-Dihydroxy-6-methoxychalcone (Cardamonin)
Boesenbergin A
Jaipetch et al. [16]

5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (pinostrobin)
5,7-Dimethoxyflavanone
5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone
5-Hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavone
5,7-Dimethoxyflavone
5,7,4′-Trimethoxyflavone
5,7,3′,4′-Tetramethoxyflavone
5-Hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone
5-Hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone
3,5,7-Trimethoxyflavone
5-Hydroxy-3,7,3′,4′-tetramethoxyflavone
Jaipetch et al. [17]

2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-[3′-methyl-2′-( -methylbut- -enyl)-6′-phenylcyclohex-3′-enyl]methanone (panduratin A)
Rubranine
Pinostrobin
Boesenbergin A
Tuntiwachwuttikul et al. [18]

Boesenbergin B
Panduratin A
Mahidol et al. [19]

3,5,7,3′,4′-Pentamethoxyflavone
3,5,7,4′-Tetramethoxyflavone
5-Hydroxy-7,4′-dimethoxyflavanone
2′-Hydroxy-4′,6′-dimethoxychalcone
2′-Hydroxy-4,4′,6′-trimethoxychalcone
Herunsalee et al, 1987 [20]

( )-Panduratin B1
( )-Panduratin B2
Pancharoen et al. [21]

Pinostrobin
Pinocembrin
Alpinetin
Panduratin A
Tip-Pyang et al. [22]

2′,4′,6′-Trihydroxychalcone (Pinocembrin chalcone)
Cardamonin
Pinocembrin
5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone
(2,4,6-Trihydroxyphenyl)-[3′-methyl-2′-( -methylbut- -enyl)-6′-phenylcyclohex-3′-enyl]methanone (4-Hydroxypanduratin A)
Panduratin A
Trakoontivakorn et al. [23]

Essential Oils
 Camphor
 Linalool
 Camphene
-Pinene
-Terpineol
-Phellandrene
-Terpinene
 Methyl 3-phenylpropionate
 Geranyl formate
 Geranyl propionate
 Geraniol
 Neral
 Myrcene
 Isoborneol
-Pinene
 Neryl acetate
 Geranial
-Thujaplicin
 (E,E)- -Farnesene
 Borneol Jantan et al. [24]
 Tricyclene
 Terpinen-4-ol
 Terpinolene
 Myristicin
 AlloOcimene
-Thujene
 (Z)- -Ocimene
 Sabinene
 (E)- -Ocimene
 (Z)-Nerolidol
 cis-Linalool oxide
 3-Carene
-Elemene
 (Z)- -Farnesene
-Elemene
-Elemene

(−)-4-Hydroxypanduratin A
(−)-Panduratin A
5,4′-Dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (sakuranetin)
5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone
5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone
Dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain
Tuchinda et al. [25]

Pinostrobin
Pinocembrin
Alpinetin
Cardamonin
Tewtrakul et al. [26, 27]

Camphor
Geraniol
Methyl cinnamate
Geranial (E-citral)
Zaeoung et al. [28]

5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone
(−)-Panduratin A
5,7-Dihydroxyflavone   Shindo et al. [29]
Pinostrobin chalcone
Cardamonin
(−)-4-Hydroxypanduratin A

Panduratin C
Panduratin A
4-Hydroxypanduratin ACheenpracha et al. [30]
Helichrysetin
2′,4′,6′- Trihydroxydihydrochalcone (propiophenone)
Uvangoletin

Pinostrobin
Pinocembrin
Alpinetin
Cardamonin
Panduratin A
4-Hydroxypanduratin A
Tan et al. [31]

(2S)-6-Geranylpinostrobin
Geranyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-phenethylbenzoate
2′,4′-Dihydroxy-3′-( -geranyl)-6′-methoxychalcone
(1′R,2′S,6′R)-2-Hydroxyisopanduratin A
(2R)-8-Geranylpinostrobin
( )-6-Methoxypanduratin A
(2S)-7,8-Dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-( -methyl- -pentenyl)-8-phenyl-2H, 6H-benzo[1,2-b:5,4- ]dipyran-6-one
(−)-Pinostrobin
Tectochrysin
5,6-Dehydrokawain
Cardamonin
(−)-Alpinetin
Flavokawain C
(−)-7,4′-Dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone
(−)-6-Geranylpinocembrin
Boesenbergin A
Panduratin A
Boesenbergin B
(±)-Isopanduratin A1
(−)-Pinocembrin
(−)-4-Hydroxypanduratin A
Nicolaioidesin B
Panduratin C
Isopanduratin A2
Win et al. [32]

Pinostrobin
Pinocembrin
Alpinetin
Cardamonin
Boesenbergin A
Ching et al. 2007 [33]; Sukari et al. [34]

Prenylchalcones Morikawa et al. [35]
 (+)-Krachaizin A
 (−)-Krachaizin A
 (+)-Krachaizin B
 (−)-Krachaizin B
 (+)-Panduratin A
 (−)-Panduratin A
 (+)-4-Hydroxypanduratin A
 (−)-4-Hydroxypanduratin A
 (+)-Isopanduratin A
 (−)-Isopanduratin A
Prenylflavonoids
 Rotundaflavone Ia
 Rotundaflavone Ib
 Rotundaflavone iia
 Rotundaflavone IIb
Flavanones and Others (12)
 Pinostrobin
 Pinocembrin
 Alpinetin
 7,4′-Dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavanone
 5,7-Dihydroxy-8-geranylflavanone
 7-Methoxy-5-hydroxy-8-geranylflavanone
 Cardamonin
 2,6-Dihydroxy-4-methoxydihydrochalcone
 2,4-Dihydroxy-6-phenethyl-benzoic acid methyl ester
 Geranyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-phenylbenzoate
 5,6-Dehydrokawain
 Geraniol

Essential oils    Sukari et al. [36]
Monoterpenes hydrocarbons
 1,8-Cineole
trans-Ocimene
 Neryl acetate
-Pinene
Oxygenated monoterpene derivatives
 Borneol
-Citronellol
 Camphor
 Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol
 Methyl-n-nonanoate
trans-Geraniol
 2-Cyclohexyethylacetate
 3′,4′-Dimethoxyacetophenone
 Rosephenone
 Terpinyl valerate
N-Hexyl angelate
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons
trans-Caryophyllene
 1,3-Tetradecadiene
Miscellaneous compounds
 Guaiacol
N-Hexanal
 2-Isopropyl-4,5-dimethyloxazole
trans-2-Hexanyl-n-propionate
 Cyclohexyl-n-propionate
 2-N-Pyroyl-4,5-dimethylthiazole
 Ethyl benzoate
 Guaiocol n-caproate
 Geranyl benzoate
 n-Butyl-n-pentadecanoate
 n-Eicosane
 Cinnamyl cinnamate

Panduratin B1
Panduratin B2
Panduratin D
Panduratin E   Win et al. [37]
Panduratin F
Panduratin G
Panduratin H
Panduratin I

Panduratin C
Panduratin A
Hydroxypanduratin A
Helichrysetin Trewtrakul et al. 2009
Propiophenone
Uvangoletin
Cardamonin

Pinostrobin
PinocembrinWangkangwan et al. [38]
Alpinetin

Polyphenols
 Quercetin
 Kaempferol
 Naringin  Jing et al. [39]
 Hesperidin
 Caffeic acid
-Coumaric acid
 Chlorogenic acid