Table 2: Inhibitory activities exhibited by B. rotunda extracts.

InhibitionSourcesReferences

(1) Toxicity testRhizomesSaraithong et al. [40]
Charoensin et al. [41]

(2) Antimicrobial activities
 (A) Anti-Helicobacter pylori activityRhizomesBhamarapravati et al. [42]
Mahady et al. [43]
 (B) Pathogenic and spoilage bacteria inhibition activities
RhizomesPattaratanawadee et al. [44]
Rukayadi et al. [45]
 (C) Antiamoebic activity for HIV patientsRhizomesSawangjaroen et al. [46]

(3) Antiparasitic activity
 Antigiardial activity RhizomesSawangjaroen et al. [47]

(4) Oral infections
 (A) Inhibition of biofilm formation by oral pathogens RhizomesLimsuwan and Voravuthikunchai, [48]
Yanti et al. [49]
  (B) Antiperiodontitis activity of B. rotunda extractYanti et al. [49, 50]
  (C) Inhibition of Candida albicans Dried plantCheeptham and Towers, [51]
Taweechaisupapong et al., [52]
  (D) AnticariogenicRhizomesHwang et al. [53, 54]
  (E) Candida adhesion inhibitorRhizomesSroisiri and Boonyanit, [55]
  (F) AntihalitosisRhizomesHwang et al. (patented) [56]

(5) Inhibition of biofilm formation by intestinal pathogensRhizomesRukayadi et al. [57]

(6) Antioxidant activities
 (A) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in brainRhizomesShindo et al. [29]
 (B) Inhibition of oxidative damages by -butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)
RhizomesSohn et al. [58]

(7) Antiulcer effectRhizomesAbdelwahab et al. [59]

(8) Obesity treatmentRhizomesKim et al. [60]

(9) Antimutagenic effectRhizomesTrakoontivakorn et al. [23]

(10) Antitumour necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF- )RhizomesMorikawa et al. [35]

(11) Anticancer/antitumour
 (A) Breast cancer and colon cancer preventionRoots and rhizomesKirana et al. [61]
Zaeoung et al. [28]
Kirana et al. [62]
Ling et al. [63]
 (B) Inhibition of prostate cancersRhizomesYun et al. [64]
 (C) Antilung cancerRhizomesCheah et al. [65]
 (D) AntileukemiaRhizomesSukari et al. [34]

(12) Antifungal activities
 (A) Antifungal activities against AIDS-related fungal infectionsRhizomesPhongpaichit et al. [66]
 (B) Inhibition of spoilage and aflatoxin producing fungi
RhizomesPattaratanawadee et al. [44]

(13) Inhibition of Ca2+ signal in yeast model RhizomesWangkangwan et al. [67]

(14) Antiviral activities
 (A) Anti-HIV-1 protease activityRhizomesTewtrakul et al. [26, 27]
Cheenpracha et al. [30]
 (B) Inhibition of dengue NS2B/NS3 protease Rhizomes Tan et al. 2006
 (C) Antifoot and mouth disease virusRhizomesChungsamarnyart et al. [68]

(15) Anti-inflammatory
 (A) TPA-induced ear oedemaRhizomesTuchinda et al. [25]
 (B) Inflammation by nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)RhizomesTewtrakul et al. [69]
 (C) Anti-inflammation effect caused by Rhizomes (powder)Boonjaraspinyo et al. [70]

(16) Inhibition of platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor binding effect RhizomesJantan et al. [71]