Table 13: Major TCM patterns of disharmony and clinical manifestations relating to dyslipidemia.

PatternsMain clinical manifestations

Spleen deficiencyTiredness, preference of warmth, abdominal distension/discomfort, reduced appetite, indigestion, loose stool/diarrhea (or alternately with constipation), pale or swollen tongue with or without teeth marks, weak (and/or slippery) pulse

Liver qi stagnationStress, depression, irritability, anxiety, migraine/dizziness, abdominal distension, oppression in the chest, irregularity of menstruation, wiry/rough pulse

Kidney deficiencyTiredness, headache/dizziness, insomnia, lower back pain, knee/leg pain, weak pulse in the cubit (chi); yin deficiency with feeling of heat/irritability, thirst, night sweating, thin and red tongue with dry/little coating, thin and/or rapid pulse; qi and yang deficiency with preference of warmth, pale tongue with white coating, weak pulse (especially in the cubit)

Phlegm and damp accumulationObesity, dizziness, feeling of heavy head and/or body, fullness in the chest and/or abdomen, nausea, bland taste in the mouth, thirst but without intention to have water, greasy tongue coating, slippery pulse

Blood stasisDark complexion/lips, encrusted skin, fixed stabbing pain, clots in the menstrual blood with/without irregularity of menstruation, purple tongue, rough/intermittent/bound pulse