About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 534219, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/534219
Review Article

Patch Clamp: A Powerful Technique for Studying the Mechanism of Acupuncture

1Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
2Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians, Shanghai 201203, China

Received 13 August 2012; Accepted 18 September 2012

Academic Editor: Guang-hong Ding

Copyright © 2012 D. Zhang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Cahalan and E. Neher, “Patch clamp techniques: an overview,” Methods in Enzymology, vol. 207, pp. 3–14, 1992. View at Scopus
  2. M. Karmazínová and L. Lacinová, “Measurement of cellular excitability by whole cell patch clamp technique,” Physiological Research, vol. 59, supplement 1, pp. S1–S7, 2010. View at Scopus
  3. K. Jurkat-Rott and F. Lehmann-Horn, “The patch clamp technique in ion channel research,” Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 387–395, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. “NIH Consensus Conference,” Acupuncture, vol. 280, no. 17, pp. 1518–1524, 1998.
  5. P. White, “A background to acupuncture and its use in chronic painful musculoskeletal conditions,” Journal of The Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 219–227, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Z. Q. Zhao, “Neural mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia,” Progress in Neurobiology, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 355–375, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. B. Kelly, “Acupuncture for pain,” American Family Physician, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 481–506, 2009. View at Scopus
  8. C. J. Zaslawski, D. Cobbin, E. Lidums, and P. Petocz, “The impact of site specificity and needle manipulation on changes to pain pressure threshold following manual acupuncture: a controlled study,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. M. Wang, Z. N. Kain, and P. White, “Acupuncture analgesia: I. The scientific basis,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 602–610, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. S. Mogil, “Animal models of pain: progress and challenges,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 283–294, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. S. Jaggi, V. Jain, and N. Singh, “Animal models of neuropathic pain,” Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. S. Han, “Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8: a negative feedback control mechanism for opioid analgesia,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 105, pp. 263–271, 1995. View at Scopus
  13. L. K. Liem, J. M. Simard, Y. Song, K. Tewari, W. Young, and R. G. Dacey, “The patch clamp technique,” Neurosurgery, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 382–392, 1995. View at Scopus
  14. G. J. Wang, M. H. Ayati, and W. B. Zhang, “Meridian studies in China: a systematic review,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. S. Han, X. Z. Ding, and S. G. Fan, “Is cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) a candidate for endogenous anti-opioid substrates?” Neuropeptides, vol. 5, no. 4–6, pp. 399–402, 1985. View at Scopus
  16. J. S. Han, X. Z. Ding, and S. G. Fan, “Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8): antagonism to electroacupuncture analgesia and a possible role in electroacupuncture tolerance,” Pain, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 101–115, 1986. View at Scopus
  17. J. T. Bian, M. Z. Sun, M. Y. Xu, and J. S. Han, “Antagonism by CCK-8 of the antinociceptive effect of electroacupuncture on pain-related neurons in nucleus parafascicularis of the rat,” Asia Pacific Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 89–97, 1993. View at Scopus
  18. N. J. Liu, H. Bao, N. Li, Y. X. Yu, and J. S. Han, “Cholecystokinin octapeptide reverses the inhibitory effect induced by electroacupuncture on C-fiber evoked discharges,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 86, no. 3-4, pp. 241–247, 1996. View at Scopus
  19. C. Huang, Z. P. Hu, S. Z. Jiang, H. T. Li, J. S. Han, and Y. Wan, “CCKB receptor antagonist L365,260 potentiates the efficacy to and reverses chronic tolerance to electroacupuncture-induced analgesia in mice,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 71, no. 5, pp. 447–451, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. X. H. Chen and J. S. Han, “All three types of opioid receptors in the spinal cord are important for 2/15 Hz electroacupuncture analgesia,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 211, no. 2, pp. 203–210, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. N. J. Liu, T. Xu, C. Xu et al., “Cholecystokinin octapeptide reverses μ-opioid-receptor-mediated inhibition of calcium current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 275, no. 3, pp. 1293–1299, 1995. View at Scopus
  22. T. Xu, N. J. Liu, C. Q. Li et al., “Cholecystokinin octapeptide reverses the κ-opioid-receptor-mediated depression of calcium current in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons,” Brain Research, vol. 730, no. 1-2, pp. 207–211, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. T. Bian, M. Z. Sun, and J. S. Han, “Reversal of electroacupuncture tolerance by CCK-8 antiserum: an electrophysiological study on pain-related neurons in nucleus parafascicularis of the rat,” International Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 72, no. 1-2, pp. 15–29, 1993. View at Scopus
  24. Y. Zhou, Y. H. Sun, J. M. Shen, and J. S. Han, “Increased release of immunoreactive CCK-8 by electroacupuncture and enhancement of electroacupuncture analgesia by CCK-B antagonist in rat spinal cord,” Neuropeptides, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 139–144, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. A. North, “P2X3 receptors and peripheral pain mechanisms,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 554, no. 2, pp. 301–308, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Z. Xiao, S. Ou, W. J. He, Y. D. Zhao, X. H. Liu, and H. Z. Ruan, “Role of midbrain periaqueductal gray P2X3 receptors in electroacupuncture- mediated endogenous pain modulatory systems,” Brain Research, vol. 1330, pp. 31–44, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Z. Tu, R. D. Cheng, B. Cheng et al., “Analgesic effect of electroacupuncture on chronic neuropathic pain mediated by P2X3 receptors in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons,” Neurochemistry International, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 379–386, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. P. Davis, “Drug management of visceral pain: concepts from basic research,” Pain Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 265605, 18 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. X. Y. Tian, Z. X. Bian, X. G. Hu, X. J. Zhang, L. Liu, and H. Zhang, “Electro-acupuncture attenuates stress-induced defecation in rats with chronic visceral hypersensitivity via serotonergic pathway,” Brain Research, vol. 1088, no. 1, pp. 101–108, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Liu, W. Fu, W. Yi et al., “Extrasegmental analgesia of heterotopic electroacupuncture stimulation on visceral pain rats,” Brain Research, vol. 1373, pp. 160–171, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. G. Y. Xu, J. H. Winston, and J. D. Z. Chen, “Electroacupuncture attenuates visceral hyperalgesia and inhibits the enhanced excitability of colon specific sensory neurons in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome,” Neurogastroenterology and Motility, vol. 21, no. 12, pp. 1302–e125, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. Gray and D. Johnston, “Rectification of single GABA-gated chloride channels in adult hippocampal neurons,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 134–142, 1985. View at Scopus
  33. F. A. Edwards, A. Konnerth, B. Sakmann, and T. Takahashi, “A thin slice preparation for patch clamp recordings from neurones of the mammalian central nervous system,” Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 414, no. 5, pp. 600–612, 1989. View at Scopus
  34. M. G. Blanton, J. J. Lo Turco, and A. R. Kriegstein, “Whole cell recording from neurons in slices of reptilian and mammalian cerebral cortex,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 203–210, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. N. Hájos and I. Mody, “Establishing a physiological environment for visualized in vitro brain slice recordings by increasing oxygen supply and modifying aCSF content,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 183, no. 2, pp. 107–113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. L. Huang, N. Chen, M. Ge, Y. Zhu, S. Guan, and J. H. Wang, “Ca2+ and acidosis synergistically lead to the dysfunction of cortical GABAergic neurons during ischemia,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 394, no. 3, pp. 709–714, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Choi, G. J. Lee, S. J. Chae et al., “Potential neuroprotective effects of acupuncture stimulation on diabetes mellitus in a global ischemic rat model,” Physiological Measurement, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 633–647, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. M. Chuang, C. L. Hsieh, T. C. Li, and J. G. Lin, “Acupuncture stimulation at Baihui acupoint reduced cerebral infarct and increased dopamine levels in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and ischemia-reperfusion injured Sprague-Dawley rats,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 779–791, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. H. Wang, “Short-term cerebral ischemia causes the dysfunction of interneurons and more excitation of pyramidal neurons in rats,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 60, no. 1-2, pp. 53–58, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Zhang, G. Li, X. Xu, M. Chang, C. Zhang, and F. Sun, “Acupuncture to point Baihui prevents ischemia-induced functional impairment of cortical GABAergic neurons,” Journal of the Neurological Sciences, vol. 307, no. 1-2, pp. 139–143, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. Schwarz and Q. B. Gu, “Cellular mechanisms in acupuncture points and affected sites,” in Current Research In Acupuncture, Y. Xia, G. H. Ding, and G. C. Wu, Eds., Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Sugiyama, S. W. Hur, A. E. Pickering et al., “In vivo patch-clamp recording from locus coeruleus neurones in the rat brainstem,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 590, no. 10, pp. 2225–2231, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Theer, M. T. Hasan, and W. Denk, “Two-photon imaging to a depth of 1000 μm in living brains by use of a Ti:Al2O3 regenerative amplifier,” Optics Letters, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1022–1024, 2003. View at Scopus
  44. K. Narikawa, H. Furue, E. Kumamoto, and M. Yoshimura, “In vivo patch-clamp analysis of IPSCs evoked in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons by cutaneous mechanical stimulation,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 2171–2174, 2000. View at Scopus
  45. H. Furue, G. Kato, J. H. Kim, B. I. Min, T. Katafuchi, and M. Yoshimura, “In vivo patch-clamp analysis of sensory neuronal circuit in the rat superficial spinal dorsal horn,” in Brain- Inspired IT I International Congress Series No. 1269, H. Nakagawa, K. Ishii, and H. Miyamoto, Eds., pp. 69–72, Elsevier Science B.V., 2004.
  46. G. Q. Bi, V. Bolshakov, G. Bu et al., “Recent advances in basic neurosciences and brain disease: from synapses to behavior,” Molecular Pain, vol. 2, article 38, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Yoshimura, A. Doi, M. Mizuno, H. Furue, and T. Katafuchi, “In vivo and in vitro patch-clamp recording analysis of the process of sensory transmission in the spinal cord and sensory cortex,” Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 93–97, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. V. Napadow, A. Ahn, J. Longhurst et al., “The status and future of acupuncture clinical research,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 861–869, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. H. Ding, D. Zhang, M. Huang, L. N. Wang, and W. Yao, “Function of collagen and mast cells in acupuncture points,” in Current Research in Acupuncture, Y. Xia, G. H. Ding, and G. C. Wu, Eds., Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. H. M. Langevin, D. L. Churchill, and M. J. Cipolla, “Mechanical signaling through connective tissue: a mechanism for the therapeutic effect of acupuncture,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 2275–2282, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. D. Zhang, G. H. Ding, X. Y. Shen, W. Yao, and J. Lin, “Study on correlation between meridians acupoints and mast cells,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 115–118, 2005.
  52. A. M. Zhong, J. L. Wu, Y. L. Hu, Y. Feng, and X. G. Deng, “Study on correlation between the mast cell and the acupoint,” World Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 53–58, 1994.
  53. L. Fei, H. Cheng, D. Cai et al., “Experimental exploration and research prospect of physical bases and functional characteristics of meridians,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 15, pp. 1233–1252, 1998. View at Scopus
  54. X. Yan, X. Zhang, C. Liu et al., “Do acupuncture points exist?” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. N143–N150, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Zhang, G. H. Ding, X. Y. Shen et al., “Role of mast cells in acupuncture effect: a pilot study,” Explore, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 170–177, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. D. Zhang, A. Spielmann, G. H. Ding, and W. Schwarz, “Activation of mast-cell degranulation by different physical stimuli involves activation of the transient-receptor-potential channel TRPV2,” Physiological Research, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 113–124, 2012.
  57. L. N. Wang, W. Schwarz, Q. B. Gu, and G. H. Ding, “Skin slice used as a model for investigating acupuncture effects,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 291–296, 2009. View at Scopus
  58. W. Z. Yang, J. Y. Chen, J. T. Yu, and L. W. Zhou, “Effects of low power laser irradiation on intracellular calcium and histamine release in RBL-2H3 mast cells,” Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 979–984, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. G. Kornreich, “The patch clamp technique: principles and technical considerations,” Journal of Veterinary Cardiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 25–37, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. T. S. Abraham, M. L. Chen, and S. X. Ma, “TRPV1 expression in acupuncture points: response to electroacupuncture stimulation,” Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 129–136, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. X. J. Yu, G. H. Ding, H. Huang, J. Lin, W. Yao, and R. Zhan, “Role of collagen fibers in acupuncture analgesia therapy on rats,” Connective Tissue Research, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 110–120, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. G. Wu, B. Jiang, E. H. Zhou et al., “Regulatory mechanism of electroacupuncture in irritable bowel syndrome: preventing MC activation and decreasing SP VIP secretion,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1644–1651, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. F. Lesage, F. Maingret, and M. Lazdunski, “Cloning and expression of human TRAAK, a polyunsaturated fatty acids-activated and mechano-sensitive K+ channel,” FEBS Letters, vol. 471, no. 2-3, pp. 137–140, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. K. Muraki, Y. Iwata, Y. Katanosaka et al., “TRPV2 is a component of osmotically sensitive cation channels in murine aortic myocytes,” Circulation Research, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 829–838, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. Y. Jia, X. Wang, L. Varty et al., “Functional TRPV4 channels are expressed in human airway smooth muscle cells,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 2, pp. L272–L278, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Sardini, J. S. Amey, K. H. Weylandt, M. Nobles, M. A. Valverde, and C. F. Higgins, “Cell volume regulation and swelling-activated chloride channels,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1618, no. 2, pp. 153–162, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. Wang, G. Ding, Q. Gu, and W. Schwarz, “Single-channel properties of a stretch-sensitive chloride channel in the human mast cell line HMC-1,” European Biophysics Journal, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 757–767, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. D. Clapham, “Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels,” in Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, R. L. Squire, Ed., pp. 1109–1133, Academic Press, Oxford, UK, 2009.
  69. B. H. Kim, “On the kyungrak system,” Journal of Academy of Medical Sciences, vol. 90, pp. 1–41, 1963.
  70. K. S. Soh, “Bonghan circulatory system as an extension of acupuncture meridians,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 93–106, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. C. Lee, J. S. Yoo, V. Ogay et al., “Electron microscopic study of novel threadlike structures on the surfaces of mammalian organs,” Microscopy Research and Technique, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 34–43, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. Z. F. Jia, B. C. Lee, K. H. Eom et al., “Fluorescent nanoparticles for observing primo vascular system along sciatic nerve,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 150–155, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. H. Park, B. C. Lee, C. J. Choi et al., “Bioelectrical study of bonghan corpuscles on organ surfaces in rats,” Journal of the Korean Physical Society, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 688–693, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. T. H. Han, C. J. Lim, J. H. Choi, S. Y. Lee, and P. D. Ryu, “viability assessment of primo-node slices from organ surface primo-vascular tissues in rats,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 241–248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. H. Choi, C. J. Lim, T. H. Han, S. K. Lee, S. Y. Lee, and P. D. Ryu, “TEA-sensitive currents contribute to membrane potential of organ surface primo-node cells in rats,” Journal of Membrane Biology, vol. 239, no. 3, pp. 167–175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. H. H. Zhou, F. Lu, S. D. Chen, Z. H. Zhou, Y. Z. Han, and J. Y. Hu, “Effect of electroacupuncture on serum copper, zinc, calcium and magnesium levels in the depression rats,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 112–114, 2011. View at Scopus
  77. N. Goldman, M. Chen, T. Fujita et al., “Adenosine A1 receptors mediate local anti-nociceptive effects of acupuncture,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 883–888, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. Burnstock, “Acupuncture: a novel hypothesis for the involvement of purinergic signalling,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 470–472, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. T. H. Joh, H. J. Park, S. N. Kim, and H. Lee, “Recent development of acupuncture on Parkinson's disease,” Neurological Research, vol. 32, supplement 1, pp. S5–S9, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. K. Park, A. V. Tepikin, and O. H. Petersen, “What can we learn about cell signalling by combining optical imaging and patch clamp techniques?” Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 444, no. 3, pp. 305–316, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. N. J. Sucher, D. L. Deitcher, D. J. Baro, R. M. Harris Warrick, and E. Guenther, “Genes and channels: patch/voltage-clamp analysis and single-cell RT-PCR,” Cell and Tissue Research, vol. 302, no. 3, pp. 295–307, 2000. View at Scopus