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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 587902, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/587902
Research Article

Rokumi-jio-gan-Containing Prescriptions Attenuate Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Apoptosis in the Remnant Kidney

1Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Japan
2Chinese Medicine and Health Food Department, Iskra Industry Co., Ltd., Tokyo 103-0027, Japan
3Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan
4Organization for Promotion of Regional Collaboration, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-8555, Japan

Received 30 July 2012; Revised 9 October 2012; Accepted 12 October 2012

Academic Editor: Cheorl-Ho Kim

Copyright © 2012 Chan Hum Park et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Two Rokumi-jio-gan-containing prescriptions (Hachimi-jio-gan and Bakumi-jio-gan) were selected to examine their actions in nephrectomized rats. Each prescription was given orally to rats for 10 weeks after the excision of five-sixths of their kidney volumes, and its effect was compared with non-nephrectomized and normal rats. Rats given Hachimi-jio-gan and Bakumi-jio-gan showed an improvement of renal functional parameters such as serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinine clearance, and urinary protein. The nephrectomized rats exhibited the up-regulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunits, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), phosphor-JNK, c-Jun, transforming growth factor-β1, nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, Bax, cytochrome c, and caspase-3, and down-regulation of NF-E2-related factor 2, heme oxygenase-1, and survivin; however, Bakumi-jio-gan administration acts as a regulator in inflammatory reactions caused by oxidative stress in renal failure. Moreover, the JNK pathway and apoptosis-related protein expressions, Bax, caspase-3, and survivin, were ameliorated to the normal levels by Hachimi-jio-gan administration. The development of renal lesions, glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial damage, and arteriolar sclerotic lesions, estimated by histopathological evaluation and scoring, was strong in the groups administered Hachimi-jio-gan rather than Bakumi-jio-gan. This study suggests that Rokumi-jio-gan-containing prescriptions play a protective role in the progression of renal failure.