About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 627023, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/627023
Research Article

Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation Protects Endotoxemic Rat from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation

Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, 16 Nanxiaojie Street, Dongzhimen Nei, Beijing 100700, China

Received 21 August 2012; Revised 5 December 2012; Accepted 6 December 2012

Academic Editor: Ying Xia

Copyright © 2012 Yu Xue Zhao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. J. Tracey, “The inflammatory reflex,” Nature, vol. 420, no. 6917, pp. 853–859, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. J. Tracey, Y. Fong, D. G. Hesse et al., “Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia,” Nature, vol. 330, no. 6149, pp. 662–664, 1987. View at Scopus
  3. K. J. Tracey, B. Beutler, and S. F. Lowry, “Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin,” Science, vol. 234, no. 4775, pp. 470–474, 1986. View at Scopus
  4. V. A. Pavlov and K. J. Tracey, “The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway,” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 493–499, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. M. Huston, M. Gallowitsch-Puerta, M. Ochani et al., “Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation reduces serum high mobility group box 1 levels and improves survival in murine sepsis,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2762–2768, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. L. V. Borovikova, S. Ivanova, M. Zhang et al., “Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin,” Nature, vol. 405, no. 6785, pp. 458–462, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Huang, Y. Wang, D. Jiang, J. Zhou, and X. Huang, “The sympathetic-vagal balance against endotoxemia,” Journal of Neural Transmission, vol. 117, no. 6, pp. 729–735, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. J. van Westerloo, I. A. J. Giebelen, J. C. M. Meijers et al., “Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during endotoxemia in rats,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 4, no. 9, pp. 1997–2002, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. R. Bernik, S. G. Friedman, M. Ochani et al., “Pharmacological stimulation of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 195, no. 6, pp. 781–788, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Guarini, D. Altavilla, M. M. Cainazzo et al., “Efferent vagal fibre stimulation blunts nuclear factor-κB activation and protects against hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock,” Circulation, vol. 107, no. 8, pp. 1189–1194, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Li, C. Zheng, T. Sato, T. Kawada, M. Sugimachi, and K. Sunagawa, “Vagal nerve stimulation markedly improves long-term survival after chronic heart failure in rats,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 120–124, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. Mioni, C. Bazzani, D. Giuliani et al., “Activation of an efferent cholinergic pathway produces strong protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 2621–2628, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. T. Huang, G. Y. Chen, H. M. Lo, J. G. Lin, Y. S. Lee, and C. D. Kuo, “Increase in the vagal modulation by acupuncture at Neiguan point in the healthy subjects,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 157–164, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. Z. Li, K. Jiao, M. Chen, and C. Wang, “Effect of magnitopuncture on sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities in healthy driver—assessment by power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability,” European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 88, no. 4-5, pp. 404–410, 2003. View at Scopus
  15. J. H. Wu, H. Y. Chen, Y. J. Chang et al., “Study of autonomic nervous activity of night shift workers treated with laser acupuncture,” Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 273–279, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. C. Hsu, C. S. Weng, T. S. Liu, Y. S. Tsai, and Y. H. Chang, “Effects of electrical acupuncture on acupoint BL15 evaluated in terms of heart rate variability, pulse rate variability and skin conductance response,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 23–36, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Imai and H. Kitakoji, “Comparison of transient heart rate reduction associated with acupuncture stimulation in supine and sitting subjects,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 133–137, 2003. View at Scopus
  18. W. He, P. J. Rong, L. Li, H. Ben, B. Zhu, and G. Litscher, “Auricular acupuncture may suppress epileptic seizures via activating the parasympathetic nervous system: a hypothesis based on innovative methods,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 615476, 5 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. L. Bertók, “Endotoxins and endocrine system,” Domestic Animal Endocrinology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 305–308, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. H. Wang, M. Yu, M. Ochani et al., “Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 subunit is an essential regulator of inflammation,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6921, pp. 384–388, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. Deng, X. Wang, J. Xiao et al., “Loss of regulator of G protein signaling 5 exacerbates obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and insulin resistance,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 1, Article ID e30256, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. O. J. D'Cruz and F. M. Uckun, “Preclinical evaluation of a dual-acting microbicidal prodrug WHI-07 in combination with vanadocene dithiocarbamate in the female reproductive tract of rabbit, pig, and cat,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 910–927, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. M. Huston, M. Ochani, M. Rosas-Ballina et al., “Splenectomy inactivates the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway during lethal endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 203, no. 7, pp. 1623–1628, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. R. Bernik, S. G. Friedman, M. Ochani et al., “Cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway inhibition of tumor necrosis factor during ischemia reperfusion,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1231–1236, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Altavilla, S. Guarini, A. Bitto et al., “Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduces NF-κB activation, blunts TNF-α production, and protects against splanchnic artery occlusion shock,” Shock, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 500–506, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. A. Bauerle and D. Baltmore, “NF-κB: ten years after,” Cell, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. M. L. Schmitz and P. A. Bauerle, “Multi step activation of NF-κB/rel transcriptional factors,” Immunobiology, vol. 193, no. 2–4, pp. 116–127, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. R. Schreck, P. Rieber, and P. A. Baeuerle, “Reactive oxygen intermediates as apparently widely used messengers in the activation of the NF-κB transcription factor and HIV-1,” EMBO Journal, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 2247–2258, 1991. View at Scopus
  29. F. Squadrito, D. Altavilla, B. Deodato et al., “Early activation of transcription factor NF-κB in splanchnic artery occlusion shock,” in Proceedings of the 5th World Congress on Trauma Shock Inflammation and Sepsis Pathophysiology Immune Consequences and Therapy, E. Faist, Ed., pp. 389–394, Monduzzi, Munich, Germany, March 2000.
  30. C. O'Mahony, “Loss of vagal anti-inflammatory effect: in vivo visualization and adoptive transfer,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 297, no. 4, pp. R1118–R1126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. X. M. Song, J. G. Li, Y. L. Wang et al., “The protective effect of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway against septic shock in rats,” Shock, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 468–472, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. K. Imai, H. Ariga, C. Chen, C. Mantyh, T. N. Pappas, and T. Takahashi, “Effects of electroacupuncture on gastric motility and heart rate variability in conscious rats,” Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, vol. 138, no. 1-2, pp. 91–98, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. H. Ouyang, J. Yin, Z. Wang, P. J. Pasricha, and J. D. Z. Chen, “Electroacupuncture accelerates gastric emptying in association with changes in vagal activity,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 282, no. 2, pp. G390–G396, 2002. View at Scopus
  34. Q. Wang, F. Wang, X. Li et al., “Electroacupuncture pretreatment attenuates cerebral ischemic injury through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 release in rats,” Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol. 9, article 24, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. X. Y. Gao, Y. H. Li, K. Liu et al., “Acupuncture-like stimulation at auricular point Heart evokes cardiovascular inhibition via activating the cardiac-related neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius,” Brain Research, vol. 1397, pp. 19–27, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. X. Y. Gao, S. P. Zhang, B. Zhu, and H. Q. Zhang, “Investigation of specificity of auricular acupuncture points in regulation of autonomic function in anesthetized rats,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 138, no. 1-2, pp. 50–56, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. I. Tekdemir, A. Asian, and A. Elhan, “A clinico-anatomic study of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve and Arnold's ear-cough reflex,” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 253–257, 1998. View at Scopus
  38. D. Gupta, S. Verma, and S. K. Vishwakarma, “Anatomic basis of Arnold's ear-cough reflex,” Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 217–220, 1986. View at Scopus
  39. D. Engel, “The gastroauricular phenomenon and related vagus reflexes,” Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 227, no. 3, pp. 271–277, 1979. View at Scopus
  40. V. A. Pavlov, H. Wang, C. J. Czura, S. G. Friedman, and K. J. Tracey, “The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway: a missing link in neuroimmunomodulation,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 9, no. 5–8, pp. 125–134, 2003. View at Scopus