About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 647896, 10 pages
Research Article

The Flexner Report of 1910 and Its Impact on Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Psychiatry in North America in the 20th Century

Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Teaching Research and Wellness Building, 3E41, 3280 Hospital Drive N.W., Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6

Received 17 September 2012; Accepted 28 November 2012

Academic Editor: Melzer Jörg

Copyright © 2012 Frank W. Stahnisch and Marja Verhoef. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Sigerist, American Medicine, Norton, New York NY, USA, 1934.
  2. A. Flexner, Medical Education in the United States and Canada: A Report To the Carnegie Foundation For the Advancement of Teaching, The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, New York, NY, USA, 1910.
  3. T. N. Bonner, IconoclAst: Abraham Flexner and a Life in LeArning, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2002.
  4. H. J. C. Emery, “‘Un-American’ or unnecessary? America's rejection of compulsory government health insurance in the Progressive Era,” Explorations in Economic History, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 68–81, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Cf. S. Lamb, “The most important professorship in the english-speaking domain: Adolf Meyer and the beginnings of clinical psychiatry in the United States,” Journal of Mental and Nervous Diseases, vol. 200, no. 12, pp. 1061–1066, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. G. L. Geison, Physiology in the American Context, 1850–1940, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1987.
  7. A. H. Beck, “The Flexner report and the standardization of American medical education,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 291, no. 17, pp. 2139–2140, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. W. Stahnisch, Ideas in Action: Der Funktionsbegriff und seine methodologische Rolle im Forschungsprogramm des Experimentalphysiologen François Magendie (1783–1855), LIT-Press, Muenster, Germany, 2003.
  9. M. Dinges, “The role of medical societies in the professionalisation of homeopathic physicians in Germany and the USA,” in Culture, Knowledge and Healing: Historical Perspectives of Homeopathic Medicine in Europe and North America, G. B. Risse, R. Juette, and J. Woodward, Eds., pp. 173–198, European Association for the History of Medicine and Health Publications, Sheffield, UK, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  10. P. Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine, Basic Books, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
  11. P. Thomas, “Homoeopathy in the USA,” British Homoeopathy Journal, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 99–103, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. Bates, “Why not call modern medicine ‘Alternative’?” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 502–518, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. J. Verhoef and A. Mulkins, “The healing experience—how can we capture it?” Explore, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 231–236, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  14. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NCCAM Publication No. D156 2002, Baltimore, Md, USA, National Institutes of Health, 2008.
  15. G. Rosen, A History of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1993.
  16. M. Bliss, The Making of Modern Medicine: Turning Points in the Treatment of Disease, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, 2011.
  17. R. Juette, “The history of non-conventional medicine in Germany: a concise overview,” Medical History, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 342–358, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Schott and R. Toelle, Geschichte Der Psychiatrie. Krankheitslehren, Irrwege, Behandlungsformen, Beck, Munich, Germany, 2006.
  19. R. Wittern, “The origins of homoeopathy in Germany,” Clio Medica, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 51–63, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. D. J. Kevles, “Into hostile political camps,” The Reorganization of International Science in World War I. ISIS, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 47–60, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  21. A. Harrington, Reenchanted Science, Holism in German Culture From Wilhelm II. To Hitler, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1996.
  22. F. W. Stahnisch, Medicine, Life and Function: Experimental Strategies and Medical Modernity at the Intersection of Pathology and Physiology, Projektverlag, Bochum, Germany, 2012.
  23. R. Jogschies, Betrifft: Aerzte gegen den Atomkrieg. Mit einem Nachwort Von Horst-Eberhard Richter, Beck, Munich, Germany, 1986.
  24. F. Mielke, Medizin ohne Menschlichkeit: Dokumente des Nuernberger Aerzteprozesses, Frankfurt am Main, Fischer, 1949.
  25. J. Melzer, Vollwerternaehrung. Dietaetik, Naturheilkunde, Nationalsozialismus, Sozialer Anspruch, Franz Steiner, Stuttgart, Germany, 2003.
  26. D. J. Tataryn and M. J. Verhoef, “Combining conventional, complementary and alternative health care: a vision of integration,” in Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Health Care: A Collection of Papers Prepared for Health Canada, Cat. no. H39-572/2001E, Health Canada, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  27. D. Bates, “Medicine and the soul of science,” Canadian Bulletin of Medical History, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 23–84, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  28. G. Danzer, Der Wilde Analytiker. Georg Groddeck und die Entdeckung der Psychosomatik, Fink, Munich, Germany, 1992.
  29. T. M. French, “Franz Alexander, M.D.,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 202–206, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  30. F. W. Stahnisch, “German-speaking émigré-neuroscientists in North America after 1933: critical reflections on emigration-induced scientific change,” Oesterreichische Zeitschrift Fuer Geschichtswissenschaften, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 36–68, 2010,. View at Google Scholar
  31. E. Shorter, A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2005.
  32. S. Brunnhuber and A. Michalsen, “Psychosomatik und Mind-Body-Medizin. Integrative, komplementaere oder alternative Disziplinen? Ein entwicklungslogisches Argument,” Forschende Komplementaermedizin, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 86–92, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  33. R. Saller, “Komplementaermedizin in der Verfassung. Die Schweizer Bevoelkerung hat entscheiden,” Forschende Komplementaermedizin, vol. 16, no. 4, p. 216, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  34. K. E. Rothschuh, “Medicina Historica. Zum Selbstverständnis der historischen Medizin,” Janus, vol. 67, no. 1-2, pp. 7–19, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. S. Haller, A Profile in Alternative Medicine. the Ecclectic Medical College of Cincinetti, 1845—1942, The Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio, USA, 1999.
  36. I. Illich, Medical Nemesis: the Expropriation of Health, Pantheon Books, New York, NY, USA, 1976.
  37. M. Roysher, “Recollections of the FSM,” in The Free Speech Movement. Reflections on Berkley in the 1960s, R. Cohen and R. E. Zelnik, Eds., pp. 140–156, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  38. H. L. Dunn, High-Level Wellness, Beatty Press, Arlington, Va, USA, 1961.
  39. N. Campbell, C. Stuck, and L. Frinks, “Spirituality training in residency: changing the culture of a program,” Academic Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 56–59, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  40. L. Rees and A. Weil, “Integrated medicine: Imbues orthodox medicine with the values of complementary medicine,” British Medical Journal, vol. 322, no. 7279, pp. 119–120, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. Phelps and C. Hassed, General Practice. the Integrative Approach, Elsevier, Chadswood, Australia, 2011.
  42. D. Hurley, Natural Causes: Death, Lies, and Politics in America’S Vitamin and Herbal Supplement Industry, Broadway Books, New York City, NY, USA, 2006.
  43. S. Bratman, The Alternative Medicine Sourcebook. A Realistic Evaluation of Alternative Healing Methods, Lowell House, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1997.
  44. D. J. Tataryn, “Paradigms of health and disease: a framework for classifying and understanding complementary and alternative medicine,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 877–892, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. P. Freeman, “Complementary and alternative medicine for psychiatrists,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 395–396, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  46. S. E. Brotherton, P. H. Rockey, and S. I. Etzel, “US graduate medical education, 2003-2004,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 9, pp. 1032–1037, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. J. Verhoef and L. R. Sutherland, “Alternative medicine and general practitioners. Opinions and behaviour,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1005–1011, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. M. Griffiths, “EBM and CAM,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 101, no. 12, pp. 577–578, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. B. Barzansky and S. I. Etzel, “Educational programs in US medical schools, 2002-2003,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 9, pp. 1190–1196, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Melzer and R. Saller, “Gibt es ein bestimmtes Menschenbild in der Naturheilkunde/Komplementaermedizin,” Forschende Komplementaermedizin, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 210–219, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  51. J. Unutzer, R. Klap, R. Sturm et al., “Mental disorders and the use of alternative medicine: results from a national survey,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 11, pp. 1851–1857, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Lake, C. Helgason, and J. Sarris, “Integrative Mental Health (IMH): paradigm, research, and clinical practice,” Explore, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 50–57, 2012. View at Google Scholar