Table 1: Randomized controlled trials of SS injection for unstable angina pectoris.

StudyMethodN (M : F)Mean ageInterventionsOutcomes

Zhao 2007 [19]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
78 (54 : 24)62.8(1) Isosorbide mononitrate 40 mg
(2) SS 40 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) frequency, duration and intervals of angina attacks
Yan et al. 2009 [20]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 4 W
94 (53 : 41)52(1) Routine (Aspirin 300 mg–100 mg qd, Enoxaparin, Elantan 50 mg, Betaloc 100 mg)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) FIB, (4) D-dimer
Wang and Hou 2010 [21]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
100 (65 : 35)62(1) Routine (Aspirin, Nitrates, Calcium antagonists, Ozagrel)
(2) Routine + SS 40 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG
Yang et al. 2010 [13, 22]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 1 W
64 (35 : 39)59(1) Routine (Aspirin 100 mg qd, Isosorbide mononitrate 20 mg bid, Metoprolol 25 mg bid)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) C-reaction protein, (4)IL-6, (5) plasma viscosity, (6) FIB
Ge et al. 2010 [23]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 15 D
60 (39 : 21)58(1) Routine (Nitrates, Betaloc, anticoagulant and antiplatelet aggregation medication, ACEI, Statins)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C
Ge and Zhu 2009 [24]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
48 (32 : 16)40–80Range(1) Routine (Aspirin, Betaloc, ACEI, Calcium antagonists, Isosorbide mononitrate, antiplatelet agents, Trimetazidine)
(2) Routine + SS 50 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement.
Hu et al. 2009 [25]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
14860(1) Routine (Statins, ARB, ACEI, Nitrates, Aspirin, LMWH, Betaloc)
(2) Routine + SS 40 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG.
Pei and Chen 2009 [26]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
71 (48 : 23)65(1) Routine (Aspirin, Clopidogrel, LMWH, Nitrates, Betaloc, Statins, nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists)
(2) Routine + SS 40 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) plasma viscosity, (3) blood viscosity at high/low shear stress, (4) hematocrit.
Zuo and Hou 2009 [27]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
83 (58 : 25)72(1) Routine (Aspirin, Betaloc, Nitrates, Statins, LMWH)
(2) Routine + SS 40 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) length of angina from attacking to alleviating, (3) length of angina from attacking to vanishing, (4) times of myocardial ischemia onset.
Song 2008 [28]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
10572(1) Routine (Aspirin, Simvastatin, Betaloc, Nitrates, Diltiazem, ARB, ACEI)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement.
Xu and Su 2008 [29]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 1 W
74 (40 :  30)45–78Range(1) Routine (Fluvastatin, Aspirin, Betaloc, LMWH)
(2) Routine + SS 80 mg
(1) C-reaction protein, (2) IL-6, (3) P-selectin, (4) PAI-1
Huang et al. 2008 [30]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
220 (140 : 80)62(1) Routine (LMWH, Betaloc, Isosorbide mononitrate, calcium antagonists, Statins, Aspirin)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) plasma/whole blood viscosity, (4) systolic/diastolic blood pressure, (5) heart rate, (6) hematocrit, (7) Platelet aggregation, (8) FIB.
Li et al. 2008 [31]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
125 (80 : 45)62.41(1) Routine (ACEI, vasodilator, antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) NO, (2) FMD, (3) ET.
Hua et al. 2007 [32]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
112 (69 : 43)60(1) Routine (Aspirin, LMWH, Betaloc, Nitroglycerin, ACEI, Isosorbide mononitrate)
(2) Routine + SS 80 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) plasma viscosity, (4) whole blood viscosity,
(5) erythrocyte aggregation, (6) morality, (7) FIB.
Wang et al. 2007 [33]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
50 (28 : 22)48.5(1) Routine (Betaloc, Isosorbide mononitrate, Diltiazem, Aspirin)
(2) Routine + SS 50 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) D-dimer, (4) C-reaction protein, (5) plasma viscosity, (6) erythrocyte aggregation, (7) hematocrit.
Ma et al. 2007 [34]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
59 (37 : 22)62.7(1) Routine (Betaloc, Aspirin, ACEI, Isosorbide mononitrate, calcium antagonists, anticoagulants,)
(2) Routine + SS 40 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) morality.
X. G. Zhang and Y. M. Zhang 2006 [35]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 4 W
60 (33 : 27)62(1) Routine (antiplatelet agents, Nitrates, Betaloc, ACEI, Diuretics)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) systolic/diastolic blood pressure, (4) heart rate, (5) frequency and duration of angina attacks, (6) Premature ventricular contractions in 24 hours.
Zhang et al. 2006 [36]RCT, single blinded
Duration: 2 W
52(1) Routine (Nitrates, Betaloc, Aspirin)
(2) Routine + SS 80 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG.
Liu and Yang 2010 [37]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
100 (61 : 49)65(1) Routine (LMWH 6000 U q12h, Nitrates, Simvastatin 20 mg qn, Betaloc, ACEI, Aspirin)
(2) Routine + SS 50 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement.
Yang and Cai 2009 [38]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 4 W
64 (32 :  32)49.5(1) Routine (Captopril 25 mg qd, Betaloc 25 mg bid, Isosorbide mononitrate 40 rag qd, Aspirin 0.1 g pd, Simvastatin 25 rag, qn)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG, (3) frequency and duration of angina attacks.
Bai and Ding 2007 [39]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 4 W
80 (42 : 38)61(1) Routine (Nitrates, Betaloc, ACEI, antiplatelet agents, LMWH)
(2) Routine + SS 80 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) ECG.
Fang and Wang 2007 [40]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 10 D
120 (54 : 66)74(1) Routine (LMWH 5000 U, Nitroglycerin 10 mg)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement.
Jiang 2004 [41]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 3 W
156 (82 : 74)60.9(1) Routine (ACEI, Betaloc)
(2) Routine + SS 40 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement, (2) C-reaction protein, (3) times of angina attacks daily.
Qi and Qu 2008 [42]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2 W
68 (38 : 30)63(1) Routine (Nitrates, Aspirin)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) frequency of angina attacks, (2) duration of angina attacks, (3) TC, TG, HDL, LDL.
Han and Wang 2011 [43]RCT, not blinded
Duration: 2W
186 (94 : 92)55(1) Routine (nitroglycerin 20 mg)
(2) Routine + SS 60 mg
(1) clinical symptom improvement.

RCT: randomized clinical trial; F: female; M: male; W: week(s); D: day(s); 1: control group; 2: trial group; SS: SS; LMWH: Low molecular weight heparin; ACEI: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; TC: total cholesterol; TG: Triglyceride; HDL: high density lipoprotein; LDL: low density lipoprotein; NO: nitric oxide; FMD: flow-mediated dilation; ET: endothelin; FIB: fibrinogen; qd: once per day; qn: once per night; bid: twice per day; q12 h: once every 12 hours.