18th–20th week of gestation, 20–35 yrs of age, PG or MG with at least one living child (, )
Integrated yoga, 20th–36th week of gestation. First month of yoga was done with instructor, following months done at home (1 hour, 3 times a week). Refresher classes were provided at each antenatal visit.
Standard antenatal exercises, 20th–36th week gestation, same format as the yoga intervention.
Significant improvements in the yoga condition for physical, psychological, environmental, and social domains of the WHOQOL-100 and on expressed inclusion and wanted control of the FIRO-B when compared to the control group.
18th–20th week of gestation, 20–35 years of age, PG or MG with at least one living child (, )
Integrated yoga and yogic relaxation, 20th–36th week of gestation (until delivery). First month of yoga was done with instructor (2 hours, 3 times a week), following months done at home with cassette (1 hour, 3 times a week). Refresher classes were provided 1 time a month until week 28 and 2 times a month until week 36.
Standard prenatal exercises, 20th–36th week gestation, same format as the yoga intervention.
The yoga group’s stress scores decreased, while the control group’s stress scores increased. Improved autonomic response in both yoga and control group.
26th–28th weeks of gestation, ≥18 years of age, PG ()
6 × 1 hour yoga classes on weeks 26th–28th, 30th, 32nd, 34th, 36th, and 37th week of gestation as well as 1 hour practice at home, at least 3 times a week after the first class for 10–12 weeks.
Routine nursing care, including casual conversations for 20–30 min, during hospital visits.
STAI pretrial, VASTC, MCQ, VAPS, PBOS, Apgar scores, length of labor, birth augmentation, use of pethidine
Experimental group demonstrated significantly higher levels of comfort, lower levels of self-reported, and experimenter observed pain throughout labour and shorter duration of labour than the control group.
18th–20th weeks of gestation, 18–35 years of age, PG or MG ()
Yoga practice 1 hour daily until delivery, taught in the first week and refresher classes every 3-4 weeks.
Walking 30 min, twice daily from enrollment until delivery.
Birth weight, gestational age at delivery, PIH, IUGR, PIH with IUGR, duration of labor, mode of delivery, preterm delivery, IUD.
The number of infants weighing ≥2500 g was greater in the yoga group. The yoga intervention group presented with lower duration of labor and lower incidence of IUGR and PIH with IUGR than the control group.