Table 2: Studies involving tai chi chuan in breast cancer survivors.

ReferenceIntervention (type/duration)Study design 𝑁 Main outcomesComments/results (group by time interactions reported for the controlled studies and time effects for non-controlled studies)

Reid-Arndt et al.
[65], 2012
Yang style tai chi chuan
10 weeks, 60′ sessions, 2x/week
One arm 23 (16 with breast cancer)
At least 12 months from chemotherapy
Neuropsychological tests (memory, executive function, language, and attention)
Self-reported cognitive functioning (MASQ)
Distress (IES-R)
Mood (POMS-SF)
Fatigue (POMS-SF)
Balance
Improvements in  immediate and delayed memory, verbal fluency, attention, executive functioning, and self-reported cognitive functioning *  
Improvements in stress*  
Trend toward improved vigor
No changes in fatigue
Improved balance*

Sprod et al. [66], 2012Yang style tai chi chuan versus standard support therapy
12 weeks, 60′ sessions, 3x/week
RCT35HRQOL (MOS SF-36)
IL-6, IL-8
Glucose
Cortisol
Insulin, IGF-1; IGFBP-1; IGFBP-3
Improved physical functioning and general mental health *  
Trends towards improved social functioning and lack of increase in insulin levels

Janelsins et al.
[67], 2011
Yang style tai chi chuan versus psychosocial support therapy
12 weeks, 60′ sessions, 3x/week
RCT19Insulin, IGF-I, IGFBP
Body composition (weight, bmi, fat mass, fat-free mass)
Cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-2 and IFN-γ
Lack on increase in insulin levels *  
No change in IGF-1, IGFBP or cytokines
Decreased BMI*

Peppone et al.
[68], 2010
Yang style tai chi chuan versus psychosocial support therapy
12 weeks, 60′ sessions, 3x/week
RCT16Bone formation (serum BSAP)
Bone resorption (serum NTx)
Bone remodeling index
IGF-1, IGFBP1,3
Cytokines (IL-2, 6, 8, IFN-γ2)
Trend towards an increase in bone formation and a decrease in bone resorption
Improvement in bone remodeling index*

Mustian et al.
[6971], 2008,
2006, 2004
Yang style tai chi chuan versus psychosocial support therapy
12 weeks, 60′ sessions, 3x/week
RCT21Functional capacity (aerobic capacity, muscle strength, and flexibility)
QOL (FACIT-Fatigue)
Body composition
Self-esteem (RSE)
Trend toward improvement in aerobic capacity and flexibility
Improved muscle strength and QOL at 12 weeks*  
No difference in body composition
Improved self-esteem*  
Self-esteem positively correlated with QOL*

BSAP: Bone-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase; FACIT-Fatigue: Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue; HRQOL: health-Related Quality of Life; IGFBP: Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein; IL: Interleukin; IGF: Insulin-like Growth Factor; MASQ: Multiple Abilities Self-Report Questionnaire; NTx: N-Telopeptides of Type I Collagen; IES-R: Impact of Event Scale-Revised; POMS-SF: Profile of Mood States-Short Form; RSE: Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; bold text with*: statistically significant ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ).