Table 4: Studies involving qigong in breast cancer survivors.

ReferenceIntervention (type/duration)Study design 𝑁 Main outcomesComments/results (group by time interactions reported for the controlled studies and time effects for non-controlled studies)

Cohen et al.
[77], 2010
External qigong (applied by qigong master) daily (2–5′) for 5 consecutive daysOne arm9
Untreated cancer
Tumor size ≤ 3 cm
Tumor size by breast imaging
QOL (FACT-B)
Distress (BSI)
Cancer-related symptoms (MIDAS)
No difference in tumor size
No difference in QOL, distress, and symptoms

Oh et al. [7], 2010Medical qigong versus usual care
10 weeks, 90′ sessions 2x/week
Home practice 30′ daily
RCT162
Only 34% were breast cancer survivors
QOL (FACT-G)
Fatigue (FACT-Fatigue)
Mood (POMS)
Inflammation (CRP)
Improvements in all domains of QOL *  
Improvement in fatigue*  
Improvement in overall mood and all subscales of mood, except for anger-hostility and confusion subscale Improvement in CRP level*

Yeh et al. [78], 2006Chan-Chuang qigong versus no intervention
21 days
CCT67
Undergoing chemotherapy
CBC
(on days 0, 8, 15, and 22 days of chemotherapy)
No change in WBC, platelets, and hemoglobin
Better rebound of WBC after 21 days*

Lee et al. [79], 2006Chan-Chuang qigong versus no intervention
21 days
CCT 67
Undergoing chemotherapy
Symptom distress (SDS)
Psychological distress (SCL-90-R)
(on days 0, 8, 15, and 22 days of chemotherapy)
Improved overall symptom score at day 22 *  
Less numbness and heartburn on day 8, less pain and numbness on day 15, less pain, numbness, heartburn, and dizziness on day 22*  
No difference in overall psychological score
Less hopelessness about the future on day 8, less unwillingness to live on day 22*

BSI: Brief Symptom Inventory; CRP: C-Reactive Protein; CBC: Complete Blood Count; FACT-B: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapies-Breast; FACT-F: Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapies-Fatigue; POMSs: Profile of Mood States; MDASI: MD Anderson Symptom Inventory; SCL-90-R: Symptom Checklist-Revised; SDS: Symptom Distress Scale; bold text with*: statistically significant ( 𝑃 < 0 . 0 5 ).