- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 793841, 6 pages
Biophysical Characteristics of Meridians and Acupoints: A Systematic Review
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Key Discipline and Clinical Base, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, 150040 Harbin, China
2Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Received 24 August 2012; Revised 26 November 2012; Accepted 14 December 2012
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Schwarz
Copyright © 2012 Juan Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- E. H. Y. Ng, W. S. So, J. Gao, Y. Y. Wong, and P. C. Ho, “The role of acupuncture in the management of subfertility,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2008.
- W. Zhou and J. C. Longhurst, “Neuroendocrine mechanisms of acupuncture in the treatment of hypertension,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 878673, 9 pages, 2012.
- J. C. Longhurst, “Defining meridians: a modern basis of understanding,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 67–74, 2010.
- G. J. Wang, M. H. Ayati, and W. B. Zhang, “Meridian studies in China: a systematic review,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2010.
- X. H. Yan, X. Y. Zhang, C. L. Liu et al., “Do acupuncture points exist?” Physics in Medicine and Biology, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. N143–N150, 2009.
- S. X. Ma, X. Y. Li, B. T. Smith, and N. T. Jou, “Changes in nitric oxide, cGMP, and nitrotyrosine concentrations over skin along the meridians in obese subjects,” Obesity, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1560–1567, 2011.
- N. T. Jou and S. X. Ma, “Responses of nitric oxide—cGMP release in acupuncture point to electroacupuncture in human skin in vivo using dermal microdialysis,” Microcirculation, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 434–443, 2009.
- M. Y. Hong, S. S. Park, Y. J. Ha, et al., “Heterogeneity of skin surface oxygen level of wrist in relation to acupuncture point,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 106762, 7 pages, 2012.
- C. X. Falk, S. Birch, S. K. Avants, Y. Tsau, and A. Margolin, “Preliminary results of a new method for locating auricular acupuncture points,” Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research, vol. 25, no. 3-4, pp. 165–177, 2000.
- H. M. Johng, J. H. Cho, H. S. Shin et al., “Frequency dependence of impedances at the acupuncture point Quze (PC3),” IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 33–36, 2002.
- M. S. Lee, S. Y. Jeong, Y. H. Lee, D. M. Jeong, Y. G. Eo, and S. B. Ko, “Differences in electrical conduction properties between meridians and non-meridians,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 723–728, 2005.
- A. P. Colbert, J. Yun, A. Larsen, T. Edinger, W. L. Gregory, and T. Thong, “Skin impedance measurements for acupuncture research: development of a continuous recording system,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 443–450, 2008.
- S. Y. Wang, D. Zhang, Y. G. Zhu, et al., “Correlation research of the relations between temperature and resistance of acupoint,” Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 5–6, 2007.
- Z. L. Han, “Related researches between the meridian impedance out of balance in the two symmetry sides of human body and diseases,” Journal of Heze Medical College, vol. 11, no. 1, 9 pages, 1999.
- Y. S. Liu, Y. M. Chen, Y. X. Liu, et al., “Research of the resistance change on five shu points in 24 hours,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 17, no. 7, 401 pages, 1997.
- S. J. Egot-Lemaire and M. C. Ziskin, “Dielectric properties of human skin at an acupuncture point in the 50—75 GHz frequency range, a pilot study,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 568–569, 2003.
- A. C. Ahn, J. Wu, G. J. Badger, R. Hammerschlag, and H. M. Langevin, “Electrical impedance along connective tissue planes associated with acupuncture meridians,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 5, article 10, 2005.
- S. Pearson, A. P. Colbert, J. McNames, M. Baumgartner, and R. Hammerschlag, “Electrical skin impedance at acupuncture points,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 409–418, 2007.
- A. C. Ahn, A. P. Colbert, B. J. Anderson et al., “Electrical properties of acupuncture points and meridians: a systematic review,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 245–256, 2008.
- S. Kramer, K. Winterhalter, G. Schober et al., “Characteristics of electrical skin resistance at acupuncture points in healthy humans,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 495–500, 2009.
- B. Cravello and A. Ferri, “Relationships between skin properties and environmental parameters,” Skin Research and Technology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 180–186, 2008.
- A. C. Ahn and Ø. G. Martinsen, “Electrical characterization of acupuncture points: technical issues and challenges,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 817–824, 2007.
- O. G. Martinsen, S. Grimnes, L. Mørkrid, and M. Hareide, “Line patterns in the mosaic electrical properties of human skin—a cross-correlation study,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 731–734, 2001.
- A. P. Colbert, A. Larsen, S. Chamberlin et al., “A multichannel system for continuous measurements of skin resistance and capacitance at acupuncture points,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 259–268, 2009.
- W. Yang, “The essence deduce of the meridian organizations based on lower resistance meridian researches,” Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 227–280, 2008.
- J. Y. Fan, S. Y. Xi, Z. Liu, et al., “The epidermal structure characteristics of low skin resistance points,” Acta Anatomica Sinica, vol. 20, no. 4, 429 pages, 1989.
- Z. S. Li, K. Q. Ouyang, X. Q. Zhang, et al., “The genesis exploration of low skin resistance points in the big white rats,” Journal of Chongqing University, vol. 21, no. 3, 101 pages, 1998.
- J. Y. Fan, Q. Huang, Z. M. Wei, et al., “The influence of catecholamines to the skin conductivity and epidermal gap bonding in rats,” Basic & Clinical Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, 47 pages, 1995.
- C. Y. Tan, “Essence of meridians based on neural electric field,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 835–839, 2010.
- D. Zhang, G. Ding, X. Shen, et al., “Role of mast cells in acupuncture effect: a pilot study,” Explore, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 170–177, 2008.
- J. X. Chen and S. X. Ma, “Effects of nitric oxide and noradrenergic function on skin electric resistance of acupoints and meridians,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 423–431, 2005.
- J. Y. Fan, Z. M. Wei, Z. Liu, et al., “Effect of catecholamines on the skin conductance in mice,” Journal of Beijing Medical University, vol. 25, pp. 324–326, 1993.
- S. X. Ma, “Enhanced nitric oxide concentrations and expression of nitric oxide synthase in acupuncture points/meridians,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 207–215, 2003.
- V. Ogay, S. K. Min, J. S. Hyo, J. C. Cheon, and K. S. Soh, “Catecholamine-storing cells at acupuncture points of rabbits,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 83–90, 2008.
- F. Wick, N. Wick, and M. C. Wick, “Morphological analysis of human acupuncture points through immunohistochemistry,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 2007.
- K. X. Zhang, X. Wang, R. Cao, et al., “Detection of common acupoints in the conception vessel and governor vessel of rabbits and verification of organs effect,” Liaoning Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 568–569, 2003.
- Y. L. Wei, W. Liu, J. Kong, et al., “Research of human biological effects and its conduct of gong tune music,” in Chinese Music Therapy Association of the Seventh Symposium, Fuzhou, China, 2005.
- Y. C. Kim, D. M. Jeong, and M. S. Lee, “An examination of the relationship between five oriental musical tones and corresponding internal organs and meridians,” Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research, vol. 29, no. 3-4, pp. 227–233, 2004.
- H. M. Wang, Research on Meridian and Collateral in China, Academy Press, Beijing, China, 2006.
- X. M. Wang, “Analysis on the mechanism of acupuncture infrasound energy in treatment of diseases,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 223–226, 2009.
- M. A. Krevsky, E. S. Zinina, Y. Koshurinov et al., “Microwave propagation on acupuncture channels,” Acupuncture & Electro-Therapeutics Research, vol. 31, no. 1-2, pp. 1–12, 2006.
- B. X. Wang, Foreign Study of the Meridian, People's Health Publishing House, Beijing, China, 1984.
- X. L. Hu, P. Q. Wang, J. S. Xu, B. H. Wu, and X. Y. Xu, “Main characteristics of infrared radiant rack along meridian courses over human body surface and the condition of its appearance,” Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 325–328, 2001.
- P. Q. Wang, X. L. Hu, J. S. Xu, et al., “The indication of infrared thermal images on body surface along 14 meridian lines,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 27, no. 4, 260 pages, 2002.
- D. Zhang, S. Y. Wang, and C. Y. Wang, “Determination of deep temperature under the line of high temperature along meridians,” Chinese Journal of Basic Medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 7, no. 410, 62 pages, 2001.
- J. X. Zhang, The Applied Exploration on Using Meridian Thermal Sensitivity Measurement To Identify Yang-Deficiency Constitution and Evaluate Curative Effect, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China, 2010.
- Y. M. Xian, The Applied Exploration on the Constitution Properties of Persons With Qi Deficiency Constitution Using Meridian Thermal Sensitivity Measurement, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China, 2011.
- Z. Q. Yan, Y. Q. Shi, Y. Z. Wang, et al., “Research on the biophysical features of strong luminescence phenomena in the 14 regular meridians of human body,” Acupuncture Research, no. 8, pp. 389–394, 1989.
- X. R. Liu, C. S. Chen, Y. F. Jiang, et al., “Light propagation characteristics of meridian and surrounding non-meridian tissue,” Acta Photonica Sinica, vol. 39, supplement 1, pp. 29–33, 2010.
- D. Z. Li, S. T. Fu, and X. Z. Li, “Study on theory and clinical application of meridians,” Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 53–59, 2005.
- C. G. Zhang, L. J. Bai, R. W. Dai, et al., “Modulatory effects of acupuncture on resting-state networks: a functional MRI study combining independent component analysis and multivariate granger causality analysis,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 572–581, 2012.
- Y. L. Cao, Research on Effects of Acupoints Magnetic Stimulation on Temperature Field Along Meridian, Tian Jin University, Tian Jin, China, 2010.
- J. B. Meng, H. H. Gao, P. Wang, et al., “A primary study of meridian circulation by isotopic migration,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 1, pp. 77–80, 1987.
- W. B. Zhang, Y. Y. Tian, H. Li et al., “A discovery of low hydraulic resistance channel along meridians,” Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 20–28, 2008.
- B. Zhu, P. J. Rong, Y. Q. Li, et al., “Propagated sensation along meridian and myoelectricity activity along meridian,” Science in China, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 465–470, 2001.
- C. Ma, Z. Zheng, and Y. K. Xie, “Propagated sensation of rat longissimus muscle’s myoelectricity activity,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 45, no. 18, pp. 1982–1988, 2000.