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Figure 11: The mRNA expression levels of (a) IFN-γ, (b) TNF-α, (c) IL-1β, (d) IL-6, (e) NF-κB, and (f) Nrf2 in the colorectum (Experiment 2) as determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Feeding with crocin significantly decreased the expression levels of IFN-γ (100 and 200 ppm), TNF-α (100 and 200 ppm), IL-1β (100 and 200 ppm), IL-6 (100 and 200 ppm), and NF-κB (100 and 200 ppm), compared with the AOM and DSS group. On the other hand, the mRNA expression of Nrf2 was significantly increased by the treatment with crocin (100 and 200 ppm). The expression was normalized to the β-actin mRNA expression. Samples were analyzed in triplicate. Data are the means ± SD from three independent assays ( from each treatment group). The ordinates are the relative mRNA expression levels (/β-actin) versus the 1.5% DSS group. * , ** , *** versus the 1.5% DSS group.