Table 1: Comparison of cardiac structural parameters as revealed by echocardiography in rats ( ).

GroupNLAD (mm)IVSTd (mm)IVSTs (mm)LVPWTd (mm)LVPWTs (mm)LVDd (mm)LVDs (mm)

sham10
HF9 *** *** *** *** ***
HF + CAP11 *** *** *** *** ***
HF + VAD10 *** *** *** *** ***

Notes: ***compared to the sham group, ; HF = heart failure; CAP = captopril; VAD = velvet antler of deer.