- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 828170, 6 pages
Reheated Palm Oil Consumption and Risk of Atherosclerosis: Evidence at Ultrastructural Level
1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abd Aziz,
50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Institute of Medical Research, Ministry of Health, Jalan Raja Muda Abd Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abd Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Received 19 October 2012; Accepted 29 November 2012
Academic Editor: Kashmira Nanji
Copyright © 2012 Tan Kai Xian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- D. O. Edem, “Palm oil: biochemical, physiological, nutritional, hematological, and toxicological aspects: a review,” Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 3-4, pp. 319–341, 2002.
- E. Serbinova, V. Kagan, D. Han, and L. Packer, “Free radical recycling and intramembrane mobility in the antioxidant properties of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 263–275, 1991.
- S. K. Adam, N. A. Sulaiman, A. G. MdTop, and K. Jaarin, “Heating reduces vitamin E content in palm and soy oils,” Malaysian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 76–79, 2007.
- S. R. J. Maxwell and G. Y. H. Lip, “Free radicals and antioxidants in cardiovascular disease,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 307–317, 1997.
- M. Guido and J. Isabelle, Principles of General Pathology: Cells, Tissues, and Disease, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2004.
- M. T. Quinn, S. Parthasarathy, L. G. Fong, and D. Steinberg, “Oxidatively modified low density lipoproteins: a potential role in recruitment and retention of monocyte/macrophages during atherogenesis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 2995–2998, 1987.
- P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis: from pathophysiology to practice,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 23, pp. 2129–2138, 2009.
- X. F. Leong, A. Aishah, U. Nor Aini, S. Das, and K. Jaarin, “Heated palm oil causes rise in blood pressure and cardiac changes in heart muscle in experimental rats,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 567–572, 2008.
- D. U. Owu, E. E. Osim, and P. E. Ebong, “Serum liver enzymes profile of Wistar rats following chronic consumption of fresh or oxidized palm oil diets,” Acta Tropica, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 65–73, 1998.
- S. K. Adam, I. N. Soelaiman, N. A. Umar, N. Mokhtar, N. Mohamed, and K. Jaarin, “Effects of repeatedly heated palm oil on serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and homocysteine levels in a post-menopausal rat model,” McGill Journal of Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 145–151, 2008.
- A. Dutta and S. K. Dutta, “Vitamin E and its role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis: a review,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 258–268, 2003.
- S. Das, I. Lekli, M. Das, et al., “Cardioprotection with palm oil tocotrienols: comparison of different isomers,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 294, no. 2, pp. H970–H978, 2008.
- D. T. S. Tan, H. T. Khor, W. H. S. Low, A. Ali, and A. Gapor, “Effect of a palm-oil-vitamin E concentrate on the serum and lipoprotein lipids in humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1027–1030S, 1991.
- B. C. Nwanguma, A. C. Achebe, L. U. S. Ezeanyika, and L. C. Eze, “Toxicity of oxidized fats II: tissue levels of lipid peroxides in rats fed a thermally oxidized corn oil diet,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 413–416, 1999.
- J. R. Hessler Jr., A. Lazzarini Robertson III, and G. M. Chisolm, “LDL-induced cytotoxicity and its inhibition by HDL in human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells in culture,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 213–229, 1979.
- S. Ylä-Herttuala, W. Palinski, M. E. Rosenfeld, et al., “Evidence for the presence of oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein in atherosclerotic lesions of rabbit and man,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 1086–1095, 1989.
- M. Navab, S. S. Imes, S. Y. Hama et al., “Monocyte transmigration induced by modification of low density lipoprotein in cocultures of human aortic wall cells is due to induction of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 synthesis and is abolished by high density lipoprotein,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 2039–2046, 1991.
- Y. Nakashima, H. Fujii, S. Sumiyoshi, T. N. Wight, and K. Sueishi, “Early human atherosclerosis: accumulation of lipid and proteoglycans in intimal thickenings followed by macrophage infiltration,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1159–1165, 2007.
- A. deLuna, “Mouse models in atherosclerosis,” Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 157–163, 2008.
- T. Naessen and K. Rodriguez-Macias, “Menopausal estrogen therapy counteracts normal aging effects on intima thickness, media thickness and intima/media ratio in carotid and femoral arteries. An investigation using noninvasive high-frequency ultrasound,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 387–392, 2006.
- O. M. Oluba, O. Adeyemi, G. C. Ojieh, C. O. Aboluwoye, and G. O. Eidangbe, “Comparative effect of soybean oil and palm oil on serum lipids and some serum enzymes in cholesterol-fed rats,” European Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 559–566, 2008.
- K. Sundram, H. T. Khor, and A. S. H. Ong, “Effect of dietary palm oil and its fractions on rat plasma and high density lipoprotein lipids,” Lipids, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 187–193, 1990.
- M. Karaji-Bani, F. Montazeni, and M. Hashemi, “Effect of palm oil and serum lipid profile in rats,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 234–236, 2006.
- B. Philip, M. G. Antonio, C. L. John, et al., “HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, pp. 1301–1310, 2007.
- K. Jaarin, M. Norhayati, G. Norzana, U. Nor Aini, and S. Ima-Nirwana, “Effects of heated vegetable oils on serum lipids and aorta of ovariectomized rats,” Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 19–29, 2006.
- S. K. Adam, S. Das, and K. Jaarin, “A detailed microscopic study of the changes in the aorta of experimental model of postmenopausal rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil,” International Journal of Experimental Pathology, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 321–327, 2009.
- K. Jaarin, M. R. Mustafa, and X. F. Leong, “The effects of heated vegetable oils on blood pressure in rats,” Clinics, vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 2125–2132, 2011.