About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 837939, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/837939
Review Article

Herbal Products: Benefits, Limits, and Applications in Chronic Liver Disease

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Interuniversity Research Centre on Food, Nutrition and the Gastrointestinal Tract (CIRANAD), 2nd University of Naples, 80131 Naples, Italy

Received 2 May 2012; Accepted 30 July 2012

Academic Editor: William C. S. Cho

Copyright © 2012 Anna Del Prete et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. P. White, G. Hirsch, S. Patel, F. Adams, and K. M. Peltekian, “Complementary and alternative medicine use by patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 589–595, 2007. View at Scopus
  2. S. P. Thyagarajan, S. Jayaram, V. Gopalakrishnan, R. Hari, P. Jeyakumar, and M. S. Sripathi, “Herbal medicines for liver diseases in India,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. S370–S376, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. M. Eisenberg, R. B. Davis, S. L. Ettner et al., “Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997: Results of a follow-up national survey,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 280, no. 18, pp. 1569–1575, 1998. View at Scopus
  4. M. K. Rai, “Herbal medicines in India: retrospect and prospect,” Fitoterapia, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 483–491, 1994. View at Scopus
  5. J. A. Astin, “Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 279, no. 19, pp. 1548–1553, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. M. MacIntosh, The Differences Between Natural, Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine, Townsend Letter, 1999.
  7. G. E. Deng, B. R. Cassileth, L. Cohen et al., “Integrative oncology practice guidelines,” Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 65–84, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Stickel, E. Patsenker, and D. Schuppan, “Herbal hepatotoxicity,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 901–910, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. Abebe, “Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 391–401, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. G. Miller, “Herbal medicinals: Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 158, no. 20, pp. 2200–2211, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C. Levy, L. D. Seeff, and K. D. Lindor, “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 947–956, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. B. Seeff, K. L. Lindsay, B. R. Bacon, T. F. Kresina, and J. H. Hoofnagle, “Complementary and alternative medicine in chronic liver disease,” Hepatology, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 595–603, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. L. B. Seeff, T. M. Curto, G. Szabo et al., “Herbal product use by persons enrolled in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial,” Hepatology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 605–612, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. T. Coon and E. Ernst, “Complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 491–500, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Bruguera, J. M. Barrera, S. Ampurdanés, X. Forns, and J. M. Sánchez Tapias, “Use of complementary and alternative medicine in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Medicina Clinica, vol. 122, no. 9, pp. 334–335, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Z. C. Yang, S. H. Yang, S. S. Yang, and D. S. Chen, “A hospital-based study on the use of alternative medicine in patients with chronic liver and gastrointestinal diseases,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 637–643, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. W. Boots, L. C. Wilms, E. L. R. Swennen, J. C. S. Kleinjans, A. Bast, and G. R. M. M. Haenen, “In vitro and ex vivo anti-inflammatory activity of quercetin in healthy volunteers,” Nutrition, vol. 24, no. 7-8, pp. 703–710, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Terao, K. Murota, and Y. Kawai, “Conjugated quercetin glucuronides as bioactive metabolites and precursors of aglycone in vivo,” Food and Function, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 11–17, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. A. W. Boots, G. R. M. M. Haenen, and A. Bast, “Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 585, no. 2-3, pp. 325–337, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Nickel, H. Hanssen, Z. Sisic et al., “Immunoregulatory effects of the flavonol quercetin in vitro and in vivo,” European Journal of Nutrition, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 163–172, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Tang, C. Gao, M. Xing et al., “Quercetin prevents ethanol-induced yslipidemia and mitochondrial oxidative damage,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1194–1200, 2012.
  22. H.-U. Schulz, M. Schürer, D. Bässler, and D. Weiser, “Investigation of pharmacokinetic data of hypericin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin and the flavonoids quercetin and isorhamnetin revealed from single and multiple oral dose studies with a hypericum extract containing tablet in healthy male volunteers,” Arzneimittel-Forschung, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 561–568, 2005. View at Scopus
  23. J. Oliva, F. Bardag-Gorce, B. Tillman, and S. W. French, “Protective effect of quercetin, EGCG, catechin and betaine against oxidative stress induced by ethanol in vitro,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 295–299, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. Liu, W. Hou, P. Yao et al., “Quercetin protects against ethanol-induced oxidative damage in rat primary hepatocytes,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 516–522, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. S. Raygude, A. D. Kandhare, P. Ghosh, A. E. Ghule, and S. L. Bodhankar, “Evaluation of ameliorative effect of quercetin in experimental model of alcoholic neuropathy in rats,” Inflammopharmacology. In press.
  26. V. Ambadath, R. G. Venu, and I. Madambath, “Comparative study of the efficacy of ascorbic acid, quercetin, and thiamine for reversing ethanol-induced toxicity,” Journal of medicinal food, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1485–1489, 2010. View at Scopus
  27. M. Kobori, S. Masumoto, Y. Akimoto, and H. Oike, “Chronic dietary intake of quercetin alleviates hepatic fat accumulation associated with consumption of a Western-style diet in C57/BL6J mice,” Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 530–540, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Y. Jung, Y. Lim, M. S. Moon, J. Y. Kim, and O. Kwon, “Onion peel extracts ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 8, article no. 18, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. V. Gnoni, G. Paglialonga, and L. Siculella, “Quercetin inhibits fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in rat-liver cells,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 761–768, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. J. Cuevas, J. Tieppo, N. P. Marroni, M. J. Tuñón, and J. González-Gallego, “Suppression of amphiregulin/epidermal growth factor receptor signals contributes to the protective effects of quercetin in cirrhotic rats,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 141, no. 7, pp. 1299–1305, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. R. Park, H. Yoon, M. K. Kim, S. D. Lee, and Y. Chong, “Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 7-O-arylmethylquercetin derivatives against SARS-associated coronavirus (SCV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV),” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 77–85, 2012.
  32. L. Bachmetov, M. Gal-Tanamy, A. Shapira et al., “Suppression of hepatitis C virus by the flavonoid quercetin is mediated by inhibition of NS3 protease activity,” Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. e81–e88, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. Y. Tian, L. M. Sun, X. Q. Liu, B. Li, Q. Wang, and J. X. Dong, “Anti-HBV active flavone glucosides from Euphorbia humifusa Willd,” Fitoterapia, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 799–802, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. Li, H. Huang, W. Zhou, M. Feng, and P. Zhou, “Anti-hepatitis B virus activities of Geranium carolinianum L. extracts and identification of the active components,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 743–747, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Maiti, K. Mukherjee, A. Gantait, B. P. Saha, and P. K. Mukherjee, “Curcumin-phospholipid complex: preparation, therapeutic evaluation and pharmacokinetic study in rats,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 330, no. 1-2, pp. 155–163, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Anand, A. B. Kunnumakkara, R. A. Newman, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises,” Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 807–818, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. Rajagopalan, S. Sridharana, and V. P. Menon, “Hepatoprotective role of bis-demethoxy curcumin analog on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase induced by alcohol and polyunsaturated fatty acid in rats,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 252–259, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. Bao, K. Li, S. Rong et al., “Curcumin alleviates ethanol-induced hepatocytes oxidative damage involving heme oxygenase-1 induction,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 2, pp. 549–553, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. D. Thong-Ngam, S. Samuhasaneeto, O. Kulaputana, D. Suyasunanont, and N. Klaikeaw, “Curcumin decreased oxidative stress, inhibited nf-k b activation, and improved liver pathology in ethanol-induced liver injury in rats,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2009, Article ID 981963, 8 pages, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. H. Zeng, P. Zeng, Y. H. Deng et al., “The effects of curcumin derivative on experimental steatohepatitis,” Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 454–459, 2011.
  41. K. Pungcharoenkul and P. Thongnopnua, “Effect of different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1721–1726, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. K. Shin, T. Y. Ha, R. A. McGregor, and M. S. Choi, “Mol Long-term curcumin administration protects against atherosclerosis via hepatic regulation of lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 55, no. 12, pp. 1829–1840, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. A. Graham, “Curcumin adds spice to the debate: lipid metabolism in liver disease,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 157, no. 8, pp. 1352–1353, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. Vizzutti, A. Provenzano, S. Galastri et al., “Curcumin limits the fibrogenic evolution of experimental steatohepatitis,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 104–115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J.-M. Li, Y.-C. Li, L.-D. Kong, and Q.-H. Hu, “Curcumin inhibits hepatic protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and prevents hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in fructose-fed rats,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1555–1566, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J.-M. Li, Y.-C. Li, L.-D. Kong, and Q.-H. Hu, “Erratum: Curcumin inhibits hepatic protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and prevents hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in fructose-fed rats,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 1555–1566, 2010.
  47. A. Seal, R. Aykkal, R. O. Babu, and M. Ghosh, “Docking study of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with phytochemicals,” Bioinformation, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 430–439, 2011.
  48. K. Zandi, E. Ramedani, K. Mohammadi et al., “Evaluation of antiviral activities of curcumin derivatives against HSV-1 in Vero cell line,” Natural Product Communications, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1935–1938, 2010. View at Scopus
  49. K. Kim, K. H. Kim, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Cho, N. Sakamoto, and J. Cheong, “Curcumin inhibits hepatitis C virus replication via suppressing the Akt-SREBP-1 pathway,” FEBS Letters, vol. 584, no. 4, pp. 707–712, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. M. Rechtman, O. Har-Noy, I. Bar-Yishay et al., “Curcumin inhibits hepatitis B virus via down-regulation of the metabolic coactivator PGC-1α [FEBS Lett. 584, (2010), 2485-2490],” FEBS Letters, vol. 584, no. 11, pp. 2485–2490, 2010.
  51. M. M. Rechtman, O. Har-Noy, I. Bar-Yishay et al., “Erratum to Curcumin inhibits hepatitis B virus via down-regulation of the metabolic coactivator PGC-1α [FEBS Lett. 584, (2010), 2485-2490],” FEBS Letters, vol. 584, no. 14, p. 3239, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Javed, K. Kohli, and M. Ali, “Reassessing bioavailability of silymarin,” Alternative Medicine Review, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 239–249, 2011.
  53. A. V. Matveev, E. I. Koniaeva, V. P. Kurchenko, and A. S. Shchekatikhina, “Hepatoprotective properties of silymarin,” Ėksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia gastroėnterologiia, no. 2, pp. 130–135, 2011. View at Scopus
  54. M. Habib-ur-Rehman, T. Mahmood, T. Salim et al., “Affect of silymarin on serum levels of ALT and GGT in ethanol induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats,” Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 73–75, 2009. View at Scopus
  55. X. Ruan, C. Shen, and Q. Meng, “Establishment of a methodology for investigating protectants against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 1145–1151, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. Z. Song, I. Deaciuc, M. Song et al., “Silymarin protects against acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice,” Alcoholism, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 407–413, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. N. Shetty, S. Mengi, R. Vaidya, and A. D. B. Vaidya, “A study of standardized extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth in experimental nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 203–210, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. C. Loguercio, A. Federico, M. Trappoliere et al., “The effect of a silybin-vitamin E-phospholipid complex on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot study,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 2387–2395, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. Wagoner, A. Negash, O. J. Kane et al., “Multiple effects of silymarin on the hepatitis C virus lifecycle,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1912–1921, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. U. A. Ashfaq, T. Javed, S. Rehman, Z. Nawaz, and S. Riazuddin, “Inhibition of HCV 3a core gene through Silymarin and its fractions,” Virology Journal, vol. 8, article no. 153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. Morishima, M. C. Shuhart, C. C. Wang et al., “Silymarin inhibits in vitro t-cell proliferation and cytokine production in hepatitis c virus infection,” Gastroenterology, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 671–e2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. Kalantari, Z. Shahshahan, S. M. Hejazi, T. Ghafghazi, and V. Sebghatolahi, “Effects of silybum marianum on patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 287–290, 2011. View at Scopus
  63. A. Pár, E. Roth, A. Miseta et al., “Effects of silymarin supplementation in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peg-interferon + ribavirin. A placebo-controlled double blind study,” Orvosi Hetilap, vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 73–79, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y. F. Wu, S. L. Fu, C. H. Kao et al., “Chemopreventive effect of silymarin on liver pathology in HBV X protein transgenic mice,” Cancer Research, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 2033–2042, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. V. Purohit, M. F. Abdelmalek, S. Barve et al., “Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 14–24, 2007. View at Scopus
  66. Z. Wang, T. Yao, and Z. Song, “Involvement and mechanism of DGAT2 upregulation in the pathogenesis of alcoholic fatty liver disease,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 3158–3165, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. K. Kharbanda, S. L. Todero, A. L. King et al., “Betaine treatment attenuates chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and alterations to the mitochondrial respiratory chain proteome,” International Journal of Hepatology, vol. 2012, Article ID 962183, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. A. Dolganiuc, G. Bakis, K. Kodys, P. Mandrekar, and G. Szabo, “Acute ethanol treatment modulates Toll-like receptor-4 association with lipid rafts,” Alcoholism, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 76–85, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Mukherjee, “Betaine and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: back to the future?” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 32, pp. 3663–3664, 2011.
  70. E. Kathirvel, K. Morgan, G. Nandgiri et al., “Betaine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver and associated hepatic insulin resistance: a potential mechanism for hepatoprotection by betaine,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 299, no. 5, pp. G1068–G1077, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Z. Wang, T. Yao, M. Pini, Z. Zhou, G. Fantuzzi, and Z. Song, “Betaine improved adipose tissue function in mice fed a high-fat diet: a mechanism for hepatoprotective effect of betaine in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 298, no. 5, pp. G634–G642, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. Z. Song, I. Deaciuc, Z. Zhou et al., “Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in beneficial effects of betaine on high-sucrose diet-induced hepatic steatosis,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 293, no. 4, pp. G894–G902, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. H. T. Duong, V. Christen, M. Filipowicz, and M. H. Heim, “S-adenosylmethionine and betaine correct hepatitis C virus induced inhibition of interferon signaling in vitro,” Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 796–806, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. Graf, K. Haselow, I. Münks, J. G. Bode, and D. Häussinger, “Inhibition of interferon-α-induced signaling by hyperosmolarity and hydrophobic bile acids,” Biological Chemistry, vol. 391, no. 10, pp. 1175–1187, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. H. T. Duong, V. Christen, M. Filipowicz, and M. H. Heim, “S-adenosylmethionine and betaine correct hepatitis C virus induced inhibition of interferon signaling in vitro,” Hepatology, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 796–806, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. X. Roblin, J. Pofelski, and J. P. Zarski, “Steatosis, chronic hepatitis virus C infection and homocysteine,” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 415–420, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. Y.-J. Li, J. Chen, Y. Li et al., “Screening and characterization of natural antioxidants in four Glycyrrhiza species by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1218, no. 45, pp. 8181–8191, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. Y. Gwak, T. G. Moon, D. H. Lee, and B. C. Yoo, “Glycyrrhizin attenuates HMGB1-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by inhibiting the p38-dependent mitochondrial pathway,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 679–684, 2012.
  79. F. Stickel and D. Schuppan, “Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 293–304, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. C. Levy, L. D. Seeff, and K. D. Lindor, “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 947–956, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Shibata, “A drug over the millennia: pharmacognosy, chemistry, and pharmacology of licorice,” Yakugaku Zasshi, vol. 120, no. 10, pp. 849–862, 2000. View at Scopus
  82. T. Makino, N. Ohtake, A. Watanabe et al., “Down-regulation of a hepatic transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is involved in alteration of pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizin and its metabolites in a rat model of chronic liver injury,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 1438–1443, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. T. G. J. Van Rossum, A. G. Vulto, R. A. De Man, J. T. Brouwer, and S. W. Schalm, “Glycyrrhizin as a potential treatment for chronic hepatitis C,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 199–205, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. Mabuchi, K. Wake, M. Marlini, H. Watanabe, and A. M. Wheatley, “Protection by glycyrrhizin against warm ischemia-reperfusioninduced cellular injury and derangement of the microcirculatory blood flow in the rat liver,” Microcirculation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 364–376, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. M. Ogiku, H. Kono, M. Hara, M. Tsuchiya, and H. Fujii, “Glycyrrhizin prevents liver injury by inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 production by Kupffer cells after ischemia-reperfusion in rats,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 339, no. 1, pp. 93–98, 2011.
  86. B. Schröfelbauer, J. Raffetseder, M. Hauner, A. Wolkerstorfer, W. Ernst, and O. H. J. Szolar, “Glycyrrhizin, the main active compound in liquorice, attenuates pro-inflammatory responses by interfering with membrane-dependent receptor signalling,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 421, no. 3, pp. 473–482, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. C. Y. Wang, T. C. Kao, W. H. Lo, and G. C. Yen, “Glycyrrhizic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by suppression of NF-κB through PI3K p110δ and p110γ inhibitions,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 59, no. 14, pp. 7726–7733, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. Thiyagarajan, C. V. Chandrasekaran, H. B. Deepak, and A. Agarwal, “Modulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators by an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and its phytoconstituents,” Inflammopharmacology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 235–241, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. X. L. Li and A. G. Zhou, “Evaluation of the immunity activity of glycyrrhizin in AR mice,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 716–727, 2012.
  90. B. Tang, H. Qiao, F. Meng, and X. Sun, “Glycyrrhizin attenuates endotoxin-induced acute liver injury after partial hepatectomy in rats,” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol. 40, no. 12, pp. 1637–1646, 2007. View at Scopus
  91. H. Hua, Z. Liang, W. Li et al., “Phenotypic and functional maturation of murine dendritic cells (DCs) induced by purified Glycyrrhizin (GL),” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 518–525, 2012.
  92. M. Yoshikawa, Y. Matsui, H. Kawamoto et al., “Effects of glycyrrhizin on immune-mediated cytotoxicity,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 243–248, 1997. View at Scopus
  93. Y. Zhang, K. Isobe, T. Iwamoto, and I. Nakashima, “Bidirectional control by glycyrrhizin of the growth response of lymphocytes stimulated through a receptor-bypassed pathway,” Immunology Letters, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 147–152, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. M. Kimura, H. Watanabe, and T. Abo, “Selective activation of extrathymic T cells in the liver by glycyrrhizin,” Biotherapy, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 167–172, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. N. Tsuruoka, K. Abe, K. Wake et al., “Hepatic protection by glycyrrhizin and inhibition of iNOS expression in concanavalin A-induced liver injury in mice,” Inflammation Research, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 593–599, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. C. Fiore, M. Eisenhut, R. Krausse et al., “Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. Y. Shiki, K. Shirai, Y. Saito, S. Yoshida, Y. Mori, and M. Wakashin, “Effect of glycyrrhizin on lysis of hepatocyte membranes induced by anti-liver cell membrane antibody,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 1992. View at Scopus
  98. S. Harada, “The broad anti-viral agent glycyrrhizin directly modulates the fluidity of plasma membrane and HIV-1 envelope,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 392, no. 1, pp. 191–199, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. K. Dhiman and Y. K. Chawla, “Herbal medicines for liver diseases,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1807–1812, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. U. A. Ashfaq, M. S. Masoud, Z. Nawaz, and S. Riazuddin, “Glycyrrhizin as antiviral agent against Hepatitis C Virus,” Journal of Translational Medicine, p. 112, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. H. Orlent, B. E. Hansen, M. Willems et al., “Biochemical and histological effects of 26 weeks of glycyrrhizin treatment in chronic hepatitis C: a randomized phase II trial,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 539–546, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. T. Takahara, A. Watanabe, and K. Shiraki, “Effects of glycyrrhizin on hepatitis B surface antigen: a biochemical and morphological study,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 601–609, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. M. R. Romero, T. Efferth, M. A. Serrano et al., “Effect of artemisinin/artesunate as inhibitors of hepatitis B virus production in an "in vitro" replicative system,” Antiviral Research, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 75–83, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. K. Ikeda, Y. Arase, M. Kobayashi et al., “A long-term glycyrrhizin injection therapy reduces hepatocellular carcinogenesis rate in patients with interferon-resistant active chronic hepatitis C: a cohort study of 1249 patients,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 603–609, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. B. J. Veldt, B. E. Hansen, K. Ikeda, E. Verhey, H. Suzuki, and S. W. Schalm, “Long-term clinical outcome and effect of glycyrrhizin in 1093 chronic hepatitis C patients with non-response or relapse to interferon,” Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 1087–1094, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. Y. Qu, W. H. Chen, L. Zong, M. Y. Xu, and L. G. Lu, “18α-Glycyrrhizin induces apoptosis and suppresses activation of rat hepatic stellate cells,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. BR24–BR32, 2012.
  107. T. Moro, Y. Shimoyama, M. Kushida et al., “Glycyrrhizin and its metabolite inhibit Smad3-mediated type I collagen gene transcription and suppress experimental murine liver fibrosis,” Life Sciences, vol. 83, no. 15-16, pp. 531–539, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. M. Korenaga, I. Hidaka, S. Nishina et al., “A glycyrrhizin-containing preparation reduces hepatic steatosis induced by hepatitis C virus protein and iron in mice,” Liver International, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 552–560, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. X. Wu, L. Zhang, E. Gurley et al., “Prevention of free fatty acid-induced hepatic lipotoxicity by 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid through lysosomal and mitochondrial pathways,” Hepatology, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 1905–1915, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. G. Kuttan, P. Pratheeshkumar, K. A. Manu, and R. Kuttan, “Inhibition of tumor progression by naturally occurring terpenoids,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 995–1007, 2011.
  111. K. Koike, “Expression of junB is markedly stimulated by glycyrrhizin in a human hepatoma cell line,” Oncology Reports, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 609–617, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. X. Zhao, L. N. Ji, and Z. W. Mao, “β-Cyclodextrin/glycyrrhizic acid functionalised quantum dots selectively enter hepatic cells and induce apoptosis,” Chemistry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1650–1658, 2012.
  113. J. R. Patel, P. Tripathi, V. Sharma, N. S. Chauhan, and V. K. Dixit, “Phyllanthus amarus: ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology: a review,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 286–313, 2011.
  114. C. Levy, L. D. Seeff, and K. D. Lindor, “Use of herbal supplements for chronic liver disease,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 947–956, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. R. Srirama, U. Senthilkumar, N. Sreejayan et al., “Assessing species admixtures in raw drug trade of Phyllanthus, a hepato-protective plant using molecular tools,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 208–215, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. D. W. Unander, G. L. Webster, and B. S. Blumberg, “Usage and bioassays in phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae)—IV: clustering of antiviral uses and other effects,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. R. Krithika and R. J. Verma, “Mitigation of carbon tetrachloride-induced damage by Phyllanthus amarus in liver of mice,” Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 439–444, 2009. View at Scopus
  118. T. Y. Faremi, S. M. Suru, M. A. Fafunso, and U. E. Obioha, “Hepatoprotective potentials of Phyllanthus amarus against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 2658–2664, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. P. Pramyothin, C. Ngamtin, S. Poungshompoo, and C. Chaichantipyuth, “Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. extract in ethanol treated rats: in vitro and in vivo studies,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 169–173, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. B. Surya Narayanan, P. Latha, and R. Rukkumani, “Protective effects of Phyllanthus amarus on fibrotic markers during alcohol and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced toxicity,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 48–52, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. F. Naaz, S. Javed, and M. Z. Abdin, “Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et Thonn. on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 503–509, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. N. P. Yadav, A. Pal, K. Shanker et al., “Synergistic effect of silymarin and standardized extract of Phyllanthus amarus against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Rattus norvegicus,” Phytomedicine, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 1053–1061, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. H. S. Chouhan and S. K. Singh, “Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Phyllanthus simplex,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 1337–1344, 2011.
  124. T. Sarg, A. A. Ghani, R. Zayed, and M. El-Sayed, “Antihepatotoxic activity of Phyllanthus atropurpureus cultivated in Egypt,” Z Naturforsch C, vol. 66, no. 9-10, pp. 447–452, 2011.
  125. N. K. Jain and A. K. Singhai, “Protective effects of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels leaf extracts on acetaminophen and thioacetamide induced hepatic injuries in Wistar rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 470–474, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. N. K. Jain, S. Lodhi, A. Jain, A. Nahata, and A. K. Singhai, “Effects of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels fruit on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute oxidative damage in livers of rats and mice,” Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49–56, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. S. Gopi and O. H. Setty, “Protective effect of Phyllanthus fraternus against bromobenzene induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rat liver mitochondria,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 8-9, pp. 2170–2175, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. M. M. Shivananjappa and M. K. Joshi, “Influence of aqueous extract of Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) on growth and antioxidant defense system of human hepatoma cell line (HepG2),” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 1711–1721, 2011. View at Scopus
  129. S. H. Fang, Y. K. Rao, and Y. M. Tzeng, “Anti-oxidant and inflammatory mediator's growth inhibitory effects of compounds isolated from Phyllanthus urinaria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 116, no. 2, pp. 333–340, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. S. K. Sharma, S. M. Arogya, D. H. Bhaskarmurthy, A. Agarwal, and C. C. Velusami, “Hepatoprotective activity of the Phyllanthus species on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells,” Pharmacognosy Magazine, vol. 7, no. 27, pp. 229–233, 2011.
  131. K. Poompachee and N. Chudapongse, “Comparison of the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Phyllanthus virgatus and Phyllanthus amarus extracts,” Medical Principles and Practice, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2012.
  132. A. R. Shivashankara, A. Azmidah, R. Haniadka, M. P. Rai, R. Arora, and M. S. Baliga, “Dietary agents in the prevention of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicty: preclinical observations,” Food Funct, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2012.
  133. V. Damodara Reddy, P. Padmavathi, S. Gopi, M. Paramahamsa, and N. C. Varadacharyulu, “protective effect of emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced hepatic injury by ameliorating oxidative stress in rats,” Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, pp. 1–6, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. V. D. Reddy, P. Padmavathi, M. Paramahamsa, and N. C. Varadacharyulua, “Amelioration of alcohol-induced oxidative stress by Emblica officinalis (Amla) in rats,” Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2010. View at Scopus
  135. V. Damodara Reddy, P. Padmavathi, and N. C. Varadacharyulu, “Emblica officinalis protects against alcohol-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction in rats,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 327–333, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. H. Chirdchupunseree and P. Pramyothin, “Protective activity of phyllanthin in ethanol-treated primary culture of rat hepatocytes,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 172–176, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. V. Thamlikitkul, S. Wasuwat, and P. Kanchanapee, “Efficacy of Phyllanthus amarus for eradication of hepatitis b virus in chronic carriers,” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 381–385, 1991. View at Scopus
  138. X. Cui, Y. Wang, N. Kokudo, D. Fang, and W. Tang, “Traditional Chinese medicine and related active compounds against hepatitis B virus infection,” Bioscience trends, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 39–47, 2010. View at Scopus
  139. C. D. Lee, M. Ott, S. P. Thyagarajan, D. A. Shafritz, R. D. Burk, and S. Gupta, “Phyllanthus amarus down-regulates hepatitis B virus mRNA transcription and replication,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1069–1076, 1996. View at Scopus
  140. Y. F. Xiang, H. Q. Ju, S. Li, Y. J. Zhang, C. R. Yang, and Y. F. Wang, “Effects of 1,2,4,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose from P. emblica on HBsAg and HBeAg secretion in HepG2.2.15 cell culture,” Virologica Sinica, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 375–380, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. Y. Xia, H. Luo, J. P. Liu, and C. Gluud, “Phyllanthus species for chronic hepatitis B virus infection,” Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online), vol. 4, p. CD008960, 2011. View at Scopus
  142. Y. S. Ravikumar, U. Ray, M. Nandhitha et al., “Inhibition of hepatitis C virus replication by herbal extract: phyllanthus amarus as potent natural source,” Virus Research, vol. 158, no. 1-2, pp. 89–97, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. S. T. Huang, J. H. S. Pang, and R. C. Yang, “Anti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms,” Chang Gung Medical Journal, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 477–487, 2010. View at Scopus
  144. M. S. Baliga and J. J. Dsouza, “Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 225–239, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. C. Ngamkitidechakul, K. Jaijoy, P. Hansakul, N. Soonthornchareonnon, and S. Sireeratawong, “Antitumour effects of Phyllanthus emblica L.: induction of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of in vivo tumour promotion and in vitro invasion of human cancer cells,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1405–1413, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. N. Chudapongse, M. Kamkhunthod, and K. Poompachee, “Effects of Phyllanthus urinaria extract on HepG2 cell viability and oxidative phosphorylation by isolated rat liver mitochondria,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 315–319, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. Z. G. Zhong, D. P. Wu, J. L. Huang et al., “Progallin A isolated from the acetic ether part of the leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. induces apoptosis of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells by up-regulation of Bax expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 765–772, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. S. Sultana, S. Ahmed, and T. Jahangir, “Emblica officinalis and hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study in Wistar rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 118, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. R. K. Dhiman and Y. K. Chawla, “Herbal medicines for liver diseases,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1807–1812, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. S. Vidyashankar and P. S. Patki, “Liv.52 attenuate copper induced toxicity by inhibiting glutathione depletion and increased antioxidant enzyme activity in HepG2 cells,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1863–1868, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. S. Vidyashankar, S. K Mitra, and K. S. Nandakumar, “Liv.52 protects HepG2 cells from oxidative damage induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 333, no. 1-2, pp. 41–48, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. S. K. Mitra, S. R. Varma, A. Godavarthi, and K. S. Nandakumar, “Liv.52 regulates ethanol induced PPARγ and TNF α expression in HepG2 cells,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 315, no. 1-2, pp. 9–15, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. C. Girish, B. C. Koner, S. Jayanthi, K. R. Rao, B. Rajesh, and S. C. Pradhan, “Hepatoprotective activity of six polyherbal formulations in paracetamol induced liver toxicity in mice,” Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 569–578, 2009. View at Scopus
  154. B. R. Eesha, A. V. Mohanbabu, K. K. Meena et al., “Hepatoprotective activity of Terminalia paniculata against paracetamol induced hepatocellular damage in Wistar albino rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 466–469, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. F. Stickel and D. Schuppan, “Herbal medicine in the treatment of liver diseases,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 293–304, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. H. Fallah Huseini, S. M. Alavian, R. Heshmat, M. R. Heydari, and K. Abolmaali, “The efficacy of Liv-52 on liver cirrhotic patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled first approach,” Phytomedicine, vol. 12, no. 9, pp. 619–624, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. M. Okuno, S. Kojima, and H. Moriwaki, “Chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: concept, progress and perspectives,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 1329–1335, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. S. Ma, B. Jiao, X. Liu et al., “Approach to radiation therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 157–163, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. H. Oka, S. Yamamoto, T. Kuroki, et al., “Prospective study of chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma with Sho-saiko-to ( TJ9),” Cancer, vol. 76, pp. 743–749, 1995.
  160. S. M. Sagar and R. K. Wong, “Chinese medicine and biomodulation in cancer patients—part one,” Current Oncology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 42–48, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. W. L. W. Hsiao and L. Liu, “The role of traditional Chinese herbal medicines in cancer therapy from TCM theory to mechanistic insights,” Planta Medica, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1118–1131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. J. Chiu, T. Yau, and R. J. Epstein, “Complications of traditional Chinese/herbal medicines (TCM)-a guide for perplexed oncologists and other cancer caregivers,” Supportive Care in Cancer, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 231–240, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. T. Efferth, P. C. H. Li, V. S. B. Konkimalla, and B. Kaina, “From traditional Chinese medicine to rational cancer therapy,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 353–361, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. M. J. Wargovich, “Nutrition and cancer: the herbal revolution,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 421–424, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. Y. C. Lin, H. W. Chen, Y. C. Kuo, Y. F. Chang, Y. J. Lee, and J. J. Hwang, “Therapeutic efficacy evaluation of curcumin on human oral squamous cell carcinoma xenograft using multimodalities of molecular imaging,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 343–358, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. J. J. Johnson and H. Mukhtar, “Curcumin for chemoprevention of colon cancer,” Cancer Letters, vol. 255, no. 2, pp. 170–181, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. C. C. Su, J. S. Yang, C. C. Lu et al., “Curcumin inhibits human lung large cell carcinoma cancer tumour growth in a murine xenograft model,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 189–192, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. T. G. J. Van Rossum, A. G. Vulto, W. C. J. Hop, J. T. Brouwer, H. G. M. Niesters, and S. W. Schalm, “Intravenous glycyrrhizin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I/II trial,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1093–1099, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. Y. F. Chang, N. W. Chi, and J. J. Wang, “Reactive oxygen species production is involved in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 201–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. M. Shi, F. S. Wang, and Z. Z. Wu, “Synergetic anticancer effect of combined quercetin and recombinant adenoviral vector expressing human wild-type p53, GM-CSF and B7-1 genes on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 73–78, 2003. View at Scopus
  171. A. Sharma and M. K. Bhat, “Enhancement of carboplatin- and quercetin-induced cell death by roscovitine is Akt dependent and p53 independent in hepatoma cells,” Integrative Cancer Therapies, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. NP4–N14, 2011.
  172. Y. F. Chang, N. W. Chi, and J. J. Wang, “Reactive oxygen species production is involved in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 201–209, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. Y. F. Chang, Y. C. Hsu, H. F. Hung et al., “Quercetin induces oxidative stress and potentiates the apoptotic action of 2-methoxyestradiol in human hepatoma cells,” Nutrition and Cancer, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 735–745, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. A. Ihantola-Vormisto, J. Summanen, H. Kankaanranta, H. Vuorela, Z. M. Asmawi, and E. Moilanen, “Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica,” Planta Medica, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 518–524, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. Y. J. Zhang, T. Nagao, T. Tanaka, C. R. Yang, H. Okabe, and I. Kouno, “Antiproliferative activity of the main constituents from Phyllanthus emblica,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 251–255, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. K. Pinmai, S. Chunlaratthanabhorn, C. Ngamkitidechakul, N. Soonthornchareon, and C. Hahnvajanawong, “Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1491–1497, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. J. T. Coon and E. Ernst, “Complementary and alternative therapies in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 491–500, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. J. D. Estes, D. Stolpman, A. Olyaei et al., “High prevalence of potentially hepatotoxic herbal supplement use in patients with fulminant hepatic failure,” Archives of Surgery, vol. 138, no. 8, pp. 852–858, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. D. Shaw, C. Leon, S. Kolev, and V. Murray, “Traditional remedies and food supplements. A 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995),” Drug Safety, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 342–356, 1997. View at Scopus
  180. D. Schuppan, J. I. D. Jia, B. Brinkhaus, and E. G. Hahn, “Herbal products for liver diseases: a therapeutic challenge for the new millennium,” Hepatology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 1099–1104, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus