Table 1: Characteristics of the included studies.

Author, yearSample size, no. of groups Mean age ± standard deviationInclusion criteriaTreatment group: Intervention Program length, frequency, durationControl group: Intervention Program length, duration, frequency Outcome assessment
(a) Short-term followup
(b) Long-term followup
Outcome measures
(1)  Total menopausal symptoms
(2)  Psychological symptoms
(3)  Somatic symptoms
(4)  Vasomotor symptoms
(5)  Urogenital symptoms
(6)  Safety
Resultsa
(a)  Short-term followup
(b)  Long-term followup
 (1)  Total menopausal symptoms
 (2)  Psychological symptoms
 (3)  Somatic symptoms
 (4)  Vasomotor symptoms
 (5)  Urogenital symptoms
(6)  Safety

Afonso et al., 2011 [42] ,
3 groups
NRPostmenopausal women (50–65 years)
Diagnosed insomnia not due to dyspnea
Yogasana and Tibetan yoga: yoga postures, breathing techniques, relaxation
4 months, twice weekly, 60 minutes
(1)  Passive stretching 4 months, twice weekly, 60 minutes
(2)  Wait-list, no treatment 4 months
(a)  month 4
(b)  NA
(1)  Total menopausal symptoms (KMI)
(2)  Anxiety (BAI), depression (BDI), insomnia (ISI)
(3)  NA
(4)  NA
(5)  NA
(6)  Safety
(a)
 (1)  Yoga < wait-list
 (2)  BAI: NS, BDI: NS, ISI: Yoga < wait-list
 (3)  NA
 (4)  NA
 (5)  NA
(b)  NA
(6)  No adverse events

Carson et al., 2009 [43] ,
2 groups
Yoga: 53.9 ± 9.0 years
Control: 54.9 ± 6.2 years
Breast cancer survivors ≥ 1 hot flash/day on ≥ 4 days/week
No hormone replacement therapy within last 3 months
No regular yoga
Yoga of awareness: yoga postures, breathing techniques, meditation, study of pertinent topics, group discussion
8 weeks, once weekly, 120 minutes
Wait-list, no treatment
8 weeks
(a) Week 6
(b) Week 20
Daily diary (numerical rating scale):
(1)  NA
(2)  Negative mood, sleep disturbances, bother
(3)  Joint pain, fatigue
(4)  Hot flashes (frequency, severity, total score), night sweats
(5)  NA
(6)  NA
(a)
 (1)  NA
 (2)  Negative mood: NS, sleep disturbances: Yoga < wait-list, bother: Yoga < wait-list
 (3)  Joint pain: Yoga < wait-list, fatigue: Yoga < wait-list
 (4)  Hot flashes frequency: Yoga < wait-list, severity: Yoga < wait-list, total score: Yoga < wait-list, night sweats: NS
 (5)  NA
(b)
 (1)  NA
 (2)  Negative mood: Yoga < wait-list, sleep disturbances: NA, bother: Yoga < wait-list
 (3)  Joint pain: Yoga < wait-list, fatigue: Yoga < wait-list
 (4)  Hot flashes frequency: Yoga < wait-list, severity: Yoga < wait-list, total score: Yoga < wait-list, night sweats: NS
 (5)  NA
(6)  NA

Chattha et al., 2008 [44] ,
2 groups
Yoga: 49.0 ± 3.6 years
Control: 48.0 ± 4.0 years
Women (45–55 years) with menopausal symptoms
FSH level ≥ 15 mlU/ml
No hormone replacement therapy
Integrated approach to yoga therapy: yoga postures, breathing techniques, meditation, lectures on lifestyle
8 weeks, 5 times weekly, 60 minutes
Exercise: walking, stretching, rest, lectures on lifestyle
8 weeks, 5 times weekly, 60 minutes
(a) Week 8
(b) NA
(1)  NA
(2)  Psychological symptoms (GCS)
(3)  Somatic symptoms (GCS)
(4)  Vasomotor symptoms (GCS)
(5)  NA
(6)  NA
(a)
 (1)  NS
 (2)  NS
 (3)  NS
 (4)  Yoga < exercise
 (5)  NS
(b)  NA
(6)  NA

Elavsky and McAuley, 2007 [45] ,
3 groups
Yoga: 50.0 ± 3.7
Walking: 50.5 ± 3.4
Wait-list: 48.6 ± 3.5
Women (45–55 years) with menopausal symptoms
No hormone replacement therapy
Iyengar yoga: yoga postures, meditation
4 months, twice weekly, 90 minutes
(1)  Walking
4 months, 3 times weekly, 60 minutes
(2)  wait-list, no treatment
4 months
(a) Month 4
(b) NA
(1)  Total menopausal symptoms (GCS)
(2)  Psychological symptoms (GCS), affect (Affectometer 2), Depression (BDI)
(3)  Somatic symptoms (GCS)
(4)  Vasomotor symptoms (GCS)
(5)  Urogenital symptoms (GCS)
(6)  NA
(a)
 (1)  NS
 (2)  GCS: NS, Positive affect: Wait-list < yoga, BDI: NS
 (3)  NS
 (4)  NS
 (5)  NS
(b)  NA
(6)  NA

Joshi et al., 2011 [46] ,
2 groups
Yoga: years
Control: years
Women (40–55 years) with irregular cycle or postmenopausal
No hormone replacement therapy
No yoga practice
Yoga: yoga postures, breathing techniques, meditation
90 days, daily, 60 minutes
Wait-list, no treatment
90 days
(a) Day 90
(b) NA
(1)  Total menopausal symptoms (MRS)
(2)  Psychological symptoms (MRS)
(3)  Somatovegetative symptoms (MRS)
(4)  NA
(5)  Urogenital symptoms (MRS)
(6)  NA
(a)
  (1)  Yoga < wait-list
  (2)  Yoga < wait-list
  (3)  Yoga < wait-list
  (4)  NA
  (5)  Yoga < wait-list
(b)  NA
(6)  NA

Abbreviations: BAI: beck anxiety inventory; BDI: beck depression inventory; GCS: Greene climacteric scale; ISI: insomnia severity index; KMI: Kupperman menopausal index; MRS: menopause rating scale; NA: not applicable; NS: not significant.
a< indicates significantly lower scores.