Table 3: Pre- post- and follow-up scores, estimated differences, and effect sizes for study outcomes.

Outcome (Questionnaire)No. of patients§Outcomes
(M ± SD)
Estimated differences* to admission
  (M; 95% CI)
Estimated effect sizes# (Cohen’s d)
ADMDISFU3FU6FU12DISFU3FU6FU12DISFU3FU6FU12

Quality of life
 Physical component summary (SF-36) 32.9 ± 10.237.4 ± 11.737.4 ± 12.138.0 ± 12.35.0;
−4.4 to 5.6
4.2;
3.5 to 4.8
4.6;
3.9 to 5.2
0.490.410.45
 Mental component summary (SF-36) 39.6 ± 12.844.7 ± 12.644.8 ± 12.445.1 ±12.74.9;
4.1 to 5.6
4.9;
4.0 to 5.7
4.6;
3.8 to 5.4
0.380.380.36

Psychological symptoms
 Anxiety (HADS_A)
9.0 ± 4.35.7 ± 3.96.9 ± 4.46.8 ± 4.56.8 ± 4.6−2.9;
−3.2 to −2.5
−1.7;
−2.0 to −1.3
−1.8;
−2.2 to −1.4
−1.8;
−2.2 to −1.4
−0.66−0.39−0.41−0.41
 Depression (HADS_D ) 7.1 ± 4.14.4 ± 3.65.8 ± 4.35.8 ± 4.45.9 ± 4.4−2.7;
−3.0 to −2.4
−1.2;
−1.6 to −0.9
−1.3;
−1.6 to −0.9
−1.2;
−1.5 to −0.8
−0.66−0.30−0.31−0.29
 Satisfaction with health (FLZ) 2.2 ± 0.92.7 ± 1.02.7 ± 1.02.8 ± 1.00.5;
0.4 to 0.6
0.6;
0.5 to 0.7
0.6;
0.5 to 0.7
0.540.59
0.60
 Satisfaction with life in general (FLZ) 3.5 ± 0.93.6 ± 0.93.6 ± 0.93.6 ± 0.90.2,
0.1 to 0.2
0.1;
0.1 to 0.2
0.2;
0.1 to 0.2
0.18
0.150.17

Control beliefs
 Control belief internal (GKÜ) 3.0 ± 0.93.6 ± 0.93.3 ± 0.93.3 ± 0.93.3 ± 1.00.6;
0.5–0.6
0.4;
0.3–0.4
0.3;
0.3–0.4
0.3;
0.2–0.4
0.660.410.360.34
 Control belief external-social (GKÜ) 2.8 ± 1.02.7 ± 1.02.6 ± 1.02.6 ± 1.02.6 ± 1.0−0.1;
−0.2 to −0.1
−0.2;
−0.2 to −0.1
−0.2;
−0.2 to −0.1
−0.2;
−0.2 to −0.1
−0.14−0.16−0.16−0.17
 Control belief external-fatalistic (GKÜ) 2.1 ± 0.82.1 ± 0.82.2 ± 0.92.2 ± 0.82.3 ± 0.80.0;
0.0 to 0.0
0.1;
0.1 to 0.2
0.1;
0.1 to 0.2
0.2;
0.1 to 0.2
0.020.160.16
0.22
 Ratio internal/external (GKÜ) 1.3 ± 0.81.6 ± 1.01.6 ± 1.01.6 ± 1.01.6 ± 1.00.4;
0.3 to 0.4
0.3;
0.2 to 0.3
0.3;
0.2 to 0.3
0.3;
0.2 to 0.4
0.470.370.390.40

Demand of medical services
 Days of sick leave 18.9 ± 36.08.3 ± 13.1−10.5;
−14.9 to −6.1
−0.26
 Number of doctors’ visits 3.7 ± 3.22.3 ± 2.52.5 ± 3.02.8 ± 3.1−1.4;
−1.7 to −1.2
−1.3;
−1.5 to −1.0
−1.0;
−1.3 to −0.7
−0.46−0.40−0.30
 Days admitted to a hospital 23.2 ± 20.325.9 ± 21.32.7;
−0.8 to 6.1
0.13

Subjective health change (%)
 (i) Much improved30.824.823.727.9
  (ii) Somewhat improved49.038.335.431.3
  (iii) The same16.023.723.422.1
  (iv) Somewhat worse3.17.08.89.8
  (v) Much worse1.16.18.88.9

ADM: admission; DIS: discharge; FU3: 3-month follow-up; M: mean; SD: standard deviation; CI: confidence interval; *estimation from repeated measurement ANOVA. #Effect size calculation was based on estimated differences. §The number of patients included in the analyses may be smaller due to missing data at any measurement time-point, leading to their exclusion within the repeated measurement ANOVA.