- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 878673, 9 pages
Neuroendocrine Mechanisms of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Hypertension
1Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2Department of Medicine, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
Received 14 May 2011; Accepted 6 September 2011
Academic Editor: Fengxia Liang
Copyright © 2012 Wei Zhou and John C. Longhurst. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- I. Hajjar and T. A. Kotchen, “Trends in prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the United States, 1988–2000,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 2, pp. 199–206, 2003.
- R. S. Vasan, A. Beiser, S. Seshadri et al., “Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: the Framingham Heart Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 287, no. 8, pp. 1003–1010, 2002.
- M. Esler, M. Rumantir, D. Kaye, and G. Lambert, “The sympathetic neurobiology of essential hypertension: disparate influences of obesity, stress, and noradrenaline transporter dysfunction?” American Journal of Hypertension, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 139S–146S, 2001.
- Acupuncture Research Group of An Hui Medical University, “Primary observation of 179 hypertensive cases treated with acupuncture,” Acta Universitatis Medicinalis Anhui, vol. 4, p. 6, 1961.
- C. L. Zhang, “Clinical investigation of acupuncture therapy,” Clinical Journal of Medicine, vol. 42, pp. 514–517, 1956.
- K. C. Tam and H. H. Yiu, “The effect of acupuncture on essential hypertension,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 369–375, 1975.
- P. Li, O. Ayannusi, C. Reid, and J. C. Longhurst, “Inhibitory effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the pressor response induced by exercise stress,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 182–188, 2004.
- L. Z. Qi, “Recent advance in the study of theraputic effect on hypertension by acupuncture and moxibustion,” Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 13, pp. 87–89, 1994.
- P. Li, K. F. Pitsillides, S. V. Rendig, H. L. Pan, and J. C. Longhurst, “Reversal of reflex-induced myocardial ischemia by median nerve stimulation: a feline model of electroacupuncture,” Circulation, vol. 97, no. 12, pp. 1186–1194, 1998.
- S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, P. Li, and J. C. Longhurst, “Medullary substrate and differential cardiovascular responses during stimulation of specific acupoints,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 287, no. 4, pp. R852–R862, 2004.
- W. Zhou, L. W. Fu, S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, P. Li, and J. C. Longhurst, “Afferent mechanisms underlying stimulation modality-related modulation of acupuncture-related cardiovascular responses,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 872–880, 2005.
- W. Zhou, S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, and J. C. Longhurst, “Brain stem mechanisms underlying acupuncture modality-related modulation of cardiovascular responses in rats,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 851–860, 2009.
- J. S. Han, “Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2003.
- J. S. Han, X. H. Chen, S. L. Sun et al., “Effect of low- and high-frequency TENS on Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe and dynorphin A immunoreactivity in human lumbar CSF,” Pain, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 295–298, 1991.
- P. Li, S. Tjen-A-Looi, and J. C. Longhurst, “Rostral ventrolateral medullary opioid receptor subtypes in the inhibitory effect of electroacupuncture on reflex autonomic response in cats,” Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical, vol. 89, no. 1-2, pp. 38–47, 2001.
- S. J. Veerasingham and M. K. Raizada, “Brain renin-angiotensin system dysfunction in hypertension: recent advances and perspectives,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 191–202, 2003.
- H. Zheng, et al., “Enhanced angiotensin-mediated excitation of renal sympathetic nerve activity within the paraventricular nucleus of anesthetized rats with heart failure,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 297, no. 5, pp. R1364–R1374, 2009.
- T. Matsukawa, E. Gotoh, O. Hasegawa et al., “Reduced arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in young borderline hypertensives,” Functional Neurology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 113–120, 1991.
- M. C. Andresen and M. Yang, “Arterial baroreceptor resetting: contributions of chronic and acute processes,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 16, supplement 15, pp. 19–30, 1989.
- D. S. Goldstein, “Plasma norepinephrine during stress in essential hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 551–556, 1981.
- H. D. Schultz, Y. L. Li, and Y. Ding, “Arterial chemoreceptors and sympathetic nerve activity: implications for hypertension and heart failure,” Hypertension, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2007.
- E. Colombari, M. A. Sato, S. L. Cravo, C. T. Bergamaschi, R. R. Campos, and O. U. Lopes, “Role of the medulla oblongata in hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 549–554, 2001.
- D. B. Averill and D. I. Diz, “Angiotensin peptides and baroreflex control of sympathetic outflow: pathways and mechanisms of the medulla oblongata,” Brain Research Bulletin, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 119–128, 2000.
- R. A. L. Dampney, M. A. P. Fontes, Y. Hirooka, J. Horiuchi, P. D. Potts, and T. Tagawa, “Role of angiotensin II receptors in the regulation of vasomotor neurons in the ventrolateral medulla,” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, vol. 29, no. 5-6, pp. 467–472, 2002.
- P. Guyenet, “Role of ventral medulla oblongata in blood pressure regulation,” in Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions, S. K. Loewy, Ed., pp. 145–167, Oxford University Press, 1990.
- P. G. Guertzenstein and A. Silver, “Fall in blood pressure produced from discrete regions of the ventral surface of the medulla by glycine and lesions,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 242, no. 2, pp. 489–503, 1974.
- S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, P. Li, and J. C. Longhurst, “Prolonged inhibition of rostral ventral lateral medullary premotor sympathetic neurons by electroacupuncture in cats,” Autonomic Neuroscience, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 119–131, 2003.
- M. M. Crisostomo, P. Li, S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, and J. C. Longhurst, “Nociceptin in rVLM mediates electroacupuncture inhibition of cardiovascular reflex excitatory response in rats,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 2056–2063, 2005.
- D. H. Huangfu and P. Li, “Role of nucleus raphe obscurus in the inhibition of defense reaction by deep peroneal nerve stimulation,” Chinese Journal of Physiology Science, vol. 4, pp. 77–83, 1988.
- D. H. Huangfu and P. Li, “The inhibitory effect of ARC-PAG-NRO system on the ventrolateral medullary neurons in the rabbit,” Chinese Journal of Physiology Science, vol. 4, pp. 115–125, 1988.
- P. Li, S. C. Tjen-A-looi, and J. C. Longhurst, “Excitatory projections from arcuate nucleus to ventrolateral periaqueductal gray in electroacupuncture inhibition of cardiovascular reflexes,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 290, no. 6, pp. H2535–H2542, 2006.
- P. Li and T. Yao, Mechanism of the Modulatory Effect of Acupuncture on Abnormal Cardiovascular Functions, Shanghai Medical University, Shanghai, China, 1992.
- Z. L. Guo and J. C. Longhurst, “Expression of c-Fos in arcuate nucleus induced by electroacupuncture: relations to neurons containing opioids and glutamate,” Brain Research, vol. 1166, no. 1, pp. 65–76, 2007.
- W. Zhou, L. W. Fu, Z. L. Guo, and J. C. Longhurst, “Role of glutamate in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in acupuncture-related modulation of visceral reflex sympathoexcitation,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 292, no. 4, pp. H1868–H1875, 2007.
- R. A. Dampney, J. Horiuchi, T. Tagawa, M. A. Fontes, P. D. Potts, and J. W. Polson, “Medullary and supramedullary mechanisms regulating sympathetic vasomotor tone,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 209–218, 2003.
- L. W. Fu and J. C. Longhurst, “Electroacupuncture modulates vlPAG release of GABA through presynaptic cannabinoid CB1 receptors,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1800–1809, 2009.
- S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, P. Li, and J. C. Longhurst, “Processing cardiovascular information in the vlPAG during electroacupuncture in rats: roles of endocannabinoids and GABA,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1793–1799, 2009.
- M. Li, S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, and J. C. Longhurst, “Electroacupuncture enhances preproenkephalin mRNA expression in rostral ventrolateral medulla of rats,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 477, no. 2, pp. 61–65, 2010.
- S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, P. Li, and J. C. Longhurst, “Midbrain vlPAG inhibits rVLM cardiovascular sympathoexcitatory responses during electroacupuncture,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 290, no. 6, pp. H2543–H2553, 2006.
- A. Loewy, “Central autonomic pathways,” in Central Regulation of Autonomic Functions, A. D. Loewy, Ed., pp. 88–103, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1990.
- P. Li, S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, Z. L. Guo, L. W. Fu, and J. C. Longhurst, “Long-loop pathways in cardiovascular electroacupuncture responses,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 620–630, 2009.
- Z. L. Guo, A. R. Moazzami, S. Tjen-A-Looi, and J. C. Longhurst, “Responses of opioid and serotonin containing medullary raphe neurons to electroacupuncture,” Brain Research, vol. 1229, no. C, pp. 125–136, 2008.
- P. Li, S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, and J. C. Longhurst, “Nucleus raphe pallidus participates in midbrain-medullary cardiovascular sympathoinhibition during electroacupuncture,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 299, no. 5, pp. R1369–R1376, 2010.
- Z. L. Guo, A. R. Moazzami, and J. C. Longhurst, “Electroacupuncture induces c-Fos expression in the rostral ventrolateral medulla and periaqueductal gray in cats: relation to opioid containing neurons,” Brain Research, vol. 1030, no. 1, pp. 103–115, 2004.
- D. P. Li, D. B. Averill, and H. L. Pan, “Differential roles for glutamate receptor subtypes within commissural NTS in cardiac-sympathetic reflex,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 281, no. 3, pp. R935–R943, 2001.
- J. C. Longhurst, “Neural regulation of the cardiovascular system,” in Fundamental Neuroscience, L. R. Squire, J. L. Roberts, N. C. Spitzer, M. J. Zigmond, S. K. McConnell, and F. E. Bloom, Eds., pp. 935–966, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 2nd edition, 2003.
- J. H. Lee and A. J. Beitz, “Electroacupuncture modifies the expression of c-fos in the spinal cord induced by noxious stimulation,” Brain Research, vol. 577, no. 1, pp. 80–91, 1992.
- J. H. Lee and A. J. Beitz, “The distrubution of brain-stem and spinal cord nuclei associated with different frequencies of electroacupuncture analgesia,” Pain, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 11–28, 1993.
- N. J. Dun, S. L. Dun, and L. L. Hwang, “Nociceptin-like immunoreactivity in autonomic nuclei of the rat spinal cord,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 234, no. 2-3, pp. 95–98, 1997.
- R. Quirion, “Pain, nociception and spinal opioid receptors,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 8, no. 4-6, pp. 571–579, 1984.
- C. P. Hofstetter, J. P. Card, and L. Olson, “A spinal cord pathway connecting primary afferents to the segmental sympathetic outflow system,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 128–138, 2005.
- W. Zhou, I. Hsiao, V. W. H. Lin, and J. C. Longhurst, “Modulation of cardiovascular excitatory responses in rats by transcutaneous magnetic stimulation: role of the spinal cord,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 926–932, 2006.
- W. Zhou, A. Mahajan, and J. C. Longhurst, “Spinal nociceptin mediates electroacupuncture-related modulation of visceral sympathoexcitatory reflex responses in rats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 297, no. 2, pp. H859–H865, 2009.
- J. S. Han, et al., “Enkephalin and -endorphin as mediators of electroacupuncuture analgesia in rabbits: an antiserum microinjection study,” in Regulatory Peptides, E. C. A. M. Trabucchi, Ed., pp. 369–377, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
- B. Pomeranz and R. Cheng, “Suppression of noxious responses in single neurons of cat spinal cord by electroacupuncture and its reversal by the opiate antagonist naloxone,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 327–341, 1979.
- I. Wyszogrodski and C. Polosa, “The inhibition of sympathetic preganglionic neurons by somatic afferents,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 29–38, 1973.
- D. Chau, D. G. Johns, and L. P. Schramm, “Ongoing and stimulus-evoked activity of sympathetically correlated neurons in the intermediate zone and dorsal horn of acutely spinalized rats,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 2699–2707, 2000.
- S. A. Deuchars, “Multi-tasking in the spinal cord—do “sympathetic” interneurones work harder than we give them credit for?” Journal of Physiology, vol. 580, no. 3, pp. 723–729, 2007.
- T. I. Akhmedov, I. M. Vasil'ev, and L. V. Masliaeva, “The hemodynamic and neurohumoral correlates of the changes in the status of hypertension patients under the influence of acupuncture,” Terapevticheskii Arkhiv, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 22–24, 1993.
- I. V. Anshelevich, M. A. Merson, and G. A. Afanas'eva, “Serum aldosterone level in patients with hypertension during treatment by acupuncture,” Terapevticheskii Arkhiv, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 42–45, 1985.
- Y. J. Chiu, A. Chi, and I. A. Reid, “Cardiovascular and endocrine effects of acupuncture in hypertensive patients,” Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1047–1063, 1997.
- T. Yao, “Acupuncture and somatic nerve stimulation: mechanism underlying effects on cardiovascular and renal activities,” Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 29, supplement, pp. 7–18, 1993.
- Y. Zhou, Y. Wang, Z. Fang et al., “Influence of acupuncture on blood pressure, contents of NE, DA and 5-HT of SHR and the interrelation between blood pressure and whole blood viscosity,” Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 55–61, 1995.
- H. S. Hwang, M. S. Lee, Y. S. Kim et al., “Electroacupuncture delays hypertension development through enhancing NO/NOS activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 130529, 2011.
- S. X. Ma and X. Y. Li, “Increased neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the gracile nucleus of brainstem following electroacupuncture given between cutaneous hindlimb acupuncture points BL 64 & BL 65 in rats,” Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research, vol. 27, no. 3-4, pp. 157–169, 2002.
- T. Williams, K. Mueller, and M. W. Cornwall, “Effect of acupuncture-point stimulation on diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects: a preliminary study,” Physical Therapy, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 523–529, 1991.
- P. Li and J. C. Longhurst, “Long-lasting inhibitory effect of EA on blood pressure in patients with mild to moderate hypertension,” Society for Neuroscience, vol. 35, 2007.
- S. C. Tjen-A-Looi, P. Li, and J. C. Longhurst, “Role of medullary GABA, opioids, and nociceptin in prolonged inhibition of cardiovascular sympathoexcitatory reflexes during electroacupuncture in cats,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 293, no. 6, pp. H3627–H3635, 2007.